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Migration

An Assessment of Land Tenure Regimes and Women’s Land Rights in Two Regions of Myanmar

Citation:

Louis, Elizabeth, Laura Eshbach, Beth Roberts, & Naw Dah Htee. 2018. “An Assessment of Land Tenure Regimes and Women’s Land Rights in Two Regions of Myanmar.” Paper prepared for the 2018 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, The World Bank, Washington D.C., March 19-23.

Authors: Elizabeth Louis, Laura Eshbach, Beth Roberts, Naw Dah Htee

Abstract:

While formal laws and some customary systems in Myanmar recognize the equality of women’s rights within households, evidence suggests a complex picture in which the bundle of rights enjoyed by the male members of a household may not be equally available to women, a picture complicated by the context of Myanmar, with its variations in regional ethnic geopolitics fueled by landlessness, migration, conflict, and displacement. This paper reports on findings of two qualitative gender assessment case studies conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Bago and Tanintharyi regions of Myanmar to contribute to evidence on women’s land rights in Myanmar and help bridge the gaps in knowledge on 1) how women in Myanmar experience their bundle of rights to land: 2) what legal, social, economic, and cultural constraints women face; and 3) what mechanisms can be put in place to take into consideration these constraints as women access their land rights.

Keywords: Customary tenure, gender-responsive framework, Myanmar, qualitative assessment, women's land rights

Topics: Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Land Tenure, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar

Year: 2018

Displacement, Climate Change and Gender

Citation:

Hunter, Lori M., and Emmanuel David. 2011. “Displacement, Climate Change and Gender.” In Migration and Climate Change, edited by Etienne Piquet, Antoine Pécoud, and Paul de Guchteneire, 306-30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Authors: Lori M. Hunter, Emmanuel David

Annotation:

Summary:
“Discussions within public, policy and academic realms regarding climate change and migration are often gender neutral (WEDO, 2008). As a result, important differences in the migration experiences of women and men are neglected. Yet migration is a social process – actually, migration is a social process embedded within a variety of other social processes. More specifically, gender-influenced cultural expectations, policies, and institutions intersect to shape migration’s causes and consequences. In this way, migration is inherently gendered and climate change will, therefore, yield different migratory experiences and impacts for women and men. This chapter explores these potential gender dimensions” (Hunter & David 2011, 306).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender

Year: 2011

Impact of Flood-Induced Migration on Livelihood and Gender Relations: A Study on Chulmari, Kurigram

Citation:

Chowdhury, Mahabub, and Marjina Masud. 2020. “Impact of Flood-Induced Migration on Livelihood and Gender Relations: A Study on Chulmari, Kurigram.” International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology 5 (5): 1–7.

Authors: Mahabub Chowdhury, Marjina Masud

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of flood induced migration on people’s livelihood and gender relations within households. Kurigram is the severely poverty affected and one of the most disaster prone districts of Bangladesh. Different studies show that people of this district face disasters like flood, river bank erosion, extreme cold and cyclones every year. Chilmari (a sub-district of Kurigram) is known as one of the most flood affected areas of the district. To escape the adverse impact of flood, people use to migrate both permanently and temporarily to nearby and far cities and towns in search of livelihood. Using qualitative research techniques including semi-structured interview, focus group discussion, informal group discussion, conversational exchange and case study method, this study revealed that people migrate permanently and temporarily to escape flood in search of alternative livelihood which has an impact on their livelihood such as a rise in income and alternative earning source during flood and gender relations such as changed role of men and women, women’s access to decision making and their mobility compare to the male counterparts as well. The findings of this study will help the policy makers, development experts and concerned stakeholders to understand the insights and act accordingly.

Keywords: flood, gender relations, livelihood, migration

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Migration, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2020

Climate Refugees

Citation:

Sen Roy, Shouraseni. 2018. “Climate Refugees.” In Linking Gender to Climate Change Impacts in the Global South, 93–115. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. 

Author: Shouraseni Sen Roy

Annotation:

Summary:
“The impacts of climate change driving forced displacement of population from their homes can be classified under three main categories, which include extreme weather events (such as hurricanes, floods), sea level rise, and food insecurity resulting from severe and prolonged droughts (Fig. 5.1). Some of these impacts, particularly food has led to conflicts, such as observed in the case of Syria and Darfur, Sudan. In the majority of the cases, the forced displacement of population is internal within the national borders. However, in many cases it has led to the displacement and out migration of people across international borders. This has resulted in an unprecedented crisis in the receiving countries, which are not prepared to accommodate this influx of population. However, this displacement of vulnerable population from their familiar surroundings puts them at very high risk in terms of security, health, and exploitation. Therefore, the focus of this chapter will be on impact of climate change induced migration and displacement of population, and their impacts on women and girls through specific case studies and analyses of limited available empirical data” (Sen Roy 2018, 96).

Topics: Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Girls, Women, Security, Food Security

Year: 2018

The Smokescreen Effect: Rethinking the Gender Dimension of Climate, Migration and Security

Citation:

Resurrección, Bernadette P., and Edsel E. Sajor. 2012. “The Smokescreen Effect: Rethinking the Gender Dimension of Climate, Migration and Security.” In Climate Change, Migration and Human Security in Southeast Asia, edited by Lorraine Elliott Edito, 60-73. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.

Authors: Bernadette P. Resurrección, Edsel E. Sajor

Annotation:

Summary:
“The starting point for this chapter, as with others in the volume, is that people may adapt to the negative effects of climate change by migrating. Their choice may be constrained, and at the same time influenced, by gender-related vulnerabilities embedded in norms and relations of power. Yet, one of the big silences in the discourse on the securitization of climate change-induced migration is the gender dimensions of such migration. At the same time, the rapidly growing literature on gender and climate change has largely ignored migration issues. It appears that scholars who work on issues related to gender and the environment do not also work on gender and migration issues. In general terms, gender-blind research neglects the fundamental ways in which climate change-induced migration and its impacts will differ for women and men. The focus of this chapter then is to shed light on the complex workings of gender in climate change-induced migration. It takes the view that there is much to learn from the literature on gender and disaster, where displacement and resettlement figure as responses to hazards and extreme events. First, the chapter argues that there should be more sustained focus on the gender-related vulnerabilities that may influence and constrain migration as an adaptation option. These vulnerabilities may lead to adverse ways and outcomes of migration, with attendant implications for the human security of women migrants. Second, it is emphasised that vulnerability is not intrinsic to, nor does it derive from, any one factor such as “being a woman” or “being a migrant”. Instead, some groups and persons are more vulnerable than others because of the specific configuration of practices, processes and power relations embedded in particular societies. Finally, the chapter signposts possible pathways for enhancing people’s human security by addressing gender-related vulnerabilities when migration is employed as an option for climate change adaptation” (Resurreccion & Edsel 2012, 60-1).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Security, Human Security

Year: 2012

When Is Migration a Maladaptive Response to Climate Change?

Citation:

Jacobson, Chris, Stacy Crevello, Chanthan Chea, and Ben Jarihani. 2019. “When Is Migration a Maladaptive Response to Climate Change?” Regional Environmental Change 19 (1): 101–12. 

Authors: Chris Jacobson, Stacy Crevello, Chanthan Chea, Ben Jarihani

Abstract:

Climate change affects rainfall variability and food security, in some cases leading to migration. Improved understanding about the interactions between climate and food security is needed before we can determine whether migration is a truly adaptive response in poorer countries. Without this understanding, it is difficult to design effective strategies that ensure climate resilient development. We present an analysis of climate, food security, migration, and its consequences from 218 households in three locations in North-western Cambodia, the most climate vulnerable nation in SE Asia. Results show that migration occurs in up to 45% of households, over half of which is climate-related. Migration causes labour shortages and welfare issues, but does not necessarily improve food security. This and climate trends lead us to argue that migration may be maladaptive over the long term, resulting in a climate-induced poverty trap. Instead, livelihood adaptations are needed that address (i) changing community demographics resulting from young male migrants, (ii) migration seasonality, associated labour shortages and gender role implications, and (iii) the burden of food insecurity. Only then can we avoid the maladaptive climate migration poverty trap.

Keywords: food security, adaptation, Cambodia, resilience, gender

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2019

Gender, Migration and (Global) Environmental Change

Citation:

Gioli, Giovanna, and Andrea Milan. 2018. “Gender, Migration and (Global) Environmental Change.” In Routledge Handbook of Environmental Displacement and Migration, edited by Robert McLeman and François Gemenne, 135-50. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Giovanna Gioli, Andrea Milan

Abstract:

Gender is an organizing principle in migration, yet relatively few theoretical and empirical studies on migration and environmental change integrate a gender perspective. This chapter provides an overview of existing literature analysing the migration and environmental change nexus from a gender lens, whilst highlighting progress in related areas of study such as gender and migration, gender and environmental hazards/climate change, and gender and development. Following an approach proposed by Hunter and David (2009), the authors present two pathways through which impacts of environmental change on human mobility can be analysed from a gender perspective: increases in severity and/or frequency of extreme weather events and shifts in proximate natural resources and agricultural potential. The chapter then delves into the ‘developmentalisation’ of the scholarly debate on migration and climate change adaptation; that is, the replication within this strand of literature of themes that characterize the broader ‘migration and development’ scholarship, and its gendered implications. In the last part, the authors present concrete steps for future research to integrate a gender perspective into theoretical and empirical work on migration and environmental change. The chapter concludes that the next generation of research must integrate a strong relational gender perspective, and harvest the benefit of more contamination across discipline and inter-disciplinary research.
 

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender

Year: 2018

Gender and Climate-Induced Migration in the Mediterranean: From Resilience to Peace and Human Security

Citation:

Braham, Monia. 2018. “Gender and Climate-Induced Migration in the Mediterranean: From Resilience to Peace and Human Security.” In MediTerra: Migration and Inclusive Rural Development in the Mediterranean, 181-207. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.

Author: Monia Braham

Abstract:

Summary:
“The research presented in the following sections explores the interaction between gender, migration and climate change, as well as the way forward for a proactive protection of climate migrants in the cases of countries of origin, transit and destination through the Mediterranean routes in addition to the protection of those considered as internally displaced persons within southern and eastern Mediterranean countries after extreme weather events leading usually to conflicts. This chapter will attempt to explore the causal link between migration and climate change through gender lenses. Three main questions drove the research: What are the links between gender, migration and climate change in the context of the Mediterranean region? What are the inclusive policies that we need to identify as responses for internally displaced persons among men, women, boys and girls at national level and the particular protection challenges for cross border movements of climate migrants through the different routes in the Mediterranean? Finally, how will international agendas on gender, climate change, migration and sustainable development proactively protect climate migrants and seek durable solutions to displacement and climate-induced migration in the Mediterranean region?” (Braham 2018, 184).

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, IDPs, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender Regions: Europe, Southern Europe

Year: 2018

Encountering Gendered Spaces in Climate Change Policy in India: Migration and Adaptation

Citation:

Hans, Asha, Sugata Hazra, Shouvik Das, and Amrita Patel. 2019. “Encountering Gendered Spaces in Climate Change Policy in India: Migration and Adaptation.” Journal of Migration Affairs 2 (1): 1–24.

Authors: Asha Hans, Sugata Hazra, Shouvik Das, Amrita Patel

Annotation:

Summary:
“This article adopts a feminist methodology (Kannabiran and Swaminathan, 2017) to draw attention to the gender inequalities inherent in how climate change affects people (Agarwal 2010, 2000; Elmhirst, 2011). This is put in perspective by the knowledge that while women exercise individual agency in responding to climate change, their reactions are located within political and socio-economic contexts. The feminist approach in this chapter is drawn from the writings of both academics and activists (Shiva1988; Patel 2019; Nathan et al. 2018; Rao and Hans 2018; Chanda et al. 2017). The writings initially linked the environment to nature (Bose 2010; Shiva 1988) before shifting course to analyse the ground-level realities of climate change, including gender norms and changing gender roles (Chanda et al. 2017; Rao and Hans 2018; Kelkar, 2009). Examining the role of policy in promoting gender equality remained sidelined since existing policy was weak: incorporating UNFCCC gender directives in the policy was not a priority. International commitments by India’s policymakers had little impact on women who continued to be vulnerable and excluded from decision-making (DECCMA 2017). Our use of a policy framework must accompany an acknowledgment that climate change is a political phenomenon and hence, strongly linked to women’s location within the power structure which determines their access to resources and agency to effect positive change in their social and material conditions. A question yet to be asked in the context of climate change is: where are women situated in the body politic? It is not an easy question to answer because the climate policy has relied on a scientific approach, with the focus being on mitigation, instead of a socio-political one. This has kept the majority of women out of discussions on climate change (Subramaniam 2016; Held 2011). This article agrees with Joni Seager’s view that climate change must now be approached with an eye to “privilege, power and geography” (Seager 2009). From a feminist perspective, privilege and power are important components of patriarchy” (Hans et al. 2019, 4).
 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Patriarchy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

Gender, Natural Capital, and Migration in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes

Citation:

Gray, Clark L. 2010. “Gender, Natural Capital, and Migration in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes.” Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 42 (3): 678–96.

Author: Clark L. Gray

Abstract:

This paper investigates the roles of gender and natural capital (defined as land and associated environmental services) in out-migration from a rural study area in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. Drawing on original household survey data, I construct and compare multivariate event history models of individual-level, household-level, and community-level influences on the migration of men and women. The results undermine common assumptions that landlessness and environmental degradation universally contribute to out-migration. Instead, men access land resources to facilitate international migration and women are less likely to depart from environmentally marginal communities relative to other areas. These results reflect a significantly gendered migration system in which natural capital plays an important but unexpected role.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Land Tenure Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2010

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