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Migration

Gendered Dimensions of Population Mobility Associated with HIV Across Three Epidemics in Rural Eastern Africa

Citation:

Camlin, Carol S., Adam Akullian, Torsten B. Neilands, Monica Getahun, Anna Bershteyn, Sarah Ssali, Elvin Geng, Monica Gandhi, Craig R. Cohen, Irene Maeri, Patrick Eyul, Maya L. Petersen, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, and Edwin Charlebois. and Charlebois. 2019. "Gendered Dimensions of Population Mobility Associated with HIV Across Three Epidemics in Rural Eastern Africa." Health & Place 57: 339-51.

Authors: Carol S. Camlin, Adam Akullian, Torsten B. Neilands, Monica Getahun, Anna Bershteyn, Sarah Ssali, Elvin Geng, Monica Gandhi, Craig R. Cohen, Irene Maeri, Patrick Eyul, Maya L. Petersen, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Edwin D. Charlebois

Abstract:

Mobility in sub-Saharan Africa links geographically-separate HIV epidemics, intensifies transmission by enabling higher-risk sexual behavior, and disrupts care. This population-based observational cohort study measured complex dimensions of mobility in rural Uganda and Kenya. Survey data were collected every 6 months beginning in 2016 from a random sample of 2308 adults in 12 communities across three regions, stratified by intervention arm, baseline residential stability and HIV status. Analyses were survey-weighted and stratified by sex, region, and HIV status. In this study, there were large differences in the forms and magnitude of mobility across regions, between men and women, and by HIV status. We found that adult migration varied widely by region, higher proportions of men than women migrated within the past one and five years, and men predominated across all but the most localized scales of migration: a higher proportion of women than men migrated within county of origin. Labor-related mobility was more common among men than women, while women were more likely to travel for non-labor reasons. Labor-related mobility was associated with HIV positive status for both men and women, adjusting for age and region, but the association was especially pronounced in women. The forms, drivers, and correlates of mobility in eastern Africa are complex and highly gendered. An in-depth understanding of mobility may help improve implementation and address gaps in the HIV prevention and care continua.

Keywords: HIV, mobility, migration, gender, Kenya, Uganda, population-based

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Health, HIV/AIDS, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya, Uganda

Year: 2019

Social and Policy Aspects of Gender and Migration in Sudan

Citation:

Assal, Munzoul. 2012. "Social and Policy Aspects of Gender and Migration in Sudan." The Ahfad Journal 29 (2): 25-37.

Author: Munzoul Assal

Abstract:

Sudan is both a sending and a receiving country for economic as well as forced migrants (refugees). Out-migration from Sudan is caused by conflict and political instability, but also by the desire of Sudanese migrants to have better economic and educational opportunities abroad and, in some cases, for family reunification purposes. Migrants coming to Sudan are either refugees or recent voluntary migrants following oil exploration and the signing of the peace agreements in 2005. The same causes that result in the migration of Sudanese also lead to foreigners coming to Sudan. Statistics show that Asians represent the majority of economic migrants in Sudan, while Ethiopians and Eritreans represent the overwhelming majority of refugees in the country. The paper employs the analytic review and a meta analytic methods to address foreign migrants' influx to the Sudan, the gender aspect and the relevant policies. Findings revealed that migration issues are dealt with through legal frameworks that regulate the presence and work of foreigners, and travel matters of nationals. But the laws are not gender sensitive and do not address the concerns of migrants generally and migrant women in particular. There is a need for legal reform and there is also a need for the introduction of policies or programs that are gender sensitive when dealing with migration issues. Sudan needs to enter into bilateral agreements with receiving countries, to ensure the protection of migrant Sudanese women and also foreign migrant women in Sudan.

Keywords: policy aspects of migration, migrant, influx, gender and migration, internally displaced persons (IDPs), refugees, gender sensitive laws

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Economies, Gender Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2012

A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis

Citation:

Jane Freedman, Zeynep Kivilcim, and Nurcan Özgür Baklacıoğlu, eds. 2017. A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Jane Freedman, ed. , Zeynep Kivilcim, ed. , Nurcan Özgür Baklacıoğlu, ed.

Annotation:

Summary:
The refugee crisis that began in 2015 has seen thousands of refugees attempting to reach Europe, principally from Syria. The dangers and difficulties of this journey have been highlighted in the media, as have the political disagreements within Europe over the way to deal with the problem. However, despite the increasing number of women making this journey, there has been little or no analysis of women’s experiences or of the particular difficulties and dangers they may face.
 
A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis examines women’s experience at all stages of forced migration, from the conflict in Syria, to refugee camps in Lebanon or Turkey, on the journey to the European Union and on arrival in an EU member state. The book deals with women’s experiences, the changing nature of gender relations during forced migration, gendered representations of refugees, and the ways in which EU policies may impact differently on men and women. The book provides a nuanced and complex assessment of the refugee crisis, and shows the importance of analysing differences within the refugee population.
 
Students and scholars of development studies, gender studies, security studies, politics and middle eastern studies will find this book an important guide to the evolving crisis.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, International Organizations Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Lebanon, Syria, Turkey

Year: 2017

Lost in Translation: Managing Medicalised Motherhood in Post-world War Two Australian Migrant Accommodation Centres

Citation:

Agutter, Karen, and Catherine Kevin. 2018. "Lost in Translation: Managing Medicalised Motherhood in Post-world War Two Australian Migrant Accommodation Centres." Women's History Review 27 (7): 1065-84.

Authors: Karen Agutter, Catherine Kevin

Abstract:

Women who began their lives as ‘New Australians’ in migrant centres, arriving from refugee camps and war-ravaged homelands, brought with them a range of interpretations of good health and its management. In post-WWII Australia, the medicalisation of maternity and infant welfare intensified in the context of a renewed anxiety about population and recent medical developments. This article investigates the systems and quality of care given to pregnant women, infants and new mothers in government funded accommodation centres. This care was delivered in the highly politicised context of a mass migration scheme sold to the host population as coming at minimum social and economic cost. We assess the impact of this political context on the care that was provided and reveal health care settings to be crucial sites for the examination of the complex biopolitics of gendered citizenship within the mass migration scheme.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Refugees, Gender, Health, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2018

Gender, Resistance and Transnational Memories of Violent Conflicts

Citation:

Stoltz, Pauline. 2020. Gender, Resistance and Transnational Memories of Violent Conflicts. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Pauline Stoltz

Keywords: memory, transitional justice, resistance, gender, transnationalism, conflict

Annotation:

Summary: 
This book investigates the importance of gender and resistance to silences and denials concerning human rights abuses and historical injustices in narratives on transnational memories of three violent conflicts in Indonesia. Transnational memories of violent conflicts travel abroad with politicians, postcolonial migrants and refugees. Starting with the Japanese occupation of Indonesia (1942–1945), the war of independence (1945–1949) and the genocide of 1965, the volume analyses narratives in Dutch and Indonesian novels in relation to social and political narratives (1942–2015). By focusing on gender and resistance from both Indonesian and Dutch, transnational and global perspectives, the author provides new perspectives on memories of the conflicts that are relevant to research on transitional justice and memory politics. (Summary from Palgrave Macmillan)

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Occupation, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Refugees, Gender, Genocide, Justice, Transitional Justice, Rights, Human Rights, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2020

Rural Women’s Livelihoods in Post-Conflict Sri Lanka: Connection between Participation in Agriculture and Care Work across the Life Course

Citation:

Gunawardana, Samanthi Jayasekara. 2018. “Rural Women’s Livelihoods in Post-Conflict Sri Lanka: Connections between Participation in Agriculture and Care Work across the Life-Course.” Monash Gender Peace and Security Centre Research Papers 1/2018, Monash University, Melbourne.

Author: Samanthi Jayasekara Gunawardana

Annotation:

Summary:
This working paper explores the relationship between participation in rural agricultural livelihoods and unpaid care work across the life course of rural Sri Lankan women. This research was conducted as part of an Oxfam-Monash Partnership2 that set out to explore the barriers and enablers for rural women’s participation and recognition in agricultural livelihoods in post-war Sri Lanka. Our study shows that rural Sri Lankan women’s participation in agriculture dropped to the lowest levels when they had young children. Paradoxically, their engagement in any other non-agricultural livelihood activity peaked at this time in their lives. Activities included home-based non-agricultural production, garment productin, self-employment, and migration on temporary labour contracts. Thus, women did not exit livelihood activities altogether when they had children. Rather they took up non-agricultural work. Once women were in their 40s, participation in agriculture again increased for our sample.

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Care Economies, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2018

Tierra, Derechos y Género. Leyes, Políticas y Prácticas en Contextos de Guerra y Paz

Citation:

United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). 2006. Tierra, Derechos y Género. Leyes, Políticas y Prácticas en Contextos de Guerra y Paz. Bogotá: United Nations. 

Author: Donny Meertens

Annotation:

"Este documento ofrece una primera mirada sobre la problemática de los derechos de las mujeres a la propiedad de la tierra en Colombia, con miras a describir su devenir histórico, visibilizar las dificultades persistentes e identificar los retos tanto para la política pública como para los movimientos de mujeres que buscan ampliar y consolidar su ciudadanía. La preocupación por esta temática se enmarca dentro de los dos objetivos del Programa de Paz y Seguridad de UNIFEM en Colombia: visibilizar el impacto diferenciado del conflicto sobre las mujeres y fortalecer los enfoques de prevención y protección para mujeres afectadas por el conflicto" (Meertens 2006, 4).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict Prevention, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Conflict, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2006

Migrant Workers or Working Women? Comparing Labour Supply Policies in Post-War Europe

Citation:

Afonso, Alexandre. 2018. “Migrant Workers or Working Women? Comparing Labour Supply Policies in Post-War Europe.” Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice 21 (3): 251-69.

Author: Alexandre Afonso

Abstract:

Why did some European countries choose migrant labour to expand their labour force in the decades that followed World War II, while others opted for measures to expand female employment via welfare expansion? The paper argues that gender norms and the political strength of the left were important structuring factors in these choices. Female employment required a substantial expansion of state intervention (e.g. childcare; paid maternity leave). Meanwhile, migrant recruitment required minimal public investments, at least in the short term, and preserved traditional gender roles. Using the contrasting cases of Sweden and Switzerland, the article argues that the combination of a weak left (labour unions and social democratic parties) and conservative gender norms fostered the massive expansion of foreign labour and a late development of female labour force participation in Switzerland. In contrast, more progressive gender norms and a strong labour movement put an early end to guest worker programmes in Sweden, and paved the way for policies to promote female labour force participation.

Keywords: labour migration, female employment, Switzerland, Comparative public policy, sweden

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Western Europe Countries: Sweden, Switzerland

Year: 2019

Restoration of Water Supply in Post-Conflict Communities in Nigeria and Sustainable Reintegration

Citation:

Adekola, Paul O., Dominic Azuh, Emmanuel O. Amoo, and Gracie Brownell. 2019. “Restoration of Water Supply in Post-Conflict Communities in Nigeria and Sustainable Reintegration.” International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology 10 (2): 191–201.

Authors: Paul O. Adekola, Dominic Azuh, Emmanuel O. Amoo, Gracie Brownell

Abstract:

In post-conflict community rebuilding, the significance of reintegration exercise for returning displaced persons and the manner of programs put in place will determine whether they will be sustainable reintegrated or otherwise. However, there is little empirical documentation regarding critical questions such as: Can restoration of vandalized sources of water supply in their communities of origin guarantee sustainable reintegration as they return home? How can regular water supply aid their occupation to blossom so that earning a living is not difficult? What significant relationships exist between the background characteristics of returning migrants and water supply as an integral part of social reintegration strategy? Using a case study of the returning displaced persons in North-East Nigeria, this paper addresses these questions.

Keywords: post-conflict, sustainable reintegration, communities, displaced persons, Nigeria

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2019

Gender Patterns of Human Mobility in Colombia: Reexamining Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration

Citation:

Macedo, Mariana, Laura Lotero, Alessio Cardillo, Hugo Barbosa, and Ronaldo Menezes. 2020. “Gender Patterns of Human Mobility in Colombia: Reexamining Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration.” In Complex Networks XI, edited by Hugo Barbosa et al, 269–81. Cham: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Authors: Mariana Macedo, Laura Lotero, Alessio Cardillo, Hugo Barbosa, Ronaldo Menezes

Abstract:

Public stakeholders implement several policies and regulations to tackle gender gaps, fostering the change in the cultural constructs associated with gender. One way to quantify if such changes elicit gender equality is by studying mobility. In this work, we study the daily mobility patterns of women and men occurring in Medellín (Colombia) in two years: 2005 and 2017. Specifically, we focus on the spatiotemporal differences in the travels and find that purpose of travel and occupation characterise each gender differently. We show that women tend to make shorter trips, corroborating Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration. Our results indicate that urban mobility in Colombia seems to behave in agreement with the “archetypal” case studied by Ravenstein.

Keywords: gender gap, Ravenstein's laws of migration, urban mobility, networks

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

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