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Patriarchy

The Transformative Potential of Gender Justice in the Land Restitution Programme in Colombia

Citation:

von Au, Anne Kathrin. 2013. "The Transformative Potential of Gender Justice in the Land Restitution Programme in Colombia." Revista Deusto de Derechos Humanos 11: 207-39.

Author: Anne Kathrin von Au

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This paper studies the existence of elements of gender justice in the ongoing land restitution process in Colombia, in order to analyse the potential of the Land Restitution Programme to contribute to the elimination of structural violence against women and the resulting gender inequalities. In this context, the sources of the analysis comprises the Victims’ and Land Restitution Law of 2011, the implementation programmes by the Land Restitution Unit, and the sentences by the specialized judges for land restitution. The paper argues that the land restitution programme could contribute to the elimination of structural forms of discrimination and exclusion of women in the Colombian society, if the elements of gender justice are applied in a coherent and systematic way and if it is accompa- nied by additional measures aimed at reducing the high security risks for internally displaced women in the land restitution process and changing the patriarchal system deeply rooted in the Colombian society.
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Este artículo estudia la existencia de elementos de justicia de género en el actual proceso de restitución de tierra en Colombia para analizar el potencial del Programa de Restitución de Tierras en la contribución a la eliminación de violencia estructural contra mujeres internamente desplazadas y las inequidades resultantes. En este contexto, las principales fuentes de datos para el análisis son la Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras de 2011, las programas de acción de la Unidad de Restitución de Tierras y las sentencias de los jueces especializados en la restitución de tierras. Este trabajo sostiene que el programa de restitución de tierras podría contribuir a la eliminación de formas estructurales de discriminación y exclusión de mujeres en la sociedad colombiana si los elementos de la justicia de género son aplicados de una manera coherente y sistemática, y si van acompañadas por medidas adicionales enfocadas a reducir el alto riesgo para mujeres internamente desplazadas en dicho proceso y a cambiar el sistema patriarcal, firmemente arraigada en la sociedad colombiana.

 

Keywords: transitional justice, displacement, land restitution, gender justice, structural violence, transformative justice, differential approach, justicia transicional, desplazamiento, restitución de tierra, justicia de género, violencia estructural, justicia transformativa, enfoque diferencial

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Transitional Justice, Rights, Land Rights, Security Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2013

Revealing the Patriarchal Sides of Climate Change Adaptation through Intersectionality: a Case Study from Nicaragua

Citation:

Gonda, Noémi. 2017. “Revealing the Patriarchal Sides of Climate Change Adaptation through Intersectionality: a Case Study from Nicaragua.” In Understanding Climate Change through Gender Relations, edited by Susan Buckingham and Virginie Le Masson, 173-190. London: Routledge.

 

Author: Noémi Gonda

Abstract:

Nicaragua is the third most climate change-affected country in the world and its government identifies climate change adaptation as one of its key priorities. Since the early 2010s, this national priority is translated into measures that support rural populations to adapt to climate change impacts. This chapter explains how a discursive construction of nature as 'our own Mother' in post-neoliberal Nicaragua has contributed to giving women a primary place in climate change discourses and projects while the mainstream masculinist and science-oriented discourse is underlying the way climate change adaptation interventions are conceived. It also presents an argument that feminist scholars and practitioners need to engage more systematically with gendered climate change politics, in particular by mobilizing the intersectional perspective that simultaneously addresses the multifaceted oppressions climate change politics may reproduce, even though they include 'gender concerns'.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Masculinism Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2017

Conclusion: Emphasized Femininity/Hegemonic Masculinity and Constructivism/Essentialism

Citation:

Maleta, Yulia. 2019. “Conclusion: Emphasized Femininity/Hegemonic Masculinity and Constructivism/Essentialism.” In Feminism, Republicanism, Egalitarianism, Environmentalism: Bill of Rights and Gendered Sustainable Initiatives. New York: Routledge.

Author: Yulia Maleta

Annotation:

Summary:
This book has addressed a gap on the interplay of emphasized femininity/hegemonic masculinity and constructivism/essentialism within the eNSM and its eSMOs. Utilising my interviews with Australian women members of renewables organisational governance (IeNGOs, grassroots organisations, academic institutions and the Greens party), I applied a constructivist approach to emphasized femininity, arguing that women-led sustainable-social change strategies, strengthened through participants’ agentic technical-scientific performative competencies (and multiple skills set: intellectual, social, empathetic and physical), challenges the patriarchal control of global politics and rigid structures of hierarchy and bureaucracy. More women in sustainable technological leadership, should contribute to global peace as well as desired gender justice outcomes.

Topics: Civil Society, Environment, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, NGOs Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2019

The Gendered Nature of the Elite: ‘The Boys Club’ and Ruling Class Masculinity within Renewables Organisational Governance

Citation:

Maleta, Yulia. 2019. “The Gendered Nature of the Elite: ‘The Boys Club’ and Ruling Class Masculinity within Renewables Organisational Governance.” In Feminism, Republicanism, Egalitarianism, Environmentalism: Bill of Rights and Gendered Sustainable Initiatives. New York: Routledge.

Author: Yulia Maleta

Annotation:

Summary:
Chapter 5 critiques the gendered nature of the elite, pertaining to ruling class masculinity, and middle class men’s dominance of bureaucratical governance. As a sociocultural constructivist feminist, utilising my interviews and theory, I assess the unequal leadership representation of women within politics, IeNGOs and academia (ABS 2016a; Canty 2017; WIE 2018). Arguably, renewables Board positions are dominated by Anglo middle class men (ABS 2016a; AHRC 2017b; Bombora Wave Power 2018; Carnegie Clean Energy 2018). Patriarchy underpins women’s struggle with glass ceilings, tokenism on panels and labels of incompetency (Greer 1999, 2010a; Donaldson and Poynting 2013; Pollack 2015; Cohen 2016; Cadaret et al. 2017). Arguably, ‘the boys club’ is critiqued as: ‘androcentric’ and ‘aggressive’. Greens participants identify chauvinism and misogyny within Parliament and Local Government Authorities (LGAs), whilst eNGO participants’ struggle with men’s resistance in the ‘executive arm’ of the eNSM.

Topics: Class, Environment, Ethnicity, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, NGOs

Year: 2019

Australian Women's Anti-Nuclear Leadership: the Framing of Peace and Social Change

Citation:

Maleta, Yulia. 2018. "Australian Women's Anti-Nuclear Leadership: The Framing of Peace and Social Change." Journal of International Women's Studies 19 (6): 70-86.  

Author: Yulia Maleta

Abstract:

This article addresses a gap on hegemonic masculinity/emphasized femininity and essentialism/constructivism within the Environmental New Social Movement (eNSM). Utilizing my interviews with Australian women members of environmentalist New Social Movement Organisations (eNSMOs), including eNGOs, academic institutions and the Greens party, I adopt a constructivist approach towards emphasized femininity, arguing that women-led strategies, strengthened through agentic competence contributes to global peace, whilst challenging the patriarchal control of environmental governance (Cockburn 1988, 2012). My feminist sociopolitical model is framed by resistance to ruling class masculinity, emphasizing participants' gender performativity, advocating anti-nuclear agendas (Warren 1999, Gaard 2001, Butler 2013). Constructivism is relayed by the way women activists' resist patriarchy as a barrier, in terms of 'hierarchy', 'man-made decisions' and 'power...terrible nasty stuff. Moreover, women accommodate emphasized femininity as an empowering enabler, framed by women-led strategies, described as 'revolutionary', 'mother and child', 'social responsibility' and 'environmental protection', whilst advocating sustainability (Leahy 2003, Connell 2005, Culley and Angelique 2010, Maleta 2012).

Keywords: emphasized femininity, women, constructivism, Anti-nuclear, sustainable

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, NGOs Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2018

The Impact of Non-Government Organizations on Women's Mobility in Public Life: An Empirical Study in Rural Bangladesh

Citation:

Nawaz, Faraha. 2020. "The Impact of Non-Government Organizations on Women's Mobility in Public Life: An Empirical Study in Rural Bangladesh." Journal of International Women's Studies 21 (2): 94-113.

Author: Faraha Nawaz

Abstract:

The article aims to analyse the impact of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) on Bangladeshi rural women’s mobility in the public domain, since this is an area that is generally only frequented by men whilst women are confined to their own home and neighbourhood. In other words, the author explored how and to what extent, NGOs have brought changes to women’s freedom of movement in the public sphere. The author was influenced by the existing literature that portrays Bangladesh as a country that is characterized by poverty, patriarchy and inequality, where there is no tradition of rural women participating in the labour force, and where women’s mobility is severely restricted. In this study, the indicators of women’s mobility were explored that include women’s movement in various public places such as market, medical centre, children’s schools, and cinema. By conducting series of in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), the author collected primary data from rural women and their husbands through purposive network sampling. Secondary data was collected from the contemporary literature regarding women’s freedom of movement globally in general and Bangladesh in particular. By analysing empirical data, the article confirms that rural women’s participation in microfinance program of NGOs have enhanced their mobility in different ways. However, the women who had education and training had more mobility in public life since those women utilized the benefits of NGO programs more effectively. Surprisingly husband’s education, occupation and exposure have no positive impact on women’s mobility. 

Keywords: women, mobility, education, public life, development NGOs, women's mobility, women in Bangladesh

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2020

Rethinking Masculinity in Disaster Situations: Men's Reflections of the 2004 Tsunami in Southern Sri Lanka

Citation:

Dominelli, Lena. 2020. "Rethinking Masculinity in Disaster Situations: Men's Reflections of the 2004 Tsunami in Southern Sri Lanka." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 48: 1-9. 

Author: Lena Dominelli

Abstract:

The role of men in disasters is rarely discussed in depth and research on this topic is scarce. Yet, masculinity is an important dimension of disasters, whether considering men's active roles in disasters, their position within family relations pre- and post-disasters, or during reconstruction. The research project, International Institutional and Professional Practices conducted in 12 southern Sri Lankan villages sought to understand men's experiences of supporting their families after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. It highlighted the importance of patriarchal relations and men's roles as providers throughout the disaster cycle. However, the picture is complicated. While most humanitarian aid is aimed at the generic person, a man, men do not have their needs as men specifically addressed during the receipt of humanitarian aid. Men who receive nothing post-disaster can become desperate, and misuse substances such as alcohol and drugs. This creates situations where men fight each other and abuse women and children within intimate relationships because the tsunami has destroyed their livelihoods and nothing has replaced these. In this article, I examine the complexities men navigate to understand their position when seeking to re-establish their connections to family and community life. I conclude that their specific needs as men require targeted interventions throughout all stages of the disaster cycle, and especially during the delivery of humanitarian aid if they are to fulfil their provider and protector roles and be steered away from behaviour that is abusive of close members of their families: wives, children, and other men.

Keywords: men, masculinity(ies), breadwinner/provider, protector, humanitarian aid, Disasters, differentiated disaster experiences, family relations, domestic violence, abusive relations

Topics: Domestic Violence, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Households, Humanitarian Assistance, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2020

Mujeres Reinsertadas: Postconflicto en la Ciudad de Barranquilla

Citation:

Pichón, Leticia Elena Hundek. 2016. "Mujeres Reinsertadas: Postconflicto en la Ciudad de Barranquilla." Advocatus 14 (27): 65-82. 

Author: Leticia Elena Hundek Pichón

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
La mayoría de las mujeres reinsertadas ingresaron al grupo armado durante la adolescencia, motivadas por factores tanto ideológicos como personales, atraídas por la búsqueda de un nuevo “proyecto de vida”. Si la reinserción a la vida civil fue un proceso traumático para los combatientes en general, para la mujer reinsertada lo fue mucho más si se reconoce la prevalencia de un contexto socio-cultural que mantiene la inequidad de las relaciones de género. Desarmada y desprovista de su rol revolucionario, tiene que competir ahora en un nuevo terreno al parecer menos favorable para su participación política. Las mujeres reinsertadas se ven ahora enfrentadas a un mundo que les sigue siendo hostil, desprovistas de las armas que en el pasado le dieron una dimensión diferente a su rol tradicional y envueltas ahora en la complicada trama de recomponer su vida afectiva, familiar y laboral. Las mujeres reinsertadas dejaron las actividades propias de la insurgencia, para asumir el retorno a una sociedad que aún se nutre de patrimonios culturales ancestrales, patriarcales, discriminatorios y represivos que generalmente limitan a la mujer al desempeño de roles domésticos, sexuales y reproductivos.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Most of the reinserted women entered the armed group during adolescence, motivated by both ideological and personal factors, attracted by the search for a new “life project”. If reintegration into civilian life was a traumatic process for the combatants in general, it was much more so for the reinserted woman if the prevalence of a socio-cultural context that maintains the inequality of gender relations was recognized. Disarmed and devoid of its revolutionary role, it has now to compete in a new terrain apparently less favorable to its political participation. Reinserted women now face a world that is still hostile to them, deprived of the weapons that in the past gave them a different dimension to their traditional role and are now involved in the complicated plot of recomposing their affective, family and work life. The reinserted women left the activities of the insurgency, to assume the return to a society that still feeds on ancestral, patriarchal, discriminatory and repressive cultural patrimonies that limit women to the performance of domestic, sexual and reproductive roles.

Keywords: mujeres reinsertadas, postconflicto, roles politicos-económicos, relaciones de género, reinserted women, postconflict, political-economic roles, gender relations

Topics: Age, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Economies, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Political Participation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Reconsidering Nationalism and Feminism: the Kurdish Political Movement in Turkey

Citation:

Al‐Ali, Nadje, and Latif Tas. 2018. "Reconsidering Nationalism and Feminism: The Kurdish Political Movement in Turkey." Nations and Nationalism 24 (2): 453-73.

Authors: Nadje Al-Ali, Latif Tas

Abstract:

Feminist scholars have documented with reference to multiple empirical contexts that feminist claims within nationalist movements are often side-lined, constructed as ‘inauthentic’ and frequently discredited for imitating supposedly western notions of gender-based equality. Despite these historical precedents, some feminist scholars have pointed to the positive aspects of nationalist movements, which frequently open up spaces for gender-based claims. Our research is based on the recognition that we cannot discuss and evaluate the fraught relationship in the abstract but that we need to look at the specific historical and empirical contexts and articulations of nationalism and feminism. The specific case study we draw from is the relationship between the Kurdish women’s movement and the wider Kurdish political movement in Turkey. We are exploring the ways that the Kurdish movement in Turkey has politicised Kurdish women’s rights activists and examine how Kurdish women activists have reacted to patriarchal tendencies within the Kurdish movement.

Keywords: ethnic nationalism, feminism, Kurdish women's movement, middle east, PKK, Turkey

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Nationalism Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Turkey

Year: 2018

Gender Relations among Neighbors: a Study of Humanitarian Practices Addressing Syrian Refugees in Lebanon

Citation:

Christiansen, Connie Carøe. 2018. "Gender Relations among Neighbors: A Study of Humanitarian Practices Addressing Syrian Refugees in Lebanon." Paper presented at Pluralism in Emergenc(i)es: Movement, Space and Religious Difference, Amman, December 6-8. 

Author: Connie Carøe Christiansen

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study the perceptions of gender relations among Syrian refugees as presented by employees of selected local NGOs in Lebanon. These NGOs form part of a civil society undergoing changes since the refugee crisis of the Syrian war, and now collaborating with Syrian NGOs, and engaging Syrian refugees in humanitarian projects. Their participation in humanitarian response occurs in Lebanon in several contexts, ranging from handicraft workshops to neighborhood committees, civil society activism and business initiation. Gender relations among Syrians are presented by such NGOs as more patriarchal and harmful for women, but Syrian activists in Lebanon contest this indictment. Nevertheless, these conceptions become a pretext for the approach that refugee women are more vulnerable not only due to the war, but also due to their relations to Syrian men. The paper forms part of a study, which asks what consequences the engagement of Syrian refugees in humanitarian work may have for citizenship transformation– with particular urgency and value for women who are denied equal citizenship with men.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Conflict, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Humanitarian Assistance, NGOs Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Syria

Year: 2017

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