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Multi-National Corporations

Women's Leadership in Renewable Transformation, Energy Justice and Energy Democracy: Redistributing Power

Citation:

Allen, Elizabeth, Hannah Lyons, and Jennie C. Stephens. 2019. “Women’s Leadership in Renewable Transformation, Energy Justice and Energy Democracy: Redistributing Power.” Energy Research & Social Science 57 (November).

Authors: Elizabeth Allen, Hannah Lyons, Jennie C. Stephens

Abstract:

As women take on more leadership roles in the United States advancing social and political change, analysis of women’s contributions to the transformation occurring within the energy sector is critically important. Grassroots movements focused on energy justice and energy democracy focus on: (1) resisting the power of large multinational fossil fuel energy companies that exacerbate inequities and disparities in energy, (2) reclaiming the energy sector with more community and public control to redisitrbute benefits and risks, and (3) restructuring the energy sector to prioritize equity and justice with community ownership and distributed governance. This research analyzes women’s leadership by focusing on how two women-led, non-profit organizations are advancing the renewable energy transition, operationalizing the concept of energy democracy and contributing to the energy justice movement. The two organizations are Grid Alternatives, a solar installation and workforce training organization, and Mothers Out Front, an advocacy organization focused on addressing climate change by promoting a transition to renewable energy. These organizations differ in their mission and approaches, yet both intentionally link climate and energy action with other forms of social justice activism, by expanding community engagement, strengthening participation, and fundamentally redistributing power to promote a transition to more equitable, resilient and sustainable energy systems. This paper contributes to the theoretical understanding of gender in energy justice and energy democracy movements, and to the practical consideration of the role that women’s leadership is playing in accelerating energy system change and advancing the principles of energy justice and energy democracy. 

Keywords: gender, energy, renewable energy, fossil fuels, energy justice, energy democracy, power

Topics: Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Energy, Justice, Multi-National Corporations, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2019

Illicit Financial Flows: Why We Should Claim These Resources for Gender, Economic, and Social Justice

Citation:

Waris, Attiya. 2017. Illicit Financial Flows: Why We Should Claim These Resources for Gender, Economic, and Social Justice. Toronto: Association for Women’s Rights in Development (AWID).

Author: Attiya Waris

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This brief focuses on international illicit financial flows (IFFs) and why these ‘lost’ resources should be claimed for gender, economic and social justice.
 
It will explore the following three issues:
 
1.     Understand the basic concept of IFFs and highlight their disproportional gender impact, in relation to the drain in developing countries of critical resources, for the advancement of women’s human rights.
 
2.     Unveil the current legal and political frameworks that allow multinational corporations to benefit from tax abuse to the detriment of people and planet
 
3.     Provide recommendations, from a feminist perspective, on how to demand transparency and corporate accountability in order to curb illicit financial flows" (Waris n.d., 7).

Topics: Development, Economies, Public Finance, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Multi-National Corporations, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2017

The Gender of Globalization: Women Navigating Cultural and Economics Marginalities

Citation:

Kingsolver, Ann, and Nandini Gunewardena, eds. 2008. The Gender of Globalization: Women Navigating Cultural and Economics Marginalities. Oxford: School for Advanced Research Press.

Authors: Ann Kingsolver, Nandini Gunewardena

Annotation:

Summary:
As "globalization" moves rapidly from buzzword to cliche, evaluating the claims of neoliberal capitalism to empower and enrich remains urgently important. The authors in this volume employ feminist, ethnographic methods to examine what free trade and export processing zones, economic liberalization, and currency reform mean to women in Argentina, Sri Lanka, Mexico, Ghana, the United States, India, Jamaica, and many other places (Summary from Jacket).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Feminist methodology as a tool for ethnographic inquiry on globalization
Faye V. Harrison
 
2. Disrupting subordination and negotiating belonging : women workers in the transnational production sites of Sri Lanka
Nandini Gunewardena
 
3. Making hay while the sun shines : Ghanaian female traders and their insertion into the global economy
Akosua K. Darkwah
 
4. Clothing difference : commodities and consumption in Southeastern Liberia
Mary H. Moran
 
5. Progressive women, traditional men : globalization, migration, and equality in the northern periphery of the European Union
Ulrika Dahl
 
6. Neoliberal policy as structural violence : its links to domestic violence in black communities in the United States
William L. Conwill
 
7. Gendered bodily scars of neoliberal globalization in Argentina
Barbara Sutton
 
8. Geographies of race and class : the place and placelessness of migrant Filipina domestic workers
Rhacel Salazar Parreñas
 
9. Sticking to the union : anthropologists and "union maids" in San Francisco
Sandy Smith-Nonini
 
10. "The Caribbean is on sale" : globalization and women tourist workers in Jamaica
A. Lynn Bolles
 
11. In the fields of free trade : gender and plurinational en/countering of neoliberal agricultural policies
Ann Kingsolver
 
12. Globalization, "swadeshi", and women's movements in Orissa, India
Annapurna Pandey
 
13. Complex negotiations : gender, capitalism, and relations of power
Mary Anglin and Louise Lamphere
 
14. Navigating paradoxical globalizations
Ann Kingsolver
 
15. Reconstituting marginality : gendered repression and women's resistance
Nandini Gunewardena.
 

Topics: Economies, Globalization, Multi-National Corporations, Privatization Regions: Africa, North Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, North America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Western Europe Countries: Argentina, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Liberia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, United States of America

Year: 2008

Gender, Financial Deepening and the Production of Embodied Finance: Towards a Critical Feminist Analysis

Citation:

Roberts, Adrienne. 2015. “Gender, Financial Deepening and the Production of Embodied Finance: Towards a Critical Feminist Analysis.” Global Society 29 (1): 107–27.

Author: Adrienne Roberts

Abstract:

This article critically interrogates the ways in which gender equality has been linked to processes of financial deepening, partly via a global coalition of public and private institutions that have come together in recent years to promote an instrumentalist gender equality agenda. Corporations, banks and financial firms are playing an increasingly important role in shaping the contours of the global gender equality agenda and reproducing narratives regarding the need to (1) financially ‘empower’ women, (2) uphold women as the ‘saviors’ of national economies post-2008 and (3) ‘tap in’ to the productive (i.e. profitable) potential of women's bodily capacities. Drawing on Marxist and feminist theory, I develop an approach to theorizing the inherently embodied and gendered nature of finance that reveals the ways in which these tropes obscure the labour associated with social reproduction, promote the commodification of women's bodily capacities to produce, and support the differential production of bodies while simultaneously masking embodied forms of difference. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions, Multi-National Corporations, Privatization

Year: 2015

Masculinities and Globalization

Citation:

Connell, R. W. 1998. “Masculinities and Globalization.” Men and Masculinities 1 (1): 3–23.

Author: R.W. Connell

Abstract:

Recent social science research has made important changes in our understanding of masculinities and men's gender practices, emphasizing the plurality and hierarchy of masculinities, and their collective and dynamic character. These gains have been achieved mainly by close-focus research methods. But in a globalizing world, we must pay attention also to very large scale structures. An understanding of the world gender order is a necessary basis for thinking about men and masculinities globally. We can trace the emergence of globalizing masculinities at different stages of the history of the world gender order. Hegemony in the contemporary gender order is connected with patterns of trade, investment, and communication dominated by the North. A transnational business masculinity, institutionally based in multinational corporations and global finance markets, is arguably the emerging dominant form on a world scale. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Globalization, Multi-National Corporations

Year: 1998

Women, Girls, and World Poverty: Empowerment, Equality or Essentialism?

Citation:

Chant, Sylvia. 2016. “Women, Girls, and World Poverty: Empowerment, Equality or Essentialism?” International Development Planning Review 38 (1): 1–24.

Author: Sylvia Chant

Abstract:

This paper asks if mounting reliance on women and girls to solve world poverty is an effective means to achieve greater female empowerment and gender equality, or whether, instead, it threatens to lock-down essentializing stereotypes which are unlikely to dismantle gender disparities within and beyond the home. The notion of a ‘feminization of poverty’ has been widely popularized over the past twenty years, and has had some benefits in respect of drawing attention to gendered disadvantage. However, whether the kinds of policy initiatives which have emerged to address this are good for women and girls is more contentious. The discussion highlights some key problems and paradoxes in three popular interventions nominally oriented to helping women lift themselves and their households out of poverty: conditional cash transfer programs, microfinance schemes, and ‘investing in girls’, as promulgated inter alia by the Nike Foundation’s ‘Girl Effect.’ (Abstract from original)

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, International Financial Institutions, Multi-National Corporations

Year: 2016

Galvanizing Girls for Development? Critiquing the Shift From 'Smart to 'Smarter' Economics

Citation:

Chant, Sylvia. 2016. "Galvanizing girls for development? Critiquing the Shift From 'Smart to 'Smarter' Economics." Progress in Development Studies 16 (4): 314-328.

Author: Sylvia Chant

Abstract:

This paper traces the mounting interest in, and visibility of, girls and young women in development policy, especially since the turn of the 21st century when a ‘Smart Economics’ rationale for promoting gender equality and female empowerment has become ever more prominent and explicit. ‘Smart Economics’, which is strongly associated with an increased influence of corporate stakeholders, frequently through public-private partnerships, stresses a ‘business case’ for investing in women for developmental (read economic) efficiency, with investment in younger generations of women being touted as more efficient still. The latter is encapsulated in the term ‘Smarter Economics’, with the Nike Foundation’s ‘Girl Effect’ being a showcase example.  In this, and similar, initiatives linked with neoliberal development, ‘investing in girls’ appears to be driven not only by imperatives of ‘female empowerment’, but also to realize more general dividends for future economic growth and poverty alleviation.  Yet while it may well be that girls and young women have benefited from their rapid relocation from the sidelines towards the center of development discourse and planning, major questions remain as to whose voices are prioritized, and whose agendas are primarily served by the current shift from ‘Smart’ to ‘Smarter Economics. (Abstract from original)

Keywords: smart economics, girls in development policy, gender inequality, 'Girl Effect', corporate stakeholders, neoliberal development

Topics: Development, Globalization, International Financial Institutions, Multi-National Corporations

Year: 2016

Globalizing ‘Girl Power’: Corporate Social Responsibility and Transnational Business Initiatives for Gender Equality

Citation:

Calkin, Sydney. 2016. “Globalizing ‘Girl Power’: Corporate Social Responsibility and Transnational Business Initiatives for Gender Equality.” Globalizations 13 (2): 158-72.

Author: Sydney Calkin

Abstract:

The recent emergence of ‘transnational business feminism’ [Roberts, A. (2014). The political economy of ‘transnational business feminism’. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 17(2), 209–231] accompanied by numerous ‘transnational business initiatives for the governance of gender’ [Prügl, E., & True, J. (2014). Equality means business? Governing gender through transnational public–private partnerships. Review of International Political Economy, 21(6), 1137–1169] constitutes a significant area of debate in the feminist political economy literature. In this paper I focus on the confluence of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda with the visibility of gender issues in development and the resultant corporate agenda for the promotion of women and girls’ empowerment. The paper draws on two gender-focused World Bank collaborations with private sector actors: the Global Private Sector Leaders Forum and the Girl Effect campaign. The paper argues that the dominant model of corporate citizenship inscribed within the discourse of transnational business initiatives is framed in terms of capitalizing on the potential power of girls and women, achieving an easy convergence between gender equality and corporate profit. I suggest that the construction of an unproblematic synergy between these goals serves to moralize corporate-led development interventions and therefore does not challenge corporate power in the development process, but instead allows corporations to subscribe to voluntary, non-binding codes and cultivate a socially conscious brand image. (Abstract from original)

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, gender equality, women's empowerment, World Bank, Nike

Topics: Development, Globalization, International Financial Institutions, Multi-National Corporations, Privatization

Year: 2016

Feminism, Interrupted? Gender and Development in the Era of ‘Smart Economics'

Citation:

Calkin, Sydney. 2015. “Feminism, Interrupted? Gender and Development in the Era of ‘Smart Economics.’” Progress in Development Studies 15 (4): 295–307.

Author: Sydney Calkin

Abstract:

This article assesses feminist accounts of co-optation and appropriation in gender and development policy. Today women and girls are the public faces of anti-poverty policy and occupy an important position in the development discourse; however, the ambiguities of the neoliberal gender agenda have provoked an ongoing debate about the extent to which feminist aims and language have been and de-politicized by mainstream institutions. Have feminist aims been co-opted to legitimize anti-feminist policy goals, or does the current visibility of gender issues reflect the success of particular strands of (neo)liberal feminism? I explore these conflicting accounts by examining the current ‘Gender Equality as Smart Economics’ policy agenda, exploring its major themes and institutional form through a focus on two transnational business initiatives. The article concludes that, although accounts of feminism’s cooptation are flawed in their misrepresentation of a diverse and dynamic movement, the transformations wrought by neoliberal-compatible feminisms present troubling challenges for feminists concerned with intersectionality and the links between gender and economic justice. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Development, Feminisms, Multi-National Corporations

Year: 2015

Gender, the Doha Development Agenda, and the Post-Cancun Trade Negotiations

Citation:

Williams, Mariama. 2004. “Gender, the Doha Development Agenda, and the Post-Cancun Trade Negotiations.” Gender & Development 12 (2): 73-81.

Author: Mariama Williams

Abstract:

The intensification of trade liberalisation has increasingly led women's organisations and other civil society groups to pay close attention to the impact of trade liberalisation on economic and social development. At the last Ministerial meeting of the WTO in Cancun, gender and trade advocates developed empirical and policy-oriented positions on the WTO trade agenda. Though critical of the previous Doha Development Agenda (DDA) of 2001, the groups are concerned that even its minimal pro-development stance might be reduced in the post-Cancun period leading up to the next meeting in Hong Kong. This would be detrimental to economic development and to the well-being of men and women in the South.(Abstract from original)

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Development, Economies, Gender, International Organizations, Multi-National Corporations

Year: 2004

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