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Masculinity/ies

Changing Masculinities in Response to Environmental Impacts of Mining: Reflections from Mindre Village, Papua New Guinea

Citation:

I-Chang, Kuo. 2019. "Changing Masculinities in Response to Environmental Impacts of Mining: Reflections from Mindre Village, Papua New Guinea." The Extractive Industries and Society. In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.03.016

Author: Kuo I-Chang

Abstract:

This article explores the relationship between environmental impacts and changing masculinities, and shows how large mining projects change men’s ‘ways of being’. Towards this goal, it reports a study carried out in Mindre village adjacent to the Basamuk refinery, in the Madang province, Papua New Guinea (PNG). First, I outline two broad strands in current arguments regarding the study of the environmental impacts of mining activities in PNG. Then I illustrate the reasons why both of these arguments can be applied in the context of Mindre. I then explain the ways in which some Mindre young men, particularly those who have been excluded from the benefits and employment of the Ramu Nickel project and have experienced environmental impacts, have struggled with coming to terms with their masculinities, and how these experiences have threatened their masculinities. Finally, this article offers suggestions regarding future studies of gendered impacts of extractive industries.

Keywords: environmental impacts, the mining industry, masculinities, Papua New Guinea

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2019

"Soft, Airy Fairy Stuff"? Re-evaluating 'Social Impacts' in Gendered Processes of Natural Resource Extraction

Citation:

Ey, Melina. 2018. "'Soft, Airy Fairy Stuff'? Re-evaluating 'Social Impacts' in Gendered Processes of Natural Resource Extraction." Emotion, Space and Society 27: 1-8.

Author: Melina Ey

Abstract:

Within the global extractive industry, emotions continue to the subject of regulation and erasure. In recent years, the dismissal of emotion within much of the extractive sector has been underpinned by particular hegemonic forms of masculinity which position emotions as ‘irrational’ and ‘irrelevant’. The ramifications for the way in which this form of masculinity dismisses and erases emotion have been critiqued primarily within the context of those working within the sector (Mayes and Pini 2010, 2014; Pini et al 2010). However, this intervention has yet to take place to the same extent for those outside the sector, who are navigating its consequences for their communities and places. This paper argues that dismissing emotion has particular implications for the ways in which ‘social impact assessments’ are conducted, and for what is counted or classified as a ‘social impact’ by the sector. Drawing on women's experiences of opposition to the development of extractive projects throughout the New South Wales (NSW) Hunter Valley, this paper uses emotional geographies to emphasise the ways in which the masculinist regulation and erasure of emotion within the extractive sector also facilitates the dismissal of the distinctly emotional consequences of resource extraction for people and place.

Keywords: extractive sector, emotions, gender, place, social impact assessment

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis

Year: 2018

Hydrocracies, Engineers and Power: Questioning Masculinities in Water

Citation:

Zwarteveen, Margreet. 2017. “Hydrocracies, Engineers and Power: Questioning Masculinities in Water.” Engineering Studies 9 (2): 78–94.

Author: Margreet Zwarteveen

Abstract:

Beginning with colonial times and continuing to the present, irrigation engineering has been and is an important site for the construction of gendered power and hegemonic masculinities. The strong connection between masculinities and professional irrigation cultures provides one possible explanation of why hydraulic bureaucracies are so resistant to change: it makes behaviours and codes of conduct that are learned seem natural. Taking inspiration from masculinity studies and from feminist studies of technology and organizations, this article proposes two possible lines of inquiry for critically disentangling how the irrigation profession becomes or is made masculine. The first is the feminist historical analysis of water bureaucracies, and the second is a critical ethnography of contemporary irrigation organizations. Such studies are needed both to create more space for women engineers in government water agencies and to contribute to unravelling important cultural aspects of water politics.

Keywords: Engineering, workplace culture, gender, masculinities, feminist technology studies

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation

Year: 2017

Masculinities and Hydropower in India: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective

Citation:

Shrestha, Gitta, Deepa Joshi, and Floriane Clement. 2019. "Masculinities and Hydropower in India: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective." International Journal of the Commons 13 (1): 130-52.

Authors: Gitta Shrestha, Deepa Joshi, Floriane Clement

Abstract:

Mainstreaming gender in water governance through “how to do gender” toolkits has long been a development focus. It has been widely argued that such toolkits simplify the complex, nuanced realities of inequalities by gender in relation to water and fail to pay attention to the fact that the proposed users of such gender-water toolkits, i.e. mostly male water sector professionals, lack the skills, motivation and/or incentives to apply these toolkits in their everyday work. We adopt a feminist political ecology lens to analyse some of the barriers to reduce social inequalities in the management of global commons such as international rivers. Our findings highlight the leap of faith made in the belief that gender toolkits, as they exist, will filter through layers of a predominantly masculine institutional culture to enable change in ground realities of complex inequalities by gender. Analysing the everyday workings of two hydropower development organisations in India, we show how organisational structures demonstrate a blatant culture of masculinity. These two organisations, like many others, are sites where hierarchies and inequalities based on gender are produced, performed and reproduced. This performance of masculinity promotes and rewards a culture of technical pride in re-shaping nature, abiding by and maintaining hierarchy and demonstrating physical strength and emotional hardiness. In such a setting, paying attention to vulnerabilities, inequalities and disparities are incompatible objectives.

Keywords: feminist political ecology, gender, global commons, hydropower, masculinities, India

Topics: Development, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

Bushfires Are "Men’s Business": The Importance of Gender and Rural Hegemonic Masculinity

Citation:

Tyler, Meagan, and Peter Fairbrother. 2013. “Bushfires Are ‘Men’s Business’: The Importance of Gender and Rural Hegemonic Masculinity.” Journal of Rural Studies 30 (April): 110–19.

Authors: Meagan Tyler, Peter Fairbrother

Abstract:

This paper offers a critical review of the international literature on gender, disaster and rural masculinities. Empirical reference is made to bushfires in Australia, offering new evidence from the State of Victoria. Bushfires loom large in the Australian imagination and there is an increasing amount of research now being conducted in relation to bushfire events. A significant gap remains, however, with regard to the issue of gender. Despite increasing evidence that gender plays a significant role with reference to disaster risk assessment, preparation and response, a gendered analysis of bushfire preparation and response has not been a sustained research priority. Building on the writing of others, a critical assessment is provided of the concept of a specifically Australian, rural hegemonic masculinity as a possible way of better understanding the social dimensions of gender, and bushfire preparation and response in the Australian context. This conceptual consideration is extended to draw attention to the process whereby alternative conceptions of masculinities may emerge. This recognition provides a basis for further research on gender and disaster internationally.

Keywords: gender, masculinity, bushfire, wildfire, community fireguard

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2013

Taking Up Space: Men, Masculinity, and the Student Climate Movement

Citation:

Chan, Jody, and Joe Curnow. 2017. “Taking Up Space: Men, Masculinity, and the Student Climate Movement.” RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society, no. 4, 77–86.

Authors: Jody Chan , Joe Curnow

Annotation:

Summary:
Jody Chan and Joe Curnow explore the different gendered and racialized dynamics in the student climate movement. Their analysis falls within the framework of “doing gender,” which highlights how gender relations are socially constructed through interaction. Chan and Curnow argue that, while women and people of color are often at the forefront of grassroots environmental movements, gendered and racialized dynamics ensure that “doing” expertise relies on White masculine modes of engagement. In order to make the environmental movement more inclusive, these dynamics need to be recognized and changed. (Summary from Environment & Society Portal)

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Race

Year: 2017

The Fallen Hero: Masculinity, Shame and Farmer Suicide in Australia

Citation:

Bryant, Lia, and Bridget Garnham. 2015. “The Fallen Hero: Masculinity, Shame and Farmer Suicide in Australia.” Gender, Place & Culture 22 (1): 67–82.

Authors: Lia Bryant, Bridget Garnham

Abstract:

The drought-stricken Australian rural landscape, cultures of farming masculinity and an economy of value, moral worth and pride form a complex matrix of discourses that shape subjective dynamics that render suicide a possibility for distressed farmers. However, the centrality of a ‘mental health’ perspective and reified notions of ‘stoicism’ within this discursive field operate to exclude consideration of the ways in which cultural identity is linked to emotions. To illuminate and explore complex connections between subjectivity, moral worth and affect in relation to understanding farmer suicide, this article draws on theory and literature on agrarian discourses of masculine subjectivity and shame to analyze empirical data from interviews with farmers during times of environmental, social and economic crisis. The idealized notion of the farming man as ‘Aussie battler’ emerges from romantic agrarian mythology in which pride and self-worth are vested in traditional values of hard work, struggle and self-sacrifice. However, the structural context of agriculture, as it is shaped by the political economy of neoliberalism, threatens farm economic viability and is eroding the pride, self-worth and masculine identity of farmers. The article suggests that the notion of the ‘fallen hero’ captures a discursive shift of a masculinity ‘undone’, a regress from the powerful position of masculine subjectivity imbued with pride to one of shame that is of central importance to understanding how suicide emerges as a possibility for farmers.

Keywords: masculinity, rurality, suicide, farmer, shame

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Health, Mental Health, Political Economies Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2015

Eco-Man: New Perspectives on Masculinity and Nature

Citation:

Allister, Mark, ed. 2004. Eco-Man: New Perspectives on Masculinity and Nature. Charlottesville: The University of Virginia Press.

Author: Mark Allister

Annotation:

Summary:
'Eco-Man' brings together two rapidly growing fields: men's studies and ecocriticism. The volume's 20 essays question whether readers can construct a notion of manhood around ecological principles and practices - and if so, what this would look like, and how it would enrich men's studies. (Summary from WorldCat)
 
Table of Contents: 
1. Introduction
Mark Allister
 
2. Deerslayer with a Degree
John Tallmadge
 
3. The Sky, the Earth, the Sea, the Soul
Gretchen Legler
 
4. "To Be a Man" in the Common Life of Nature: An Interview with Scott Russell Sanders
Mark Allister
 
5. Chariot of the Sun: Men and the Shame of Environmental Degradation 
Thomas R. Smith 
 
6. Taking Care: Toward an Ecomasculinist Literary Criticism?
Scott Slovic 
 
7. Anecdote of the Car: The Diminished Thing 
Alvin Handelman
 
8. Traversing the Timelines 
David Copland Morris 
 
9. The Boys' Trip 
Rick Fairbanks
 
10. "Once a Cowboy": Will James, Waddie Mitchell, and the Predicament of Riders Who Turn Writers
Cheryll Glotfelty 
 
11. Fishing the Mysteries 
Barton Sutter
 
12. On the Point of a Sharp Hook 
James Barilla
 
13. I Love the Single Deer Path 
Timothy Young
 
14. Fathers and Sons, Trails and Mountains 
O. Alan Weltzien 
 
15. As Big As the World: Imagination, Kindness, and Our Little Boys 
Julia Martin 
 
16. Nature Nurturing Fathers in a World beyond Our Control 
Patrick D. Murphy 
 
17. When Tillage Begins: A Family Portrait
Jim Heynen
 
18. Husbands and Nature Lovers
Lilace Mellin Guignard 
 
19. Consuming Cities: Hip-Hop's Urban Wilderness and the Cult of Masculinity 
Stephen J. Mexal 
 
20. Wild Time: Prisoners and Nature
Ken Lamberton 
 
21. The Nature of My Life
James J. Farrell

Topics: Environment, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism

Year: 2004

Is Eco-Friendly Unmanly? The Green-Feminine Stereotype and Its Effect on Sustainable Consumption

Citation:

Brough, Aaron R., James E. B. Wilkie, Jingjing Ma, Mathew S. Isaac, and David Gal. 2016. “Is Eco-Friendly Unmanly? The Green-Feminine Stereotype and Its Effect on Sustainable Consumption.” Journal of Consumer Research 43 (4): 567–82.

Authors: Aaron R. Brough, James E. B. Wilkie, Jingjing Ma, Mathew S. Isaac, David Gal

Abstract:

Why are men less likely than women to embrace environmentally friendly products and behaviors? Whereas prior research attributes this gender gap in sustainable consumption to personality differences between the sexes, we propose that it may also partially stem from a prevalent association between green behavior and femininity, and a corresponding stereotype (held by both men and women) that green consumers are more feminine. Building on prior findings that men tend to be more concerned than women with gender-identity maintenance, we argue that this green-feminine stereotype may motivate men to avoid green behaviors in order to preserve a macho image. A series of seven studies provides evidence that the con- cepts of greenness and femininity are cognitively linked and shows that, accordingly, consumers who engage in green behaviors are stereotyped by others as more feminine and even perceive themselves as more feminine. Further, men’s willingness to engage in green behaviors can be influenced by threatening or affirming their masculinity, as well as by using masculine rather than conventional green branding. Together, these findings bridge literatures on identity and environmental sustainabil- ity and introduce the notion that due to the green-feminine stereotype, gender-identity maintenance can influence men’s likelihood of adopting green behaviors.

Keywords: gender identity maintenance, green marketing, environmental sustainability, stereotypes, motivated consumption

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies

Year: 2016

Fluid Lives: Subjectivities, Gender and Water in Rural Bangladesh

Citation:

Sultana, Farhana. 2009. “Fluid Lives: Subjectivities, Gender and Water in Rural Bangladesh.” Gender, Place & Culture 16 (4): 427–44.

Author: Farhana Sultana

Abstract:

This article seeks to contribute to the emerging debates in gender–water and gender–nature literatures by looking at the ways that gendered subjectivities are simultaneously (re)produced by societal, spatial and natural/ecological factors, as well as materialities of the body and of heterogeneous waterscapes. Drawing from fieldwork conducted in Bangladesh on arsenic contamination of drinking water, the article looks at the ways that gender relations are influenced by not just direct resource use/control/access and the implications of different types of waters, but also by the ideological constructs of masculinity/femininity, which can work in iterative ways to influence how people relate to different kinds of water. Conflicts and struggles over water inflect gendered identities and sense of self, where both men and women participate in reproducing and challenging prevailing norms and practices. As a result, multiple social and ecological factors interact in complex and interlinked ways to complicate gender–water relations, whereby socio-spatial subjectivities are re/produced in water management and end up reinforcing existing inequities. The article demonstrates that gender–water relations are not just intersected by social axes, as generally argued by feminist scholars, but also by ecological change and spatial relations vis-à-vis water, where simultaneously socialized, ecologized, spatialized and embodied subjectivities are produced and negotiated in everyday practices.

Keywords: gender, water, Bangladesh, Subjectivity, arsenic

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2009

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