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Displacement, Memory and Home(Less) Identities: Turkish Cypriot Women’s Narratives


Aliefendioğlu, Hanife, and Pembe Behçetoğulları. 2019. “Displacement, Memory and Home(Less) Identities: Turkish Cypriot Women’s Narratives.” Gender, Place & Culture 26 (10): 1472–92.

Authors: Hanife Aliefendioğlu, Pembe Behçetoğulları


This study is an analysis of the narratives of Turkish Cypriot women in the north of Cyprus who were displaced during the ethnic conflict between the 1950s and 1974. We have conducted 21 interviews with Turkish Cypriot women who were living in different parts of Northern Cyprus. We used oral history, both as a method and as an epistemological stance to re-phrase the near past of Cyprus and the Cyprus issue from the perspective of gender/women’s studies. The study follows the traces of modernity, patriarchy, and nationalism in women’s narratives, about the place, home, belonging and homelessness. The narratives describe Turkish Cypriot women’s experiences of being a woman in conflict and displacement (‘göçmen olmak’ in daily talk in Turkish) making a home out of a house and undertaking daily routines for their families. The study also reveals that ethnic conflict and displacement have empowered women to a certain degree.

Keywords: Cyprus conflict, displacement, home, Turkish Cypriot women, women's narratives

Topics: Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Nationalism Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Cyprus

Year: 2019

"We Want to be Remembered as Strong Women, Not as Shepherds": Women Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq Struggling for Agency and Acknowledgement


Mlodoch, Karin. 2012. “We Want to be Remembered as Strong Women, Not as Shepherds”: Women Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq Struggling for Agency and Acknowledgement.” Journal of Middle East Women's Studies 8 (1): 63-91.

Author: Karin Mlodoch


This article focuses on Kurdish women in Iraq who survived the Iraqi army’s Anfal operations against the Kurdish areas in 1988. It investigates Iraqi Kurdish women’s psychosocial situation and strategies for coping with violence and loss in the aftermath of the Anfal operations. These strategies are largely shaped by social and economic factors and gender relations and in the traditional patriarchal context of rural Kurdish society. The article further explores the transformation of the women’s situation and narratives through the recent political changes in Iraq and shows the conflict between their memories, narratives, and agency, on one hand, and the hegemonic discourse on victimhood in Kurdistan-Iraq today, on the other, as well as the interweaving of their individual coping strategies and the institutional processes for dealing with the past in Kurdistan and Iraq. Thus the paper contributes to socially and politically contextualized and gender-sensitive trauma research, as well as to the larger political and sociological debate on reconciliation processes after war and conflict.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Health, Trauma, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2012

Depicting Victims, Heroines, and Pawns in the Syrian Uprising


Szanto, Edith. 2016. “Depicting Victims, Heroines, and Pawns in the Syrian Uprising.” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies 12 (3): 306–22.

Author: Edith Szanto


During the onslaught of the Islamic caliphate on Kobanî, Syria, media outlets across the globe broadcast pictures of brave and often unveiled Kurdish women fighting the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS), a quintessentially male force of destruction. The images of women fighting Islamist male aggressors aroused outrage, admiration, and pity among observers. But had all Kurdish fighters been male or had women fought for ISIS, viewers might have reacted differently. To examine some of the most widely disseminated gendered pictures and videos of the Syrian uprising in the media, this article draws on Mohja Kahf’s three categories, which typify how Muslim women, Arab women, or both are perceived by the Anglophone reading and viewing public: the first is victims; the second, escapees; and the third, pawns of patriarchy and male power. While this typology helps in examining gendered images of the Syrian uprising, it also obscures the socioeconomic realities on the ground.

Keywords: female fighters, media, Syrian uprising

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Media, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Syria

Year: 2016

The Body and State Violence, from the Harrowing to the Mundane: Chilean Women's Oral Histories of the Augusto Pinochet Dictatorship (1973–1990)


Townsend, Brandi. 2019. "The Body and State Violence, from the Harrowing to the Mundane: Chilean Women's Oral Histories of the Augusto Pinochet Dictatorship (19731990)." Journal of Women's History 31 (2): 33-56.

Author: Brandi Townsend


This article analyzes group interviews with three women from Valparaíso, Chile, who were imprisoned together under Augusto Pinochet's military dictatorship (1973–1990). Sylvia, Alicia, and Oriana's oral histories reveal that they frequently spoke about their bodies to convey their experiences of state violence. Sylvia and Alicia constructed narratives of rebellion against the regime and challenged long-standing notions of men's domination over women's bodies. Oriana's account, however, uncovers the complexity of learning to live with the enduring effects of sexual torture, while at the same time defying conventional ideas about sex and motherhood. The article also emphasizes how these women spoke about structural and subtler forms of violence, including denying basic hygienic conditions, constraining freedom of movement, and restricting the right to control birth. It demonstrates how these oral histories were mediated by historical discourses of gender, maternity, sexuality, class, and race.

Topics: Class, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Health, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Rights, Reproductive Rights, Women's Rights, Torture, Sexual Torture, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, SV against Women Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Chile

Year: 2019

Simbolismos y realidades. Las mujeres y la tierra en Chiapas


Olivera Bustamante, Mercedes, Mauricio Arellano Nucamendi, Araceli Calderón Cisneros, Amaranta Cornejo Hernández, Verónica Eboli Santiago, Gerda Ursula Seidl, y Claudia Vázquez Cruz. 2018. Simbolismos y realidades. Las mujeres y la tierra en Chiapas. Chiapas: Universidad de Ciencías y Artes de Chiapas.

Authors: Mercedes Olivera Bustamante, Mauricio Arellano Nucamendi, Araceli Calderón Cisneros, Amaranta Cornejo Hernández, Verónica Eboli Santiago, Gerda Ursula Seidl, Claudia Vázquez Cruz


Este libro es resultado de una estrecha colaboración entre el Grupo Tierra del CESMECA, el Centro de Derechos de la Mujer de Chiapas y el Movimiento en Defensa de la Tierra, el Territorio y por el Derecho de las Mujeres a Decidir; también constituye una experiencia de trabajo colectivo que articula a la sociedad y la academia para evidenciar la situación de las mujeres rurales, en el campo y la ciudad, derivada de los cambios ocasionados por las dinámicas neoliberales y neoextractivistas de las políticas oficiales en el estado. Se abordan las respuestas organizadas de las mujeres relacionadas con la tenencia, uso y usufructo de la tierra, así como su derecho al territorio. Hacemos énfasis en la propuesta de tenencia familiar de la tierra, una importante herramienta de lucha con y desde las mujeres contra el despojo patriarcal y capitalista de la tierra/territorio en los ejidos y comunidades; los antecedentes, el devenir de la propuesta en sí y su discusión con las mujeres interesadas en ella son abordadas en estas páginas.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Land Tenure Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2018

Somos tierra, semilla, rebeldía: Mujeres, tierra y territorios en América Latina


Korol, Claudia. 2016. Somos tierra, semilla, rebeldía: Mujeres, tierra y territorios en América Latina. Barcelona: GRAIN; Buenos Aires: Biodiversidad en América Latina y el Caribe; América Libre.

Author: Claudia Korol


"El acceso a la tierra es uno de los problemas más graves que enfrentan las mujeres rurales en América Latina y en el mundo, y está en la base de muchos otros problemas “invi- sibles” para la sociedad. Este trabajo intenta analizar esta situación, como uno de los fundamentos materiales y cultu- rales del sistema patriarcal, capitalista y colonial de domi- nación. Intenta también establecer sus implicancias para millones de mujeres en nuestro continente" (Korol 2016, 9).
Tabla de contenidos:
1. La tenencia de la tierra de las mujeres en América Latina
Presentación general del tema
Algunos enfoques con los que nos aproximamos a este análisis
2. Una perspectiva histórica sobre el problema de la tierra en América Latina
La estructura de tenencia de la tierra: herencia del colonialismo patriarcal capitalista
Reformas agrarias en el siglo XX y en el siglo XXI
La contrarreforma neoliberal
3. Las relaciones patriarcales en el campo
El trabajo invisible de las mujeres y la división sexual del trabajo 89 Feminización de la agricultura campesina
El debate sobre el concepto de agricultura campesina
Las mujeres y la agricultura campesina       
El acceso de mujeres a la tierra     
4. Las propuestas de los movimientos populares y de los movimientos feministas      
Reforma Agraria Integral y Popular    
Las mujeres en la Reforma Agraria Integral  
Soberanía alimentaria     
Soberanía alimentaria o seguridad alimentaria     
Las mujeres en la lucha por la Soberanía Alimentaria    
El cuidado de las semillas    
El cuidado de los saberes y de las prácticas     
5. Algunas conclusiones y nuevos debates

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Agriculture, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Land Tenure Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2016

Género y despojo: El caso de Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí


Cortés Cortés, Ramon, Zapata Martelo, Emma María, y Ayala Carrillo María del Rosario. 2019. “Género y despojo: El caso de Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí.” La Manzana de la Discordia 14 (1): 7-20.

Authors: Ramon Cortés Cortés, Emma María Zapata Martelo, Ayala Carrillo María del Rosario


In this paper, we analyze from a gender perspective the land and identity dispossession, through the occupation of the physical space by the Minera San Xavier mining company in the municipality of Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí. Through semi-structured surveys and feminist ethnography, the results show that the mining extraction had to be supported by previous and current capitalist and patriarchal structures which favored the land dispossession, thus reproducing and spreading a hierarchical gender order, where the power of decision for the settling of the corporation, the leasing of the Cerro de San Pedro ejido, and the displacement of the La Zapatilla community was all in the hands of the men, thus privileging the male experience, while the females experienced a process of minorization and invisibilization. In order to take away the land, capitalism and patriarchy take advantage of the powerless bodies of women.
En este trabajo se analiza, desde la perspectiva de género, el despojo territorial e identitario, a través de la ocupación del espacio físico que Minera San Xavier realizó en el municipio de Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí. Por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas y etnografía feminista, los resultados muestran que el extractivismo minero requirió apoyarse en estructuras capitalistas y patriarcales previas y actuales que facilitaron el despojo territorial, reproduciendo y ampliando un orden jerárquico de género, en donde el poder de decisión para el asentamiento de la corporación, el arrendamiento del ejido Cerro de San Pedro y el desplazamiento de la comunidad La Zapatilla, quedaron en manos de los hombres, privilegiando la experiencia masculina, mientras que la femenina experimentó un proceso de minorización e invisibilización. Para lograr despojar los territorios, capitalismo y patriarcado se aprovecharon de los cuerpos despojados de poder de las mujeres.

Keywords: género y despojo, territorio, extractivismo y género, megaminería y género, minera San Xavier, gender and dispossession, land, extractivism and gender, megamining and gender

Topics: Feminisms, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Land Grabbing Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2019

Experiences and Reflections on a Latin American Feminist Theology of Liberation Using an Ecofeminist Key Towards an Indigenous Women’s Perspective: Experience and Reflections on a Latin American Feminist Theology of Liberation


Salazar, Marilú Rojas. 2010. “Experiences and Reflections on a Latin American Feminist Theology of Liberation Using an Ecofeminist Key Towards an Indigenous Women’s Perspective: Experience and Reflections on a Latin American Feminist Theology of Liberation.” The Ecumenical Review 62 (4): 411-22.

Author: Marilú Rojas Salazar


“Women have been present, supporting and building together praxis and a transforming commitment in places and scenarios in which many religious, political and social male ‘‘leaders’’ have been absent. Women’s religious leadership in the churches has not been recognized, nor has their political and social leadership in Latin American societies. The same has happened in the sphere of theological reflection, where it seems that others have reflected or ‘‘theorized’’ about what women have practised. Women, who because of their commitment with the preferential option for the poor did not have access to academic-theological formation, are now starting to reflect from their praxis and are taking up their theological formation from a different perspective: their life experience.

The lack of academic-theological formation among women (which is not the case among men liberation theologians) is an element that shows what Latin American theologians have called ‘‘the feminization of poverty." This feminization of poverty uncovers the face of the injustice, exclusion and marginalization of Latin American women, who have suffered a triple exclusion: for being women, for being poor, and for being indigenous.

Women in Latin America, besides having to overcome the patriarchal and machismo systems operating in society in general, must face constantly in the church the dominant clericalism and control over the theological thought by men. Despite these realities, women have made their Latin American feminist theological reflection from the parameters of liberation beginning from their own experiences of marginalization and exclusion, as we shall see now” (Salazar 2010, 412).

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Indigenous, Religion Regions: Americas

Year: 2010

Women’s Land Rights in Africa: Does Implementation Match Policy?


Sulle, Emmanuel, Sue Mbaya, Barbara Codispoti, Josephine Atananga, Bernard Moseti, and Leah Mugehera. 2019. “Women’s Land Rights in Africa: Does Implementation Match Policy?” Paper presented at Conference on Land Policy in Africa, 2019: Winning the fight against Corruption in the Land Sector: Sustainable Pathway for Africa’s Transformation, Abidjan, November 25-29.

Authors: Emmanuel Sulle, Sue Mbaya, Barbara Codispoti, Josephine Atananga, Bernard Moseti, Leah Mugehera


This paper assesses the performance of selected countries in implementing the provisions of women’s land rights instruments such as African Union Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy in Africa and the Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure among others. Field research was carried out in seven African countries whereby, in each country a national researcher in collaboration with the collaborating nongovernmental organisation selected three heterogeneous locations which capture the range of situations under which rural women use land. Based on field research results complemented with desk review, the study finds that while statutory laws to protect women land rights are in place in all studied countries, with some differences and, in some cases with existing loopholes, adherence to these laws at the community level remain inadequate. This is particularly evident in terms of equality of rights to inherit land among men and women. Women experience constant threat from clansmen and relatives of their husbands. As also documented elsewhere, in many African communities (although not all), most land-holding systems are male lineage based, with men playing an important decision-making role. Malawi represents a specific case in this regard, as most land-holdings are based on matrilineal systems, but this still is not an automatic guarantee of women having more decision-making power on land. Based on these findings the paper confirms that while impressive steps to address women’s land rights issues have been taken in recent African policies, law enforceability is yet to receive sufficient political backing, due to widespread patriarchal values, limited financial and human resources and last but not least informal rules of the games that are the same drivers of widespread corruption. Patronage, ‘clientage’, illegality and opacity of land transactions find fertile ground in a patriarchal system. Understanding the status, causes and consequences of the de facto ‘unenforceability’ of constitutional and legal provisions in favour of women might shed a light on much broader challenges like those addressed in this conference. Holistic implementation and reforms that 1) address existing loopholes in land laws and regulation, 2) align other sectoral policies, laws and regulations, and 3) use transformative actions to revert patriarchal values in order to bridge the gender gap in property rights, but also to help creating a fairer environment to contribute combating corruption.

Topics: Corruption, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Land Tenure, Governance, Constitutions, NGOs, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Togo

Year: 2019

Competition and Gender in the Lab vs Field: Experiments from Off-Grid Renewable Energy Entrepreneurs in Rural Rwanda


Klege, Rebecca A., and Martine Visser. 2020. “Competition and Gender in the Lab vs Field: Experiments from Off-Grid Renewable Energy Entrepreneurs in Rural Rwanda.” ERSA Working Paper 806, Economic Research Southern Africa, University of Cape Town.

Authors: Rebecca A. Klege, Martine Visser


Applications of lab experiments to real-world phenomenon are limited. We fill the gap by examining how gender attitudes and performance under competitive situations in the lab, reflects microenterprise outcomes in the renewable energy sector of Rwanda. — a country with progressive gender policies despite its traditional patriarchal set-up. We use the standard Niederle and Vesterlund (2007) experimental design in addition to a unique dataset from off-grid microenterprises, managed by entrepreneurs who have been working in mixed and single-sex teams since 2016. Our findings show that the gender composition of teams does not affect decisions to compete in the lab. Instead returns to education and risk-taking are more valuable to single-sex teams than for mixed gender teams. We also show that under competitive situations, women perform as well as men. Findings from the field strongly support findings in the lab that female-owned enterprises do not underperform in competitive settings, which corroborates the external validity of our lab results. Given that lab and field findings suggest no significant differentials in terms of competitiveness or performance of females, there exist ample scope to increase women involvement in the renewable energy sector of Rwanda. 

Keywords: competition, gender differences, entrepreneurs, performance, renewable energy

Topics: Economies, Education, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2020


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