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Masculinity/ies

Gendered Discourse About Climate Change Policies

Citation:

Swim, Janet K., Theresa K. Vescio, Julia L. Dahl, and Stephanie J. Zawadzki. 2018. “Gendered Discourse About Climate Change Policies.” Global Environmental Change 48: 216–25.

Authors: Janet K. Swim, Theresa K. Vescio, Julia L. Dahl, Stephanie J. Zawadzki

Abstract:

Extending theory and research on gender roles and masculinity, this work predicts and finds that common ways of talking about climate change are gendered. Climate change policy arguments that focus on science and business are attributed to men more than to women. By contrast, policy arguments that focus on ethics and environmental justice are attributed to women more than men (Study 1). Men show gender matching tendencies, being more likely to select (Study 2) and positively evaluate (Study 3) arguments related to science and business than ethics and environmental justice. Men also tend to attribute negative feminine traits to other men who use ethics and environmental justice arguments, which mediates the relation between type of argument and men’s evaluation of the argument (Study 3). The gendered nature of public discourse about climate change and the need to represent ethical and environmental justice topics in this discourse are discussed.

Keywords: gender, climate change, political discourse, masculinity, environmental justice

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Justice

Year: 2018

When Are States Hypermasculine?

Citation:

Maruska, Jennifer Heeg. 2010. “When Are States Hypermasculine?” In Gender and International Security: Feminist Perspectives, edited by Laura Sjoberg, 235-55. Oxon: Routledge.

Author: Jennifer Heeg Maruska

Annotation:

Summary: 
"By using gender as a theoretical tool, I will demonstrate how American hegemonic masculinity—or a significant subsection of it—became hypermasculine in the days, months, and years following September 11, 2001. This development is key to understanding how the war Iraq was sold to and bought by the American people. The consequences of this hypermasculinity include popular support for the March 2003 invasion of Iraq as well as the re-election of President George W. Bush in 2004. In this chapter, I will elaborate the concepts of hegemonic masculinity and hypermasculinity, based on previous theorizing (largely by R. W. Connell and Charlotte Hooper). I will then apply these principles to the post-9/11 era, suggesting that both the Bush administration (the agent) and American mainstream culture itself (the structure) contributed to the invasion of Iraq. By applying a gender-sensitive lens, and putting hypermasculinity into a historical context, both the decision to invade Iraq and the popular support such an idea received will be made much clearer" (Maruska 2010, 236).

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Security Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq, United States of America

Year: 2010

Cognitive Short Cuts

Citation:

Hutchings, Kimberly. 2008. “Cognitive Short Cuts.” In Rethinking the Man Question: Sex, Gender and Violence in International Relations, edited by Jane L. Parpart and Marysia Zalewski, 23–46. London: Zed Books.

Author: Kimberly Hutchings

Annotation:

Summary:
"The purpose of this chapter is to examine one of the reasons for this ongoing marginalization of feminist/gender concerns. I will argue that a key reason for the ongoing invisibility of women and gender in the theoretical frames through which post-cold-war international politics is grasped is the legitimizing function of masculinity discourses within those theories. My central claim is that masculinity operates as a resource for though in theorizing international politics. That is to say, masculinity operates as a kind of commonsense, implicit, often unconscious shorthand for processes of explanatory and normative judgement, thereby as one of the crucial ways in which our social scientific imagination is shaped and limited. I will explore how this works in two very influential but different accounts of contemporary international politics: the 'offensive' realism of Mearsheimer (The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, 2001) and the post-Marxist story of 'empire/multitude' in the work of Hardt and Negri (Empire, 2000). In conclusion, I will argue that one can hope, to paraphrase Ferguson, to loosen the hold of masculinity on meaning and life only once one has appreciated how much intellectual work is accomplished by masculinity's logical structure (Ferguson 1993: 29). Without the logic of masculinity, grand theorists of international politics would be required to work a great deal harder in order to persuade us of the accuracy of their diagnoses of the times" (Hutchings 2008, 23-24). 

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Masculinism

Year: 2008

Feminist Reactions to the Contemporary Security Regime

Citation:

Young, Iris Marion. 2003. “Feminist Reactions to the Contemporary Security Regime.” Hypatia 18 (1): 223–31.

Author: Iris Marion Young

Abstract:

The essay theorizes the logic of masculinist protection as an apparently benign form of male domination. It then argues that authoritarian government is often justified through a logic of masculinist protection, and that this is the form of justification for the security regime that has emerged in the United States since September 11, 2001. I argue that those who live under a security regime live within an oppressive protection racket. The paper ends by cautioning feminists not ourselves to adopt a stance of protector toward women in so-called less developed societies.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Peace and Security, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Weapons /Arms Regions: Americas, North America

Year: 2003

Inventing Bushcraft: Masculinity, Technology, and Environment in Central Africa, ca. 750-1250

Citation:

de Luna, Kathryn M. 2017. “Inventing Bushcraft: Masculinity, Technology, and Environment in Central Africa, ca. 750-1250.” RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society, no. 4, 51–60.

Author: Kathryn M. de Luna

Keywords: fishing, gender, hunting, indigenous knowledge, technology

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies Regions: Africa, Central Africa

Year: 2017

Gender and the Nuclear Weapons State: A Feminist Critique of the UK Government’s White Paper on Trident

Citation:

Duncanson, Claire, and Catherine Eschle. 2008. “Gender and the Nuclear Weapons State: A Feminist Critique of the UK Government’s White Paper on Trident.” New Political Science 30 (4): 545–63.

Authors: Claire Duncanson, Catherine Eschle

Abstract:

This article enquires into the connections between gender and discourses of the nuclear weapons state. Specifically, we develop an analysis of the ways in which gender operates in the White Paper published by the UK government in 2006 on its plans to renew Trident nuclear weapons (given the go-ahead by the Westminster Parliament in March 2007). We argue that the White Paper mobilizes masculine-coded language and symbols in several ways: firstly, in its mobilization of techno-strategic rationality and axioms; secondly, in its assumptions about security; and, thirdly, in its assumptions about the state as actor. Taken together, these function to construct a masculinized identity for the British nuclear state as a “responsible steward.” However, this identity is one that is not yet securely fixed and that, indeed, contains serious internal tensions that opponents of Trident (and of the nuclear state more generally) should be able to exploit.

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Governance, Weapons /Arms Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2008

Feminist Interdisciplinarity and Gendered Parodies of Nuclear Iran

Citation:

Särmä, Saara. 2012. “Feminist Interdisciplinarity and Gendered Parodies of Nuclear Iran.” In Global and Regional Problems: Towards an Interdisciplinary Study, edited by Pami Aalto,  Vilho Harle, and Sami Moisio, 151-170. Surrey: Ashgate. 

Author: Saara Särmä

Annotation:

Summary:
"The chapter is divided into four parts. The first discusses feminist interdisciplinarity in the field of international studies in general. The second part introduces an interdisciplinary feminist approach to nuclear proliferation which draws on feminist philosophy, ethnography, psychology, postcolonialism and IR and uses gender as an analytical category. Thirdly, the attention turns to Internet parodies and the everyday global politics that can be accessed by examining them. The final section analyses the internet parady imagery prompted by the Iranian missile test and the gendered and sexualized forms of these representations. The analysis makes gender visible by examining how Iran is masculinized and feminized in various parody images" (Särmä 2011, 153).

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Weapons /Arms Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iran

Year: 2012

Men, Masculinities and Disaster

Citation:

Enarson, Elaine, and Bob Pease, eds. 2016. Men, Masculinities and Disaster. Abingdon: Routledge.

Authors: Elaine Enarson, Bob Pease

Annotation:

Summary:
In the examination of gender as a driving force in disasters, too little attention has been paid to how women’s or men’s disaster experiences relate to the wider context of gender inequality, or how gender-just practice can help prevent disasters or address climate change at a structural level.
 
With a foreword from Kenneth Hewitt, an afterword from Raewyn Connell and contributions from renowned international experts, this book helps address the gap. It explores disasters in diverse environmental, hazard, political and cultural contexts through original research and theoretical reflection, building on the under-utilized orientation of critical men’s studies. This body of thought, not previously applied in disaster contexts, explores how men gain, maintain and use power to assert control over women. Contributing authors examine the gender terrain of disasters 'through men's eyes,' considering how diverse forms of masculinities shape men’s efforts to respond to and recover from disasters and other climate challenges. The book highlights both the high costs paid by many men in disasters and the consequences of dominant masculinity practices for women and marginalized men. It concludes by examining how disaster risk can be reduced through men's diverse efforts to challenge hierarchies around gender, sexuality, disability, age and culture. (Summary from Routledge)
 
 
Table of Contents:
Foreword
Kenneth Hewitt
 
Section 1: Critical men’s studies and disaster
 
1.The Gendered Terrain of Disaster: Thinking About Men and Masculinities
Elaine Enarson and Bob Pease
 
2. Masculinism, Climate Change and ‘Man-Made’ Disasters: Towards an Environmental Profeminist Response
Bob Pease
 
3. Men and Masculinities in the Social Movement for a Just Reconstruction After Hurricane Katrina
Rachel E. Luft
 
4. Hyper-Masculinity and Disaster: The Reconstruction of Hegemonic Masculinity in the Wake of Calamity
Duke W. Austin
 
5. Re-Reading Gender and Patriarchy Through a ‘Lens of Masculinity:’ The ‘Known’ Story and New Narratives From Post-Mitch Nicaragua
Sarah Bradshaw
 
Section 2: The high cost of disaster for men: Coping with loss and change
 
6. Men, Masculinities and Wildfire: Embodied Resistance and Rupture
Christine Eriksen and Gordon Waitt
 
7. Emotional and Personal Costs for Men of the Black Saturday Bushfires in Victoria, Australia
Debra Parkinson and Claire Zara
 
8. The Tsunami's Wake: Mourning and Masculinity in Eastern Sri Lanka
Malathi de Alwis
 
9. Japanese Families Decoupling Following the Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster: Men’s Choice between Economic Stability and Radiation Exposure
Rika Morioka
 
Section 3: Diversity of impact and response among men in the aftermath of disaster
 
10. Disabled Masculinities and Disasters
Mark Sherry
 
11. Masculinity, Sexuality and Disaster: Unpacking Gendered LGBT Experiences in the 2011 Brisbane Floods, Queensland, Australia
Andrew Gorman-Murray, Scott McKinnon and Dale Dominey-Howes
 
12. Indigenous Masculinities in a Changing Climate: Vulnerability and Resilience In the United States
Kirsten Vinyeta, Kyle Powys Whyte, and Kathy Lynn
 
13. Youth Creating Disaster Recovery and Resilience in Canada and the United States: Dimensions of the Male Youth Experience
Jennifer Tobin-Gurley, Robin Cox, Lori Peek, Kylie Pybus, Dmitriy Maslenitsyn and Cheryl Heykoop
 
Section 4: Transforming masculinity in disaster management
 
14. Firefighters, Technology and Masculinity in the Micro-management of Disasters: Swedish Examples
Mathias Ericson and Ulf Mellström
 
15. Resisting and Accommodating the Masculinist Gender Regimein Firefighting: An Insider View from the United Kingdom
Dave Baigent
 
16. Using a Gendered Lens to Reduce Disaster and Climate Risk in Southern Africa: The Potential Leadership of Men’s Organizations
Kylah Genade
 
17. Training Pacific Male Managers for Gender Equality in Disaster Response and Management
Stephen Fisher
 
18. Integrating Men and Masculinities in Caribbean Disaster Risk Management
Leith Dunn
 
19. Men, Masculinities and Disaster: An Action Research Agenda
Elaine Enarson
 
20. Afterword
Raewyn Connell

Topics: Age, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2016

Human Security and Disasters: What a Gender Lens Offers

Citation:

Enarson, Elaine. 2014. “Human Security and Disasters: What a Gender Lens Offers.” In Human Security and Natural Disasters, edited by Christopher Hobson, Paul Bacon, and Robin Cameron. London: Routledge.

Author: Elaine Enarson

Abstract:

This chapter explains the need for gender analysis in the ostensibly gender-neutral domains of human security, disaster risk reduction, and climate change adaptation, emphasizing that gender is more than a cross-cutting concern and introducing the main outlines of the subfield of gender and disaster. Human security discourse is surprisingly silent on some of the most critical human rights challenges of disasters while highlighting specific threats. Gender is a fundamental social organizing principle in all societies with implications throughout the disaster cycle and across all dimensions of human security. Nontraditional skills training for women postdisaster and such reforms as jointly titling post-disaster housing in both partners' names are further examples of how post-disaster recovery work can enhance human security by advancing gender equality. Gender-sensitive thinking about human security potentially strengthens civil society as it suggests the need for increased capacity in women's organizations, self-help groups, and networks, and highlights gender-focused work to enhance security in both the private and public sectors. (Taylor & Francis)

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Health, Mental Health, Livelihoods, Security, Human Security

Year: 2014

Begging the Question: What Would a Men, Peace and Security Agenda Look Like?

Citation:

Watson, Callum. 2015. “Begging the Question: What Would a Men, Peace and Security Agenda Look Like?” Connections 14 (3): 45–60.

Author: Callum Watson

Annotation:

Summary:
"The starting point for much of the scholarship examining gender in International Relations and security studies can be neatly summarized in a question that Cynthia Enloe asked in 1989, namely “Where are the women?” The following decade was marked by several milestones in the inclusion of women in the international security agenda such as the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action produced at the Fourth World Conference for Women in 1995 and the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security in 2000. After fifteen years and six further resolutions, academics, practitioners, and policymakers alike have begun to ask a similar question, but this time of the gender equality and women’s empowerment agenda, namely “Where are the men?” In this article, I first examine the historical background of work conducted on men and masculinities in peace and security at the international level. Subsequently, I outline some of the reasons why a “Men, Peace and Security” agenda is yet to clearly develop in international policy circles. Finally, I offer some suggestions on what a Men, Peace and Security agenda would look like by mirroring the four pillars of the Women, Peace and Security framework, namely protection, prevention, participation, and relief and recovery" (Watson 2015, 45).

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Peace and Security, International Organizations, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2015

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