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Militarization

From Soldiers to Citizens, or Soldiers to Seamstresses: Reintegrating Girl and Women Soldiers in Sierra Leone

Citation:

MacKenzie, Megan H. 2007. “From Soldiers to Citizens, or Soldiers to Seamstresses: Reintegrating Girl and Women Soldiers in Sierra Leone.” In . Chicago, IL. http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p179242_index.html.

 

Author: Megan H MacKenzie

Abstract:

Maintaining security in a post-conflict country is often seen to be dependant on peace-building and reconstruction. One can hardly escape terms such as building sustainable peace and post-conflict construction. The disarmament, demobilization, reintegration, and rehabilitation, or DDR-R process for former combatants is being touted as an ideal model for ensuring that post-conflict societies return to peace. These four simple steps to lasting security have been used as a model in war torn countries like Liberia, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Angola. The logic is that these steps aid in restoring countries to more secure, stable times. More specifically, this model streamlines former combatants from soldiers to citizens. Given that the task of this process is to encourage combatants to shed their roles as fighters and to return to their former pre-war roles, it seems intuitive that the way that women and girls go through this process is of particular interest. In fact, despite the ascendancy of this DDR-R model, there has been little critical analysis of the implications of this process for women in war-torn countries. Using Sierra Leone as a case study, I explore how women and girls have been included and treated at each phase of this process. I look specifically at the tendency of organizations and agencies operating DDR-R programs to promote a return of women and girls to their pre-war roles and the tension that women and girls feel between the power they gained as combatants and the social pressure to reintegrate. I also examine the implications, for women and girls, of international and national organizations commitment to equating security with the return to pre-war society rather than rethinking relations of power. I include testimonies from 50 former girl soldiers who talk about their roles during the conflict and their hopes for themselves today.

Keywords: women, conflict, development, security, post-conflict, reintegration

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, "New Wars", Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Girls, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Post-Conflict, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa Countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone

Year: 2007

Understanding Why and How Civilians Resort to Self-Protection in Armed Conflict

Citation:

Jose, Betcy, and Peace A. Medie. 2015. “Understanding Why and How Civilians Resort to Self-Protection in Armed Conflict.” International Studies Review. Volume 17, Issue 4, pages 515–535.

Authors: Betcy Jose, Peace A. Medie

Abstract:

The absence and limitations of civilian protection efforts have contributed to civilians in conflict zones adopting a variety of strategies to protect themselves from physical violence. These self-protection efforts have sometimes saved individuals and communities from violence and engendered a level of security. Nonetheless, the civilian protection literature and community have largely underestimated the importance of these self-protection strategies. This article traces the growth of the civilian protection regime and interrogates the absence of civilian selfprotection therein. It reviews the emerging self-protection literature and offers a typology of civilian self-protection strategies. Additionally, this article sheds light on how self-protection strategies might undermine civilian protection, particularly when they contribute to civilian targeting during armed conflict. It also proposes ways in which this typology can be extended to foster theory building and can inform traditional civilian protection efforts.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Security, Violence

Year: 2015

Making War Safe for Women? National Action Plans and the Militarisation of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda

Citation:

Shepherd, Laura. 2016. “Making War Safe for Women? National Action Plans and the Militarisation of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda.” International Political Science Review, 1–12. doi:10.1177/0192512116629820.

 

Author: Laura J Shepherd

Abstract:

Cora Weiss, co-drafter of what became UN Security Council Resolution 1325, noted in 2011 that the purpose of eliminating conflict-related sexualised violence must not be to ‘make war safe for women.’ UN Security Council Resolution 1325 and subsequent resolutions should not legitimise or normalise war, but rather the agenda should support the demilitarisation of society and facilitate the development of antimilitarist politics of peace. This article explores the translation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 into National Action Plans in a number of countries actively involved in contemporary conflict to investigate how these National Action Plans produce particular gendered logics of peace and security. This article finds, first, that ‘outward-facing’ National Action Plans, such as those produced by the USA, the UK and Australia, tend to focus on making ‘war safe for women’ rather than demilitarisation strategies; and, second, that this limited interpretation of Women Peace and Security principles is reinforced by the representation of war and insecurity ‘overseas’ rather than within the national context.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Sexual Violence, SV against Women, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence

Year: 2016

Women and State Military Forces

Citation:

Cohn, Carol, ed. 2012. "Women and State Military Forces." Chap. 6 in Women and Wars. Malden, MA: Polity Press.  

Author: Jennifer Mathers

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization, Violence

Year: 2012

Women and Political Activism in the Face of War and Militarization

Citation:

Cohn, Carol, ed. 2012. “Women and Political Activism in the Face of War and Militarization.” Chap. 5 in Women and Wars. Malden, MA: Polity Press.

Authors: Carol Cohn, Ruth Jacobson

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization

Year: 2012

Women and the Political Economy of War

Citation:

Cohn, Carol, ed. 2012. "Women and the Political Economy of War." Chap. 2 in Women and Wars. Malden, MA: Polity Press.  

Author: Angela Raven-Roberts

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Livelihoods, Militarized Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Political Economies

Year: 2012

Feminism as Counter-Terrorism: The Seduction of Power

Citation:

Nesiah, Vasuki. 2013. "Feminism as Counter-Terrorism: The Seduction of Power." In Gender, National Security and Counter-Terrorism: Human Rights Perspectives, edited by Margaret L. Satterthwaite and Jayne C. Huckerby. London: Routledge. 

Author: Vasuki Nesiah

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Governance, International Law, International Human Rights, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Rights, Human Rights, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Sexual Violence, Terrorism, Violence

Year: 2013

Gender, Agency and War: The Maternalized Body in US Foreign Policy

Citation:

Managhan, Tina. 2012. Gender, Agency and War: The Maternalized Body in US Foreign Policy. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Author: Tina Managhan

Abstract:

This book traces practices of militarization and resistance that have emerged under the sign of motherhood in US Foreign Policy.

Gender, Agency and War examines this discourse against the background of three key moments of American foreign policy formation: the anti-nuclear movement of the 1980s, the Gulf War of the early 1990s, and the recent invasion of Iraq. For each of these moments the author explores the emergence of a historically specific and emblematic maternalized mode of female embodiment (ranging from the ‘hysterical’ antinuclear protester to the figure of ‘Supermom’), in order to shed light onto the various practices which define and enable expressions of American sovereignty. In so doing, the text argues that the emergence of particular raced, gendered, and maternalized bodies ought not to be read as merely tangential to affairs of state, but as instantiations of global politics. This work urges an approach that rereads the body as an ‘event’ – with significant implications for the ways in which international politics and gender are currently understood.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2012

Violence, Gender, and Subjectivity

Citation:

Das, Veena. 2008. “Violence, Gender, and Subjectivity.” Annual Review of Anthropology 37: 283-99. doi: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.36.081406.094430.

Author: Veena Das

Abstract:

This review examines the interlocking of violence, gender, and subjectivity within the overarching framework of the sexualization of the social contract. Tracking the question of gendered belonging to the nation state, the article discusses the anthropological literature along with feminist and critical theory to shed light on the relation between reproduction and death as a way of giving life to the nation-state. Sexual and reproductive violence are closely linked to the social and cultural imaginaries of order and disorder; and violence, far from being an interruption of the ordinary, is folded into the ordinary.

Keywords: contract, consent, militarization, sexuality, domestic

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Nationalism, Sexual Violence, Violence

Year: 2008

Gender Relations as Causal in Militarization and War: A Feminist Standpoint

Citation:

Cockburn, Cynthia. 2010. “Gender Relations as Causal in Militarization and War: A Feminist Standpoint.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 12 (2): 139-57.

Author: Cynthia Cockburn

Abstract:

Based on empirical research among women’s antiwar organizations worldwide, the article derives a feminist oppositional standpoint on militarization and war. From this standpoint, patriarchal gender relations are seen to be intersectional with economic and ethno-national power relations in perpetuating a tendency to armed conflict in human societies. The feminism generated in antiwar activism tends to be holistic, and understands gender in patriarchy as a relation of power underpinned by coercion and violence. The cultural features of militarization and war readily perceived by women positioned in or close to armed conflict, and their sense of war as systemic and as a continuum, make its gendered nature visible. There are implications in this perspective for antiwar movements. If gender relations are one of the root causes of war, a feminist programme of gender transformation is a necessary component of the pursuit of peace.

Keywords: gender relations, feminism, militarization, patriarchy, war

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization

Year: 2010

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