Mental Health

The Effect of Gender on the Stress Process of Israeli Soldiers During the Gulf War

Citation:

Bar-tal, Yoram, Orit Lurie, and Dov Glick. 1994. "The Effect of Gender on the Stress Process of Israeli Soldiers During the Gulf War." Anxiety, Stress & Coping 7 (3): 263-76.

Authors: Yoram Bar-tal, Orit Lurie, Dov Glick

Abstract:

The study of differences in responses to stress of males and females requires controlling for objective threat or harm. This is very hard to accomplish in field studies because of the different roles of adult males and females. The present study examined this problem in 350 unmarried enlisted male and female soldiers during the Gulf War. The stress, perception of coping effectiveness and psychological distress of subjects were assessed by questionnaires. Results of the interpersonal analysis reveal that females assessed the situation as more stressful, perceived their coping as more effective, and suffered from greater psychological distress than males. The intrapersonal analysis revealed that: (a) stress had stronger negative impact on females than on males, and (b) in two of the five coping strategies, perception of coping effectiveness had less positive effect for females than for males.

Keywords: female soldiers, male soldiers, mental health, stress

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Health, Mental Health, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 1994

Differential Effects of Trauma on Spouses of Traumatized Households

Citation:

Baker, Ahmad M.,  and Nadera S. Kevorkian. 1995. "Differential Effects of Trauma on Spouses of Traumatized Households." Journal of Traumatic Stress 8 (1): 61-74.

Authors: Ahmad M. Baker, Nadera S. Kevorkian

Abstract:

The responses of 60 households subjected to varying degrees of traumatic events were examined. Specific attention was given to the differential effect that traumatic events have on spouses, especially in terms of general anxiety, state anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and other symptoms related to trauma. The findings showed that degree of traumatization was proportional to number and intensity of stress related symptoms. Mothers, however, manifested depression and anxiety levels twice as high as fathers. The validity of these results was discussed in terms of cultural beliefs and practices.

Keywords: family, mental health, anxiety, depression, trauma

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Health, Mental Health, Trauma Regions: Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1995

Civilian War-Zone Traumas, Complex PTSD, and Psychopathology: The Case of Kuwaiti Women

Citation:

Al-Rasheed, Malak. 2004. "Civilian War-Zone Traumas, Complex PTSD, and Psychopathology: The Case of Kuwaiti Women." PhD diss., University of Denver.

Author: Malak Al-Rasheed

Abstract:

Little is known about the long-term effects of civilian war-zone traumas on psychopathology and psychosocial functioning for Kuwaiti women, and none about the application of Herman's theory of complex PTSD cross culturally and across different traumatic scenarios. This dissertation examines exposure and severity of reactions to different war-traumas in relation to the development of complex PTSD and other psychopathological symptoms, and levels of psychosocial functioning among a random sample of Kuwaiti women (N = 683). Participants completed a survey instrument designed to gather demographic data, and measure variables of trauma exposure, complex PTSD, PTSD, different psychopathological symptoms, self-concept, and psychosocial functioning. The results showed higher prevalence rates of complex PTSD (85.6%) vs. PTSD (30%), and high overall psychological distress (75.4%). In addition, a significant relationship between exposure to war-zone traumas and the development of complex PTSDwas found. Finally, women with greater reactions to trauma had greater psychopathological symptoms, and lower psychosocial functioning levels. Severity of reactions to trauma, psychopathology, self-concept, and complex PTSDwere significant predictors of psychosocial functioning levels. The findings imply that expansion of Herman's complex PTSD theory to include war-zone traumas as another case of prolonged trauma is feasible. In addition, complex PTSD could be a better diagnostic category to capture the greater range of reactions to prolonged trauma thanPTSD. Other methodological and cultural validity issues were discussed as well.

Keywords: trauma, female civilians, posttraumatic stress disorder, mental health

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Kuwait

Year: 2004

Impact of Deployment Length and Experience on the Well-Being of Male and Female Soldiers

Citation:

Adler, Amy B., Ann H. Huffman, Paul D. Bliese, and Carl A. Castro. 2005. "The Impact of Deployment Length and Experience on the Well-Being of Male and Female Soldiers." Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 10 (2): 121-137.

Authors: Amy B. Adler, Ann H. Huffman, Paul D. Bliese, Carl A. Castro

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of stressor duration (deployment length) and stressor novelty (no prior deployment experience) on the psychological health of male and female military personnel returning from a peacekeeping deployment. The sample consisted of men (n = 2,114) and women (n= 1,225) surveyed for symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. The results confirmed the hypotheses. Longer deployments and 1st-time deployments were associated with an increase in distress scores. However, the relationship between deployment length and increased distress was found only for male soldiers. The findings demonstrate the importance of considering the impact of exposure to long-term occupational stressors and confirm, in part, previous research that has demonstrated a different stress response pattern for men and women.

Keywords: male soldiers, female soldiers, mental health, peacekeeping

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Women, Men, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Livelihoods, Militarized Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacekeeping Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2005

Military-Related Sexual Trauma among Veterans' Health Administration Patients Returning from Afghanistan and Iraq

Citation:

Kimerling, Rachel, Amy E. Street, Joanne Pavao, Mark W. Smith, Ruth C. Cronkite, Tyson H. Holmes, and Susan M. Frayne. 2010. "Military-Related Sexual Trauma Among Veterans’ Health Administration Patients Returning from Afghanistan and Iraq." American Journal of Public Health 100 (8): 1409-1412.

Authors: Rachel Kimerling, Amy E. Street, Joanne Pavao, Mark W. Smith, Ruth C. Cronkite, Tyson H. Holmes, Susan M. Frayne

Abstract:

We examined military-related sexual trauma among deployed Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans. Of 125729 veterans who received Veterans Health Administration primary care or mental health services, 15.1% of the women and 0.7% of the men reported military sexual trauma when screened. Military sexual trauma was associated with increased odds of a mental disorder diagnosis, including posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression, and substance use disorders. Sexual trauma is an important postdeployment mental health issue in this population.
 

Keywords: sexual violence, military, veterans, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom

Annotation:

Quotes:
 
"For our study, we completed, to our knowledge, the first national, population-based assessment of the mental health profile associated with a history of military sexual trauma among deployed Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans who used Veterans Health Administration services." (1410) 
 
"Women and men who reported a history of military sexual trauma were significantly more likely than those who did not to receive a mental health diagnosis, including  posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other anxiety disorders, depression, and substance use disorders." (1411)
 
"Effect sizes for the relation of military sexual trauma to PTSD were substantially stronger among women compared with men, suggesting that military sexual trauma may be a particularly relevant gender-specific clinical issue in PTSD treatment settings." (1411)
 
"However, survivors of sexual trauma often delay disclosure and treatment of their experiences, and Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans report stigma associated with help-seeking." (1411)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Gender, Women, Men, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Security, Sexual Violence Regions: MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, United States of America

Year: 2010

Refugees, Forced Displacement, and War

Citation:

Bennett, Trude, Linda Barlett, Oluwasayo Adewumi Olatunde, and Lynn Amowitz. 2004. “Refugees, Forced Displacement, and War.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 10 (11): 2034-35.

Authors: Trude Bennett, Linda Barlett, Oluwasayo Adewumi Olatunde, Lynn Amowitz

Abstract:

Women make up high proportions of refugee and internally displaced populations, and they suffer unique consequences of war and conflict because of gender-based violence, discrimination, and caretaking roles.  Refugee women are especially vulnerable to infectious disease, as well as threats to their mental health and physical safety.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Mental Health, Sexual Violence, SV against Women

Year: 2004

Gender, Social Support and Posttraumatic Stress in Postwar Kosovo

Citation:

Ahern, Jennifer, Sandro Galea, William G. Fernandez, Bajram Koci, Ronald Waldman, and David Vlahov. 2004. "Gender, Social Support and Posttraumatic Stress in Postwar Kosovo." The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 192 (11): 762-770.

Authors: Jennifer Ahern, Sandro Galea, William G. Fernandez, Bajram Koci, Ronald Waldman, David Vlahov

Abstract:

The effects of social support and traumatic experiences on mental health in conflict situations may be different by gender. The Kosovo Emergency Department Study was conducted in July and August 2001 to assess mental health 2 years after the end of the war in Kosovo. Of 306 emergency department patients (87.7% response rate), all were ethnic Albanian, 97.4% had experienced traumatic events, and 89.5% had posttraumatic stress symptoms. Women and persons who experienced more traumatic events had higher posttraumatic stress scores. Persons with social support had lower posttraumatic stress scores. In a final model, social support had a greater protective effect for women, whereas traumatic events had a greater detrimental effect on men. Two years after the war in Kosovo, there remained a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoms, particularly among women with low social support. Interventions targeting social support may be important public health efforts in the postwar context.

Keywords: social support, trauma, posttraumatic stress, public health, mental health

Topics: Gender, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Humanitarian Assistance, Context-Appropriate Response to Trauma, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Kosovo

Year: 2004

The Politics of Culture in Humanitarian Aid to Women Refugees Who Have Experienced Sexual Violence

Citation:

Atlani, Laetitia, and Cecile Rousseau. 2000. "The Politics of Culture in Humanitarian Aid to Women Refugees Who Have Experienced Sexual Violence." Transcultural Psychiatry 37 (3): 435-49.

Authors: Laetitia Atlani, Cecile Rousseau

Abstract:

There is a growing sense of urgency within international humanitarian aid agencies to intervene quickly when faced with organized violence stemming from war or armed conflict. From this perspective, the rape of refugees calls for prompt psychological intervention. Beyond this sense of urgency, the premises underlying the different models of humanitarian intervention being utilized require further documentation. What concepts and practices characterize the mental health interventions for refugee women who have suffered sexual violence? How is transcultural psychiatry conceived and practised in refugee camps? How is ‘refugee culture’ defined? What do these definitions imply when translated into therapeutic care to rape victims? This article discusses these issues, and raises some concerns about the appropriateness and the scope of UN and nongovernmental approaches. 

Keywords: humanitarian aid, sexual violence, refugee, culture, documentation, mental health, transcultural psychiatry, mental health intervention

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Humanitarian Assistance, Context-Appropriate Response to Trauma, International Organizations, NGOs, Sexual Violence, Rape, Violence

Year: 2000

Women, Children and Returnees

Citation:

Arnvig, Eva. 1994. "Women, Children and Returnees." In Between Hope and Insecurity: The Social Consequences of the Cambodian Peace Process, edited by Peter Utting, 83-103. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

Author: Eva Arnvig

Abstract:

This chapter examines the situation of women, children and returnees in Cambodia and the social impact of the large-scale United Nations presence. Following a brief description of certain general aspects related to family traditions, the position of women in the economy, education and health, the chapter examines a number of social and socio-psychological problems that have risen to the fore in recent years. These include post-war trauma, the reintegration of refugees, prostitution, drugs and street children. Particular attention is focused on the extent to which the behaviour of United Nations peace-keeping and security personnel may have contributed to certain social problems as well as the souring of relations between UNTAC and the host population.

Annotation:

  • Families who have issues assimilating after times of conflict face having to sell their children or allow their children to enter urban areas as street children or prostitutes. Other children are forced to work in plantations to earn money offering a stark change from growing up in refugee camps.

  • Many indigenous peoples blame UNTAC for increases in sexually transmitted infections, street crimes, poverty, and starvation for being unable to efficiently and successfully offer aid in the reintegration process.

Quotes:

“The Total Institution Syndrome has a serious affect on mental attitude and behaviour. It manifests itself in apathy, aggression, violent behaviour, abrupt changes of mood, depression and tiredness along with physical disorders such as headaches and stomach problems.” (92)

Topics: Age, Youth, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Trauma, Humanitarian Assistance, Indigenous, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 1994

Pages

© 2024 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Mental Health