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Migration

Gender, Marriage, and the Dynamic of (Im)Mobility in the Mid-Western Hills of Nepal

Citation:

Zharkevich, Ina. 2019. “Gender, Marriage, and the Dynamic of (Im)Mobility in the Mid-Western Hills of Nepal.” Mobilities 14 (5): 681–95.

Author: Ina Zharkevich

Abstract:

This paper explores the relationship between gender, marriage, and (im)mobility in rural hilly areas of mid-Western Nepal, showing how (1) the mobility of men is predicated on the ‘immobility’ of women, with marriage being key to the gendered dynamic of (im)mobility, (2) how the construction of hegemonic masculinity, exemplified by a figure of a successful international migrant, is inseparable from an ideal of femininity vested in the figure of a virtuous domesticated housewife. Examining different scales of mobility, the paper cautions against posing a rigid dichotomy between ‘mobile men’ and ‘immobile’ women, illustrating that the ‘left behind’ wives experience an impressive degree of everyday mobility in contrast to their internationally mobile husbands.

Keywords: Nepal, gender, migration, marriage, mobility, immobility, masculinity, femininity

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gender Roles, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Gender, Migration, Mobility and Transnationalism

Citation:

Yeoh, Brenda S. A., and Kamalini Ramdas. 2014. “Gender, Migration, Mobility and Transnationalism.” Gender, Place & Culture 21 (10): 1197–213. 

Authors: Brenda S. A. Yeoh, Kamalini Ramda

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
In reviewing the expanding body of work on the linkages between gender, mobility, migration and transnationalism in Gender, Place and Culture over the last decade, this article highlights three significant contributions. First, through critical engagement with transnationalism studies, the journal has produced a sophisticated and variegated strand of work on gender politics and multiple forms of migration and mobility. In this article, we focus primarily on mobility in terms of human movement across national borders, rural–urban migration, as well as the ‘to-ing and fro-ing’ that inform the embodied experiences of being here and there simultaneously as iterated in transnationalism studies [L. Basch, N.G. Schiller, and C.S. Blanc, Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments, and Deterritorialized Nation-States. London: Routledge, 1994]. A second area of strength lies in the coalescence of work providing insights into the connections between social reproduction in a globalising world and intimate forms of global mobility and migration. A third highlight relates to the mutually constitutive relationship between the construction of masculinities and masculinist ideologies, on the one hand, and migration, mobility and transnationalism, on the other. The article concludes with a discussion of two more embryonic areas which merit further development in the journal: the first concerns the social and geographical (im)mobilities implied in cross-border reproductive care1 and the global mobility and assemblage of body parts, while the second relates to the distinctive role that feminist geographers interested in migrations and mobilities can play in working collaboratively and transnationally across different worlds.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Reviendo la cada vez mayor literatura sobre las relaciónes entre género, movilidad, migración y transnacionalismo en Gender, Place and Culture a lo largo de la última década, este artículo resalta tres contribuciones significativas. En primer lugar, a través de la participación crítica con los estudios sobre transnacionalismo, esta revista ha producido una sofisticada y variada serie de trabajos sobre la política del género y las múltiples formas de la migración y la movilidad. En este artículo nos centramos principalmente sobre la movilidad en términos de movimiento humano a través de las fronteras nacionales, la migración rural-urbana, así como el “ir y venir” que influye sobre las experiencias encarnadas del estar aquí y allá simultáneamente como se itera en los estudios de transnacionalismos (Basch et al. 1994). Una segunda área de fortaleza se encuentra en la coalescencia del trabajo que brinda miradas sobre las conexiones entre la reproducción social en el mundo globalizante y las formas íntimas de la movilidad global y la migración. Un tercer aspecto destacable se relaciona con la relación mutuamente constitutiva entre la construcción de masculinidades y las ideologías masculinistas, por un lado, y la migración, la movilidad y el transnacionalismo por el otro. El artículo concluye con una discusión de dos áreas embrionarias más que merecen más desarrollo en la revista: la primera concierne a las (in)movilidades sociales y geográficas implicadas en los cuidados reproductivos trans fronteras (CRTF)1 y la movilidad global y el ensamblado de las partes del cuerpo, mientras que la segunda se relaciona con el rol distintivo que lxs geógrafxs feministas interesadxs en las migraciones y movilidades pueden jugar para trabajar en forma colaborativa y transnacional a través de mundos diferentes.

Keywords: social reproduction, masculinities, gender, migration, (im)mobility, translnationalism, reproducción social, masculinidades, gênero, migración, movilidad, transnacionalismo

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Globalization

Year: 2014

'Knowing One’s Place': Gender, Mobility and Shifting Subjectivity in Eastern Indonesia.

Citation:

Williams, Catharina Purwani. 2005. “‘Knowing One’s Place’: Gender, Mobility and Shifting Subjectivity in Eastern Indonesia.” Global Networks 5 (4): 401–17.

Author: Catharina Purwani Williams

Abstract:

In this article I analyse the gendered space of transnational mobility by problematizing migrant subjectivity in everyday practices. In line with feminist perspectives I highlight the significance of the micro-scale experience of female migrants from Eastern Indonesia in acquiring mobility as a struggle for new subjectivity. I frame this migration as a production of the subjective space of power. Based on in-depth interviews with returned migrants, I present reflexive accounts of two migrants on contract domestic work abroad to illuminate the changing contours of the relationships between gender, mobility and shifting subjectivity. Households take into account the cultural meanings of space in everyday life including local relations in the decisions on mobility. Strategies of ‘knowing one's place’ reflect women's agency in negotiating alternative roles and positions within the intra-household dynamics and in the workplace. Women's personal accounts have the potential to illuminate spatial processes of migration as a contested space for the repositioning of self in networks of family, kin, local and global relations.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2005

Exploring Mobility and Migration in the Context of Rural—Urban Linkages: Why Gender and Generation Matter

Citation:

Tacoli, Cecilia, and Richard Mabala. 2010. “Exploring Mobility and Migration in the Context of Rural—Urban Linkages: Why Gender and Generation Matter.” Environment and Urbanization 22 (2): 389–95.

Authors: Cecilia Tacoli, Richard Mabala

Abstract:

This paper draws on case studies in Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania and Vietnam to explore the different ways in which migration intersects with the changing relations between rural and urban areas and activities, and in the process transforms livelihoods and the relations between young and older men and women. Livelihood strategies are becoming increasingly diverse, and during interviews people were asked to describe their first, second and third occupations, the time allocated to each and the income that each produced. In all study regions, the number of young people migrating is increasing. This is influenced not only by expanding employment opportunities in destination areas but also by power inequalities within households, which means limited opportunities at home. It is increasingly common for young women to migrate, in part because they have no land rights and few prospects at home, in part because of more employment opportunities elsewhere. Young women also tend to move further than young men and for longer, and also remit a higher proportion of their income. Older men expect young men to migrate but often criticize young women for doing so, although women’s migration is more accepted as their remittances contribute more to household income. However, if young women had better prospects at home, it would limit their need to move to what is often exploitative and insecure work.

Keywords: gender, generation, livelihoods, migration, rural-urban linkages

Topics: Age, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Vietnam

Year: 2010

Gender and the Dynamics of Mobility: Reflections on African Migrant Mothers and ‘Transit Migration’ in Morocco

Citation:

Stock, Inka. 2012. “Gender and the Dynamics of Mobility: Reflections on African Migrant Mothers and ‘Transit Migration’ in Morocco.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 35 (9): 1577–95.

Author: Inka Stock

Abstract:

By describing the everyday lives of African migrant mothers and their children in Morocco, this paper highlights how migration and ‘immobility’ in so-called ‘transit countries’ are gendering and gendered experiences. Relying on migrants' narratives, the paper demonstrates how migrants' transitions to motherhood create both specific and gendered spaces for agency and particular and gendered constraints upon agency that shape women migrants' mobility dynamics in space and time.

Keywords: migration, gender, Morocco, transit, African migrants, migrant mothers

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa Countries: Morocco

Year: 2012

Diasporic Subjects: Gender and Mobility in South Sulawesi

Citation:

Silvey, Rachel M. 2000. “Diasporic Subjects: Gender and Mobility in South Sulawesi.” Women’s Studies International Forum 23 (4): 501–15.

Author: Rachel M. Silvey

Abstract:

The economic downturn in Indonesia (1997‐99) has changed the context of gendered spatial mobility in South Sulawesi. For low-income migrants in the region, the monetary crisis has not only reorganized the labor market, but it has also brought about an intensification of the stigma placed on young women's independent residence in an export processing zone. Household surveys and in-depth interviews with migrants and members of their origin and destination site neighborhoods, both before and during the economic retrenchment, illustrate that ideas about women's sexual morality are a key part of the context within which migration decisions are gendered. The article situates survey and interview findings within an overview of Indonesia's recent development history, economic crisis, and official state gender ideology. The article argues that migrants and their communities have identified the ‘prostitute’ as a female-gendered metaphor for the crisis, and finds that post-1997 narratives of women's mobility increasingly revolve around normative judgements regarding young women's independent mobility and sexual behavior.

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2000

Stigmatized Spaces: Gender and Mobility under Crisis in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Citation:

Silvey, Rachel M. 2000a. “Stigmatized Spaces: Gender and Mobility under Crisis in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.” Gender, Place & Culture 7 (2): 143–61. 

Author: Rachel M. Silvey

Abstract:

This article considers the gender dynamics of a migrant population living in an industrial processing zone on the outskirts of Ujung Pandang, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Based on historical, demographic, and ethnographic analyses of migration linked to this site, the research focuses on the ways that the relationships between morality, migration, and gender are changing for migrants to this zone. As more young women have migrated to join this peri-urban industrial workforce, their presence has spurred a renegotiation of gendered morality, particularly in terms of gendered meanings of inhabiting “public” space and participating in the industrial labor force. These migrants form their gender identities not only through place-bound contact with people in origin and destination sites, but also through contact with the sociocultural norms of migrants from other parts of the archipelago and world, transnational industrial and media expansion, and continued reference to their families' “Bugis values.” Recent research has analyzed the growth of the new female industrial workforce in relation to postmodern production relations and new patterns of consumption. In this article, I build on these studies to explore the ways migrants' cultural struggles around gender are shaped not only by new production relations and consumer aspirations, but also by the interethnic interactions of low-income migrants themselves living in the zone. The tensions that characterize these negotiations mark a historical shift in the gendered meaning of “the local” in the Bugis diaspora.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2000

Women Migrants from East to West: Gender, Mobility and Belonging in Contemporary Europe

Citation:

Passerini, Luisa, Dawn Lyon, Enrica Capussotti, and Ioanna Laliotou, eds. 2007. Women Migrants from East to West: Gender, Mobility and Belonging in Contemporary Europe. New York: Berghahn Books.

Authors: Luisa Passerini, Dawn Luon, Enrica Capussotti, Ioanna Laliotou

Annotation:

Summary:
Based on the oral histories of eighty migrant women and thirty additional interviews with ‘native’ women in the ‘receiving’ countries, this volume documents the contemporary phenomenon of the feminisation of migration through an exploration of the lives of women, who have moved from Bulgaria and Hungary to Italy and the Netherlands. It assumes migrants to be active subjects, creating possibilities and taking decisions in their own lives, as well as being subject to legal and political regulation, and the book analyses the new forms of subjectivity that come about through mobility.  Part I is a largely conceptual exploration of subjectivity, mobility and gender in Europe. The chapters in Part II focus on love, work, home, communication, and food, themes which emerged from the migrant women’s accounts. In Part III, based on the interviews with ‘native’ women – employers, friends, or in associations relevant to migrant women – the chapters analyse their representations of migrants, and the book goes on to explore forms of intersubjectivity between European women of different cultural origins. A major contribution of this book is to consider how the movement of people across Europe is changing the cultural and social landscape with implications for how we think about what Europe means. (Summary from Google Books)
 
Table of Contents:
On Becoming Europeans – Rosi Braidotti
‘I Want to See the World’: Mobility and Subjectivity in the European Context – Ioanna Laliotou
Transformations of Legal Subjectivity in Europe: From the Subjection of Women to Privileged Subjects – Hanne Petersen
‘A Dance through Life’: Narratives of Migrant Women – Nadejda Alexandrova and Anna Hortobagyi
Imaginary Geographies: Border-Places and ‘Home’ in the Narratives of Migrant Women – Nadejda Alexandrova and Dawn Lyon
‘My Hobby Is People’: Migration and Communication in the Light of Late Totalitarianism – Miglena Nikolchina
Migrant Women in Work – Enrica Capussotti, Ioanna Laliotou, and Dawn Lyon
The Topos of Love in the Life-Stories of Migrant Women – Nadejda Alexandrova
Food-Talk: Markers of Identity and Imaginary Belongings – Andrea Petö
Relationships in the Making: Accounts of Native Women – Enrica Capussotti and Esther Vonk
Migration, Integration and Emancipation: Women’s Positioning in the Debate in the Netherlands – Esther Vonk
Modernity versus Backwardness: Italian Women’s Perceptions of Self and Other – Enrica Capussotti
Moral and Cultural Boundaries in Representations of Migrants: Italy and the Netherlands in Comparative Perspective – Dawn Lyon
Changing Matrimonial Law in the Image of Immigration Law – Inger Marie Conradsen and Annette Kronborg
In Transit: Space, People, Identities – Andrea Petö
Gender, Subjectivity, Europe: A Constellation for the Future – Luisa Passerini

Topics: Migration, Gender, Women Regions: Europe, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe Countries: Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands

Year: 2007

Migration and Mobility in an Enlarged Europe: A Gender Perspective

Citation:

Metz-Göckel, Sigrid, Mirjana Morokvasic-Müller, and A. Senganata Münst, eds. 2008. Migration and Mobility in an Enlarged Europe: A Gender Perspective. Leverkusen, Germany: Verlag Barbara Budrich.

Authors: Sigrid Metz-Göckel, Mirjana Morokvasic-Müller, A. Senganata Münst

Annotation:

Summary:
The book investigates transnational migration and mobility of women from and within Central-Eastern European countries. It looks at women’s practices and experiences mostly in the service sector where they are in demand as substitutes in stereotypically “women’s work.” The book combines different perspectives: sociological and anthropological studies, comparative policy analysis and historical and statistical evidence and provides new insights into current theoretical debates in migration and gender studies. (Summary from Google Books)
 
Table of Contents:
Gendered Mobilities in an Enlarged Europe – Mirjana Morokvasic, A. Senganata Münst, and Sigrid Metz-Gökel
Female Migration from Central-Eastern Europe: Demographic and Sociological Aspects – Krystyna Slany
Migration Policy between Restrictive Purposes and Structural Demand: The Case of the Domestic Sector in Germany and in Italy – Claudia Finotelli
Whose Status Matters? An Analysis of Italian Couples’ Demand for Domestic Workers and Nannies – Ludovica Banfi
Turning Labour into Love: The Employment of Migrant Domestic Workers in Turkey – Ayse Akalin
Commuting between Private Lives – Dobrochna Kałwa
The Boundaries of Monetarizing Domestic Work: Au Pairs and the Moral Economy of Caring – Sabine Hess
Women’s ‘Just-in-Time’ Migration – David Karjanen
Managing a Mobile Life: Changing Attitudes among Illegally Employed Polish Household Workers in Berlin – Norbert Cyrus
Social Capital in Migration Processes of Polish Undocumented Care- and Household Workers – A. Senganata Münst
Circumventing Restrictions on Free Movement of Labour: Evidence from a Dutch-German Border Region – Roos Pijpers
Women at the Cross-Road: Poland and its Emigration and Immigration – Dorota Praszałowicz
Immigrants in Poland: Legal and Socio-Demographic Situation – Krystyna Slany and Magdalena Ślusarczyk

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Gender Roles, Women Regions: Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Germany, Italy, Poland

Year: 2008

Gender, Mobility Regimes, and Social Transformation in Asia

Citation:

Martin, Fran, and Ana Dragojlovic. 2019. “Gender, Mobility Regimes, and Social Transformation in Asia.” Journal of Intercultural Studies 40 (3): 275–86.

Authors: Fran Martin, Ana Dragojlovic

Keywords: mobility, migration, gender, Asia

Annotation:

Summary:
“This special issue, which grows out of an international symposium that the editors hosted at the University of Melbourne in November 2016, explores the interrelations among gender, human mobilities, and power across selected sites in East and Southeast Asia, where today an intensification and acceleration in spatial movements of all kinds is reconfiguring the ways in which gender relations are lived and imagined. Gender, sexuality, intimacy, and family are taking on new expressions, shaped by political and economic demands for participation in geographic mobilities, flexible labour, intimate markets, and social reproduction. The articles gathered here explore how contemporary regimes of governance in Singapore, Indonesia, China, Taiwan and beyond impact on the spatial and social movements of people, and interrogate the economic, political, affective, and especially gendered dimensions of these emergent forms of mobility. Bringing together scholars from across gender studies, anthropology, and cultural studies, this issue explores how interdisciplinary methods and theories can productively engage the operations of mobility regimes in the making and un-making of gender relations in the Asian region” (Martin and Dragojlovic 2019).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: China, Indonesia, Singapore, Taiwan

Year: 2019

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