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Masculinity/ies

Imperial Democracies, Militarised Zones, Feminist Engagements

Citation:

Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. 2011. “Imperial Democracies, Militarised Zones, Feminist Engagements.” Economic and Political Weekly 46 (13): 76–84.

Author: Chandra Talpade Mohanty

Annotation:

Summary:
The post-11 September 2001 consolidation of imperial democracies and securitised regimes in the United States, Israel, and India mobilise anatomies of violence anchored in colonial legacies and capitalist profitmaking. These regimes utilise specific and connected racial and gendered ideologies and practices at their social and territorial borders - in the US-Mexico borderlands, the West Bank and Gaza, and the Kashmir Valley. They exercise militarised and masculinised forms of control, surveillance and dispossession that illuminate the contours of national political subjectivities and the uneven construction of citizenship. These imperial democracies militarise all domains of social life, and discipline or imprison not just abandoned and criminalised communities, but all state subjects. The essay suggests that an alternative vision of connectivity and solidarity requires building ethical, cross-border feminist solidarities that confront neoliberal militarisation globally. (Summary from original source) 

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Nationalism, Violence Regions: MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: India, Israel, United States of America

Year: 2011

Asian Fury: Gender, Orientalism and the Indo-Pakistani Nuclear ‘Threat’ in US Foreign Policy Discourse, 1998 – 2009

Citation:

Vaughan, Tom. 2013. “Asian Fury: Gender, Orientalism and the Indo-Pakistani Nuclear ‘Threat’ in US Foreign Policy Discourse, 1998 – 2009.” Working Paper No. 09-13, School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Author: Tom Vaughan

Abstract:

Since India and Pakistan each carried out their second tests of nuclear weapons in 1998, US foreign policy discourse and Western media has often taken as fact the 'threat' of nuclear conflict in the region. This dissertation argues that a critical constructivist approach is required when studying Indo-Pakistani nuclear relations, given the inadequacies of structural realism and its unhelpful assumptions about the 'nature' of international politics. Since realist accounts make up the majority of recent literature on the subject, this dissertation aims to provide an alternative account, examining how US foreign policy discourse constructs the condition of threat through representations of the US, India and Pakistan. Using a discourse analysis methodology, I investigate the gendered and orientalist constructions of India and Pakistan which contribute to the mainstream perception of nuclear threat on the South Asian subcontinent. In a two-part analysis, I examine the effect that the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks have had on the US discourse around Indo-Pakistani nuclear behaviour. I find that the US discourse changes significantly over time. From the 1998 tests onwards, a direct and imminent nuclear threat to international security is constructed. After 9/11, this threat is increasingly negated. Across both periods, the US discourse constitently feminises and orientalises India and Pakistan in relation to a dominant US masculinity – practices which are instrumental in the representation of threat – although the uses and effects of these representational practices shift over time. The discursive changes observed demonstrate how 'radical breaks' in history can change knowledge about international politics, and illustrate how US foreign policy discourse reconfigures the US's global identity after 9/11.

Keywords: United States, India, Pakistan, nuclear, non-proliferation, Foucault, discourse, gender, orientalism

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Nationalism, Security, Weapons /Arms Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Pakistan, United States of America

Year: 2013

Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective

Citation:

Kheel, Marti. 2008. Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. 

Author: Marti Kheel

Annotation:

Summary: 
In Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective, Marti Kheel explores the underlying worldview of nature ethics, offering an alternative ecofeminist perspective. She focuses on four prominent representatives of holist philosophy: two early conservationists (Theodore Roosevelt and Aldo Leopold) and two contemporary philosophers (Holmes Rolston III, and transpersonal ecologist Warwick Fox). Kheel argues that in directing their moral allegiance to abstract constructs (e.g. species, the ecosystem, or the transpersonal Self) these influential nature theorists represent a masculinist orientation that devalues concern for individual animals. Seeking to heal the divisions among the seemingly disparate movements and philosophies of feminism, animal advocacy, environmental ethics, and holistic health, Kheel proposes an ecofeminist philosophy that underscores the importance of empathy and care for individual beings as well as larger wholes. (Summary from Rowman & Littlefield) 
 
Table of Contents:
1. Finding a Niche for All Animals in Nature Ethics
 
2. Masculine Identity: Born Again 'Man'
 
3. Origins of the Conservation Movement: Preserving Manhood
 
4. Thinking Like a Mountain or Thinking Like a Man?
 
5. The Ecophilosophy of Holmes Rolston
 
6. The Transpersonal Ecology of Warwick Fox
 
7. Ecofeminist Holist Philosophy

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies

Year: 2008

Ecofeminism: Feminist Intersections with Other Animals and the Earth

Citation:

Adams, Carol J., and Lori Gruen, eds. 2014. Ecofeminism: Feminist Intersections with Other Animals and the Earth. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Authors: Carol J. Adams, Lori Gruen

Annotation:

Summary: 
Leading feminist scholars and activists as well as new voices introduce and explore themes central to contemporary ecofeminism.
 
Ecofeminism: Feminist Intersections with Other Animals and the Earth first offers an historical, grounding overview that situates ecofeminist theory and activism and provides a timeline for important publications and events. This is followed by contributions from leading theorists and activists on how our emotions and embodiment can and must inform our relationships with the more than human world. In the final section, the contributors explore the complexities of appreciating difference and the possibilities of living less violently. Throughout the book, the authors engage with intersections of gender and gender non-conformity, race, sexuality, disability, and species. 
 
The result is a new up-to-date resource for students and teachers of animal studies, environmental studies, feminist/gender studies, and practical ethics. (Summary from Bloomsbury) 
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction
Carol J. Adams and Lori Gruen
 
1. Groundwork
Carol J. Adams and Lori Gruen
 
2. Compassion and Being Human
Deane Curtin
 
3. Joy
Deborah Slicer
 
4. Participatory Epistemology, Sympathy, and Animal Ethics
Josephine Donovan
 
5. Eros and the Mechanisms of Eco-Defense
Pattrice Jones 
 
6. Vulnerability and Dependency and the Ethics of Care
Sunny Taylor
 
7. Facing Death and Practicing Grief
Lori Gruen
 
8. Caring Cannibals: Testing Contextual Edibility for Speciesism
Ralph Acampora
 
9. Inter-Animal Moral Conflicts and Moral Repair: A Contextualized Ecofeminism Approach in Action
Karen S. Emmerman
 
10. The Wonderful, Horrible Life of Michael Vick
Claire Kim
 
11. Ecofeminism and Veganism-Revisiting the Question of Universalism
Richard Twine
 
12. Why a Pig? A Reclining Nude Reveals the Intersections of Race, Sex, Slavery, and Species
Carol J. Adams
 
13. Toward New EcoMasculinities, EcoGenders, and EcoSexualities
Greta Gaard

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Sexuality

Year: 2014

Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment

Citation:

MacGregor, Sherilyn, ed. 2017. Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment. New York: Routledge.

Author: Sherilyn MacGregor

Annotation:

Summary:
The Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment gathers together state-of-the-art theoretical reflections and empirical research from leading researchers and practitioners working in this transdisciplinary and transnational academic field. Over the course of the book, these contributors provide critical analyses of the gender dimensions of a wide range of timely and challenging topics, from sustainable development and climate change politics, to queer ecology and interspecies ethics in the so-called Anthropocene.
 
Presenting a comprehensive overview of the development of the field from early political critiques of the male domination of women and nature in the 1980s to the sophisticated intersectional and inclusive analyses of the present, the volume is divided into four parts:
 
Part I: Foundations
Part II: Approaches
Part III: Politics, Policy and Practice
Part IV: Futures
 
Comprising chapters written by forty contributors with different perspectives and working in a wide range of research contexts around the world, this Handbook will serve as a vital resource for scholars, students, and practitioners in environmental studies, gender studies, human geography, and the environmental humanities and social sciences more broadly. (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Rachel Carson Was Right – Then and Now 
Joni Seager
 
2. The Death of Nature: Foundations of Ecofeminist Thought 
Charis Thompson and Sherilyn MacGregor
 
3. The Dilemma of Dualism 
Freya Mathews
 
4. Gender and Environment From ‘Women, Environment and Development’ to Feminist Political Ecology
Bernadette P. Resurrección
 
5. Ecofeminist Political Economy: A Green and Feminist Agenda
Mary Mellor
 
6. Naturecultures and Feminist Materialism
Helen Merrick
 
7. Posthumanism, Ecofeminism, and Inter-species Relations
Greta Gaard
 
8. Gender, Livelihoods, and Sustainability: Anthropological Research
Maria Cruz-Torres and Pamela McElwee
 
9. Gender’s Critical Edge: Feminist Political Ecology, Postcolonial Intersectionality, and the Coupling of Race and Gender
Sharlene Mollett
 
10. Gender and Environmental Justice
Julie Sze
 
11. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern: Sociological Explanations
Chenyang Xiao and Aaron M. McCright
 
12. Social Ecology: A Transdisciplinary Approach to Gender and Environment Research
Diana Hummel and Immanuel Stieß
 
13. Gender and Environmental (In)security: From Climate Conflict to Ecosystem Instability
Nicole Detraz
 
14. Gender, Environmental Governmentality, and the Discourses of Sustainable Development
Emma A. Foster
 
15. Feminism and Biopolitics: A Cyborg Account
Catriona Sandilands
 
16. Exploring Industrial, Eco-Modern, and Ecological Masculinities
Martin Hultman
 
17. Transgender Environments
Nicole Seymour
 
18. A Fruitless Endeavour: Confronting the Heteronormativity of Environmentalism
Cameron Butler
 
19. Gender and Environmental Policy
Seema Arora-Jonsson
 
20. Gender Politics in Green Parties
Stewart Jackson
 
21. Good Green Jobs for Whom? A Feminist Critique of the Green Economy
Beate Littig
 
22. Gender Dimensions of Sustainable Consumption
Ines Weller
 
23. Sexual Stewardship: Environment, Development, and the Gendered Politics of Population
Jade Sasser
 
24. Gender Equality, Sustainable Agricultural Development, and Food Security
Agnes A. Babugura
 
25. Whose Debt for Whose Nature? Gender and Nature in Neoliberalism’s War Against Subsistence
Ana Isla
 
26. Gender and Climate Change Politics
Susan Buckingham
 
27. Changing the Climate of Participation: The Gender Constituency in the Global Climate Change Regime
Karren Morrow
 
28. Planning for Climate Change: REDD+SES as Gender-Responsive Environmental Action
Marcela Tovar-Restrepo
 
29. Pragmatic Utopias: Intentional Gender-Democratic and Sustainable Communities
Helen Jarvis
 
30. Feminist Futures and ‘Other Worlds’: Ecologies of Critical Spatial Practice
Meike Schalk, Ulrika Gunnarsson-Östing and Karin Bradley
 
31. Orca Intimacies and Environmental Slow Death: Earthling Ethics for a Claustrophobic World 
Margret Grebowicz
 
32. The End of Gender or Deep Green Trans-Misogyny?
Laura Houlberg
 
33. Welcome to the White (m)Anthropocene? A Feminist-Environmentalist Critique
Giovanna Di Chiro

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Intersectionality, Livelihoods, Political Economies

Year: 2017

Women Miners’ Exclusion and Muslim Masculinities in Tajikistan: A Feminist Political Ecology of Honor and Shame

Citation:

Behzadi, Negar Elodie. 2019. "Women Miners’ Exclusion and Muslim Masculinities in Tajikistan: A Feminist Political Ecology of Honor and Shame." Geoforum 100: 144-52.

Author: Negar Elodie Behzadi

Abstract:

This article explores the gendered process that leads to women informal miners’ restricted access to natural resources, their exclusion and their stigmatization in one village in the Muslim post-Soviet space. Drawing on eight months of ethnographic work in the village of Kante in Northern Tajikistan, this article seeks to understand how and why this process is mediated through notions of honor and shame traditionally seen as anchored in Muslim religion. A focus on changing masculinities and their relationship with women miners’ exclusion in this extractive landscape where informal coal mining developed alongside male migration and the setting up of a Sino-Tajik coal mine after the fall of the Soviet Union, allows us to develop a feminist political ecology of honor and shame. Here, I reveal how these cultural notions are mobilized in the wake of embodied and emotional work and resource struggles and the gendered impacts of broader politico-ecological changes. I particularly link women miners’ exclusion and its mediation through notions of honor and shame to men’s loss of sense of self since the fall of the Soviet Union and the reconfiguration of masculinities with new work and resource struggles. By doing so, this article challenges the idea of Muslim men as fixed into codes of honor and patriarchy anchored in religion. Instead, it develops a re-theorization of Muslim masculinities which highlights instances where men oppress women at the same time as it challenges culturalist readings of gender and Muslimness that overemphasize culture/religion to the detriment of the economic/ecological.

Keywords: muslim masculinities, honor-and-shame, feminist political ecology, emotions, mining, resource extraction, women miners, post-Soviet Central Asia

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Religion Regions: Asia, Central Asia Countries: Tajikistan

Year: 2019

Changing Masculinities in Response to Environmental Impacts of Mining: Reflections from Mindre Village, Papua New Guinea

Citation:

I-Chang, Kuo. 2019. "Changing Masculinities in Response to Environmental Impacts of Mining: Reflections from Mindre Village, Papua New Guinea." The Extractive Industries and Society. In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.03.016

Author: Kuo I-Chang

Abstract:

This article explores the relationship between environmental impacts and changing masculinities, and shows how large mining projects change men’s ‘ways of being’. Towards this goal, it reports a study carried out in Mindre village adjacent to the Basamuk refinery, in the Madang province, Papua New Guinea (PNG). First, I outline two broad strands in current arguments regarding the study of the environmental impacts of mining activities in PNG. Then I illustrate the reasons why both of these arguments can be applied in the context of Mindre. I then explain the ways in which some Mindre young men, particularly those who have been excluded from the benefits and employment of the Ramu Nickel project and have experienced environmental impacts, have struggled with coming to terms with their masculinities, and how these experiences have threatened their masculinities. Finally, this article offers suggestions regarding future studies of gendered impacts of extractive industries.

Keywords: environmental impacts, the mining industry, masculinities, Papua New Guinea

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2019

"Soft, Airy Fairy Stuff"? Re-evaluating 'Social Impacts' in Gendered Processes of Natural Resource Extraction

Citation:

Ey, Melina. 2018. "'Soft, Airy Fairy Stuff'? Re-evaluating 'Social Impacts' in Gendered Processes of Natural Resource Extraction." Emotion, Space and Society 27: 1-8.

Author: Melina Ey

Abstract:

Within the global extractive industry, emotions continue to the subject of regulation and erasure. In recent years, the dismissal of emotion within much of the extractive sector has been underpinned by particular hegemonic forms of masculinity which position emotions as ‘irrational’ and ‘irrelevant’. The ramifications for the way in which this form of masculinity dismisses and erases emotion have been critiqued primarily within the context of those working within the sector (Mayes and Pini 2010, 2014; Pini et al 2010). However, this intervention has yet to take place to the same extent for those outside the sector, who are navigating its consequences for their communities and places. This paper argues that dismissing emotion has particular implications for the ways in which ‘social impact assessments’ are conducted, and for what is counted or classified as a ‘social impact’ by the sector. Drawing on women's experiences of opposition to the development of extractive projects throughout the New South Wales (NSW) Hunter Valley, this paper uses emotional geographies to emphasise the ways in which the masculinist regulation and erasure of emotion within the extractive sector also facilitates the dismissal of the distinctly emotional consequences of resource extraction for people and place.

Keywords: extractive sector, emotions, gender, place, social impact assessment

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis

Year: 2018

Hydrocracies, Engineers and Power: Questioning Masculinities in Water

Citation:

Zwarteveen, Margreet. 2017. “Hydrocracies, Engineers and Power: Questioning Masculinities in Water.” Engineering Studies 9 (2): 78–94.

Author: Margreet Zwarteveen

Abstract:

Beginning with colonial times and continuing to the present, irrigation engineering has been and is an important site for the construction of gendered power and hegemonic masculinities. The strong connection between masculinities and professional irrigation cultures provides one possible explanation of why hydraulic bureaucracies are so resistant to change: it makes behaviours and codes of conduct that are learned seem natural. Taking inspiration from masculinity studies and from feminist studies of technology and organizations, this article proposes two possible lines of inquiry for critically disentangling how the irrigation profession becomes or is made masculine. The first is the feminist historical analysis of water bureaucracies, and the second is a critical ethnography of contemporary irrigation organizations. Such studies are needed both to create more space for women engineers in government water agencies and to contribute to unravelling important cultural aspects of water politics.

Keywords: Engineering, workplace culture, gender, masculinities, feminist technology studies

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation

Year: 2017

Masculinities and Hydropower in India: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective

Citation:

Shrestha, Gitta, Deepa Joshi, and Floriane Clement. 2019. "Masculinities and Hydropower in India: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective." International Journal of the Commons 13 (1): 130-52.

Authors: Gitta Shrestha, Deepa Joshi, Floriane Clement

Abstract:

Mainstreaming gender in water governance through “how to do gender” toolkits has long been a development focus. It has been widely argued that such toolkits simplify the complex, nuanced realities of inequalities by gender in relation to water and fail to pay attention to the fact that the proposed users of such gender-water toolkits, i.e. mostly male water sector professionals, lack the skills, motivation and/or incentives to apply these toolkits in their everyday work. We adopt a feminist political ecology lens to analyse some of the barriers to reduce social inequalities in the management of global commons such as international rivers. Our findings highlight the leap of faith made in the belief that gender toolkits, as they exist, will filter through layers of a predominantly masculine institutional culture to enable change in ground realities of complex inequalities by gender. Analysing the everyday workings of two hydropower development organisations in India, we show how organisational structures demonstrate a blatant culture of masculinity. These two organisations, like many others, are sites where hierarchies and inequalities based on gender are produced, performed and reproduced. This performance of masculinity promotes and rewards a culture of technical pride in re-shaping nature, abiding by and maintaining hierarchy and demonstrating physical strength and emotional hardiness. In such a setting, paying attention to vulnerabilities, inequalities and disparities are incompatible objectives.

Keywords: feminist political ecology, gender, global commons, hydropower, masculinities, India

Topics: Development, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

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