Deepening Security: Towards Human, Gender and Environmental Security: A HUGE Concept


Spring, Úrsula Oswald. 2008. “Deepening Security: Towards Human, Gender and Environmental Security: A HUGE Concept.” Paper presented at International Studies Association’s 49th Annual Conference, San Francisco, CA, March 26-29.

Author: Úrsula Oswald Spring


HUGE suggests as a deepening security concept to integrate Human, Gender and Environmental Security (HUGE). It combines a wider understanding of gender (including children, elders, indigenous and other vulnerable groups) with a human-centered focus on environmental security and peace challenges. The HUGE concept analyzes the patriarchal, violent and exclusive structures within the family and society questioning the existing process of social representation-building and traditional role assignation between genders searching for processes responsible for thousand of years of discrimination. It assesses the human security approach with equity and development concerns, where survival strategies, social organization, specific governmental policies, private ethical investments and legal reinforcements could stimulate sociopolitical participation of the socially vulnerable. As a holistic concept, HUGE includes environmental security concerns where a healthy environment, integral management of natural resources, prevention and remediation practices reduce vulnerability from hazard impacts. Hazard-prone countries are enabled to develop technical, economic and human support to reduce social vulnerability, to foster progress in internal organization and to stimulate resilience-building, supporting themselves and other regions affected by social and natural disasters. It enables especially the socially vulnerable people such as women and exposed groups to reinforce their own resilience-building through bottom-up internal organization combined with top-down policies and institution building. As nonviolent conflict resolution represents a central part of personal and social identity in a world where processes of unification and diversification are occurring quicker than ever in history. Human beings have a basic necessity to simplify and to put order into complex realities through social comparison. The upcoming systems of values, ideas and practices creates simultaneously processes of living together offering persons and groups the possibility to get familiarized with the social and material world, on behalf of contradictory messages and behaviour. Finally HUGE includes reflections on the consolidation of participatory democracy and governance through conflict prevention, nonviolent conflict resolution processes and peace-building; in summary a huge solidarity process of sustainable and equal nonviolent development.

Topics: Conflict Prevention, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Environment, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Patriarchy, Governance, Nonviolence, Peace Processes, Peacebuilding, Security, Human Security

Year: 2008

The Nordic Area as a `Zone of Peace’


Archer, Clive. 1996. “The Nordic Area as a `Zone of Peace’.” Journal of Peace Research 33: 451–67.

Author: Clive Archer


Is the Nordic area a `zone of peace'? This article divides the concept into five elements: (1) intrastate war, (2) interstate war, (3) military intervention by outside forces, (4) military intervention by forces within the region in areas outside and (5) the overall expectations of peace within the region. Each of the elements are examined empirically and the article concludes that the Nordic area is indeed such a zone. The emergence of a zone of peace in an area which historically has seen a great deal of domestic and international war is explained by a combination of outside factors, such as the strategic importance of the area, and internal factors, such as the legitimacy of the government and the homogeneity of the population. Three broad considerations emerge from the study. Firstly, the link between democracy and peace has reinforced the Nordic peace as all the countries concerned have grown into stable democracies. Secondly, higher levels of gender equality within the Nordic countries may have also had a beneficial effect in terms of preventing violent conflict. And lastly, peaceful conflict resolutions has been accepted as the sole legitimate means of solving conflicts within the Nordic area, and this has had a marked effect on the foreign policies of the countries in the region.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Democracy / Democratization, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Nonviolence, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: Europe, Nordic states

Year: 1996

Surveying Politics of Peace, Gender, Conflict and Identity in Northern Ireland: The Case of the Derry Peace Women in 1972


Callaghan, Marie Hammond. 2002. “Surveying Politics of Peace, Gender, Conflict and Identity in Northern Ireland: The Case of the Derry Peace Women in 1972.” Women’s Studies International Forum 25 (1): 33–49. doi:10.1016/S0277-5395(02)00216-9.

Author: Marie Hammond Callaghan


This article introduces the story of the Derry Peace Women (DPW) founded in May 1972, at the height of the contemporary Northern Irish conflict. Located in Catholic working-class nationalist and republican areas of Derry City and driven by civil rights aspirations as well as maternalist motivations, the DPW reflected some women’s efforts in one of the most severely affected areas of the North of Ireland to find a peaceful solution to the conflict. They appear to have played limited roles in facilitating republican cease-fires in 1972, as well as encouraging diplomatic efforts between republican paramilitaries and officials in the Northern Ireland government. However, fundamental structural inequalities, including gender conditions, in an increasingly polarised and militarised society, ultimately left them little political power or ‘room to manoeuvre’.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Nonviolence, Peace Processes, Political Participation Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2002

Women, Violence and Nonviolent Resistance in East Timor


Mason, Christine. 2005. “Women, Violence and Nonviolent Resistance in East Timor.” Journal of Peace Research 42 (6): 737–49.

Author: Christine Mason


A growing literature in peace and conflict studies assesses the relationship between women and nonviolence. Numerous national liberation fronts and academic critiques assess how women participate in nonviolent resistance from Tibet and West Papua to Palestine and Eritrea. However, many liberation struggles that include female nonviolent resistance remain undocumented, and this article aims to delve into one case study in particular. The article examines the nonviolent roles adopted by women in the East Timorese liberation struggle, a national liberation movement in which the participation of female combatants was low but nonviolent participation by women in the resistance movement overall was high. However, the consequences for such women was, and remains, shaped by the overarching patriarchal structures of both the Indonesian occupiers and East Timorese society itself. Female nonviolent resistance was met with highly violent responses from Indonesian troops, especially in the form of rape and sexual exploitation. Yet, this study also found that women acting under religious auspices faced less violent responses overall. Interviews with East Timorese women are used to reveal some of the sexual dynamics of nonviolent action and reprisal. This material is placed in the context of theoretical work on gender, violence and nonviolence.

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Nonviolence, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2005

Gender Identity: Is Femininity Inherently Peaceful?


Skjelsbæk, Inger. 1998. “Kjonnsidentitet: Er femininitet iboende fredelig?" INTERNASJONAL POLITIKK 56 (1): 55-74.

Skjelsbæk, Inger. 1998. "Gender Identity: Is Femininity Inherently Peaceful?” INTERNASJONAL POLITIKK 56 (1): 55-74.

Author: Inger Skjelsbæk

Topics: Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Nonviolence

Year: 1998

Frontline Feminisms: Women, War, and Resistance


Waller, Marguerite. and Jennifer Rycenga. 2000. Frontline Feminisms: Women, War, and Resistance. New York: Garland Pub. 

Authors: Marguerite Waller, Jennifer Rycenga

Keywords: war, feminism, women


The essays in this collection, from both scholars and activists, explore the experiences of local women's groups that have developed to fight war, militarization, political domination, and patriarchy throughout the world.

Table of Contents:

Series Editor's Foreword /Chandra Talpade Mohanty

I. Domestic and Public Violence

1.Public Imprisonment and Private Violence: Reflections on the Hidden Punishment of Women /Angela Y. Davis

2.Screaming in Silence /Shadia el Sarraj

3.From Reverence to Rape: An Anthropology of Ethnic and Genderized Violence /Vesna Kesic

4.Laughter, Tears, and Politics - Dialogue: How Women Do It /Vesna Kesic and Lepa Mladjenovic

5.The Opposite of War Is Not Peace - It Is Creativity /Zorica Mrsevic

6.Is Violence Male? The Law, Gender, and Violence /Lucinda Joy Peach

7.Art as a Healing Tool from "A Window Between Worlds" /Cathy Salser

II. Gender, Militarism, and Sexuality

8.Translating/Transgressing/Torture ... /Irene Matthews

9.Women and Militarization in Israel: Forgotten Letters in the Midst of Conflict /Isis Nusair

10.Sudanese Women under Repression, and the Shortest Way to Equality /Fatima Ahmed Ibrahim

11.Who Benefits? U.S. Military, Prostitution, and Base Conversion /Saundra Sturdevant

12.Demilitarizing Security: Women Oppose U.S. Militarism in East Asia /Gwyn Kirk and Margo Okazawa-Rey

13.Women's Politics and Organizing in Vietnam and Cambodia /Kathryn McMahon

14.Women in Command: A Successful Experience in the National Liberation Army of Iran /Sorayya Shahri

15.Conversion /Habiba Metikos

16.The Passage /Vinka Ljubimir

III. Nonviolent, and Not-Nonviolent, Action against Patriarchy

17.The Kitchen Cabinet /Julie Mertus

18.Ritual as Resistance: Tibetan Women and Nonviolence /Benina Berger Gould

19.The Impact of Women in Black in Israel /Gila Svirsky

20.Feminist Resistance to War and Violence in Serbia /Lepa Mladjenovic and Donna M. Hughes

21.Gender, Nationalism, and the Ambiguity of Female Agency in Aceh, Indonesia, and East Timor /Jacqueline Siapno

22.Maria Stewart, Black Abolitionist, and the Idea of Freedom /Jennifer Rycenga

23.January 16, 1997: Message from Maryam Rajavi, President-Elect of the Iranian Resistance /Maryam Rajavi

24."You Have a Voice Now, Resistance Is Futile!" /Shashwati Talukdar

IV. Where Are the Frontlines?

25.Women's Activism in Rural Kosova /Eli

26.The Soldier and the State: Post-Liberation Women: The Case of Eritrea /Sondra Hale

27.Beyond the Baton: How Women's Responses Are Changing Definitions of Police Violence /Nancy Keefe Rhodes

28.Black Women and Labor Unions in the South: From the 1970s to the 1990s /Ida Leachman

29.From the Mississippi Delta to South Central Los Angeles /Georgiana Williams

30."A Struggle for the Mind": Black Working-Class Women's Organizing in Memphis and the Mississippi Delta, 1960s to 1990s /Laurie Beth Green

31.A State of Work: Women, Politics, and Protest on an Indian Tea Plantation /Piya Chatterjee.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Nonviolence, Political Participation, Race, Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against Women

Year: 2000

From Where We Stand: War, Women's Activism and Feminist Analysis


Cockburn, Cynthia. 2007. From Where We Stand: War, Women's Activism and Feminist Analysis. New York: Zed Books.

Author: Cynthia Cockburn


The product of 80,000 miles of travel by the author over a two-year period, this original study examines women's activism against wars as far apart as Sierra Leone, Colombia and India. It shows women on different sides of conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and Israel refusing enmity and co-operating for peace. It describes international networks of women opposing US and Western European militarism and the so-called 'war on terror'. Women are often motivated by adverse experiences in male-led anti-war movements, preferring to choose different methods of protest and remain in control of their own actions. But like the mainstream movements, women's groups differ - some are pacifist while others put justice before non-violence; some condemn nationalism as a cause of war while others see it as a legitimate source of identity. The very existence of feminist antimilitarism proposes a radical shift in our understanding of war, linking the violence of patriarchal power to that of class oppression and ethnic 'othering'.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Class, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Nonviolence, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Race, Terrorism, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, North America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Western Europe Countries: Colombia, India, Sierra Leone, United States of America

Year: 2007


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