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Masculinity/ies

Women, Nature and the Social Construction of ‘Economic Man'

Citation:

Mellor, Mary. 1997. “Women, Nature and the Social Construction of ‘Economic Man’.” Ecological Economics 20 (2): 129–40.

Author: Mary Mellor

Abstract:

This paper argues that the social construction ‘economic man’ is the product of a hierarchical dualism in western society that has also created ‘rational man’ and ‘scientific man’. Women and the natural world form the subordinated half of these dualisms. Central to this paper is the claim that this dualism is not only a cultural/theoretical one, but also a material one. The social construction of ‘economic man’ is the product of a bifurcated knowledge system and a materially divided society. ‘Economic man’ reflects a society in which the embeddedness and embodiedness of humanity is hidden by the division of mind from body, and science/culture from the natural world. For this reason it is not possible to incorporate women and nature into the ‘economy’ through the commodity form by according them a value as price. It is argued that the economic system can only exist if women and nature remain externalised, as women form the bridge between an autonomous individualised ‘man’ and the biological/ecological underpinning of his existence. Central to this analysis is the distinction between social and natural/biological time. ‘Economic’ man lives in social time (clock time) while women are responsible for biological time. This is not because women are closer to nature/biology in an essential sense. Rather, this relationship is imposed upon them by a male-dominated society.

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations

Year: 1997

From the Ground up: Ecofeminism and Ecological Economics

Citation:

McMahon, Martha. 1997. “From the Ground up: Ecofeminism and Ecological Economics.” Ecological Economics 20 (2): 163–73.

Author: Martha McMahon

Abstract:

Speaking from the margins, ecofeminist analysis exposes many of the assumptions of neoclassical economics as gender biased and as anti-ecological. It identifies the abstract individual of neoclassical economics as a privileged male individual whose apparent ‘autonomy’ is predicated on the oppression of women, marginal people and nature. Thus ecofeminists tell a different story about economic man — from the grounds of others' experience up. Ecofeminism points to the limits of models of sustainability built on extending market rationality to non-market spheres of life. Ecofeminist economics contains a creative tension between a commitment to social justice and a determination not to colonize the wild.

Topics: Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Justice

Year: 1997

Globalisation Masculinities, Empire Building and Forced Prostitution: A Critical Analysis of the Gendered Impact of the Neoliberal Economic Agenda in Post-Invasion/Occupation Iraq

Citation:

Banwell, Stacy. 2015. “Globalisation Masculinities, Empire Building and Forced Prostitution: A Critical Analysis of the Gendered Impact of the Neoliberal Economic Agenda in Post-Invasion/Occupation Iraq.” Third World Quarterly 36 (4): 705–22.

Author: Stacy Banwell

Abstract:

Adopting a transnational feminist lens and using a political economy approach, this article addresses both the direct and indirect consequences of the 2003 war in Iraq, specifically the impact on civilian women. Pre-war security and gender relations in Iraq will be compared with the situation post-invasion/occupation. The article examines the globalised processes of capitalism, neoliberalism and neo-colonialism and their impact on the political, social and economic infrastructure in Iraq. Particular attention will be paid to illicit and informal economies: coping, combat and criminal. The 2003 Iraq war was fought using masculinities of empire, post-colonialism and neoliberalism. Using the example of forced prostitution, the article will argue that these globalisation masculinities – specifically the privatisation agenda of the West and its illegal economic occupation – have resulted in women either being forced into the illicit (coping) economy as a means of survival, or trafficked for sexual slavery by profit-seeking criminal networks who exploit the informal economy in a post-invasion/occupation Iraq. 

Keywords: globalisation masculinities, post-colonialism, neoliberalism, gender-based violence, transnational feminism, political economy

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Economies, Informal Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Infrastructure, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Political Economies, Security, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2015

Masculinities in Transition? Exclusion, Ethnosocial Power, and Contradictions in Excombatant Community-Based Peacebuilding in Northern Ireland

Citation:

Holland, Curtis, and Gordana Rabrenovic. 2018. "Masculinities in Transition? Exclusion, Ethnosocial Power, and Contradictions in Excombatant Community-Based Peacebuilding in Northern Ireland." Men and Masculinities 21 (5): 729-55.

Authors: Curtis Holland, Gordana Rabrenovic

Abstract:

This study critically examines how masculinities and intersecting ethnonational and social class identities underscore the social and political agencies of excombatants in Northern Ireland and in the specific context of community-based peacebuilding. The authors draw on interviews with female and male leaders in grassroots and governmental organizations, which illustrate how state-led practices of exclusion reshape such intersectional identities and increase the instrumentality of hypermasculinist, pseudo-paramilitary practices in maintaining excombatants’ status and control on neighborhood levels. The research documents how structural dynamics of excombatants’ social class locations and political disaffection help shape their social agencies of “resistance,” underscored by desires for autonomy and recognition, and channeled by ethnogendered scripts rooted in both violent cultures of paramilitarism and nonviolent peacebuilding masculinities. The implications on women of male excombatants’ takeover of leadership roles in the community sector are also discussed.

Keywords: masculinities, peacebuilding, paramilitaries, class, Northern Ireland, exclusion, transitional justice

Topics: Armed Conflict, Class, Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Justice, Transitional Justice, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Paramilitaries, Peacebuilding Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2018

Ecomasculinities: Negotiating Male Gender Identity in U.S. Fiction

Citation:

Cenamor, Rubén, and Stefan L. Brandt, eds. 2019. Ecomasculinities: Negotiating Male Gender Identity in U.S. Fiction. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. 

Authors: Rubén Cenamor, Stefan L. Brandt

Annotation:

Summary: 
While there exist numerous studies on ecocriticism and ecofeminism, much less has been written about ecomasculinities. This volume contributes to filling this gap by examining models of fictional ecomasculinity in and through contemporary U.S. literature and cinema. Our study examines ecomasculinities as practices of masculinity which are deeply conservationist and can embrace non-masculine traits. In this line of thought, a main goal of the volume is to interrogate the potential of ecomasculinities to elicit in men a desire to become engage in other practices of masculinity that are counter-hegemonic and have as main goal to achieve equality on different strata of society. Bridging the gap between the Social Sciences and the Humanities, the book interrogates intersections between ecomasculinities and masculinities beyond capitalism, ecomasculinities and aging, and ecomasculinities and queerness, among others. (Summary from WorldCat)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction: Ecomasculinities: Negotiating Male Gender Identity in U.S. Fiction
Stefan L. Brandt and Rubén Cenamor
 
1. The Wild Ones: Ecomasculinities in the American Literary Imagination
Stefan L. Brandt 
 
2. Men in Nature: A Critical Analysis of the Mythopoetic Men’s Movement
Paul M. Pulé and Martin Hultman 
 
3. Eco-men from the Outer Space? Mars and Utopian Masculinities in Fin de Siècle Literature
Alessandra Calanchi
 
4. A New Man Emerges : Masculinities Beyond Capitalism and the Eco-Man in 1950’s America
Rubén Cenamor
 
5. Gender Blending and Psychic Phenomena: Forming Ecomasculinities in Gravity’s Rainbow 
Victoria Addis 
 
6. Cormac McCarthy’s Eco-men: The Loss of the Natural World in the Twentieth Century American Landscape
Layla Hendow 
 
7. Aging Men in Nature: Jane Smiley’s Ecocritical Exploration of Masculinities Across the Life Course in A Thousand Acres 
Teresa Requena 
 
8. The Film Star as Eco-Warrior: Harrison Ford Saves the Planet (and this Time It is for Real)
Virginia Luzón 
 
9. True Detective: Not Flourishing Yet, but Maybe Germinating
Bill Phillips 
 
10. Polar Bears and Electric Plugs: Green Shopping and Twenty-First Century Queer American Masculinity
Evangeline M. Heiliger 

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2019

Ecofeminism, Hegemonic Masculinity, and Environmental Movement Participation in British Columbia, Canada, 1998–2007: ‘Women Always Clean up the Mess'

Citation:

Stoddart, Mark C. J., and D. B. Tindall. 2011. “Ecofeminism, Hegemonic Masculinity, and Environmental Movement Participation in British Columbia, Canada, 1998–2007: ‘Women Always Clean up the Mess.’” Sociological Spectrum 31 (3): 342–68.

Authors: Mark C.J. Stoddart, D.B. Tindall

Abstract:

This article draws upon two waves of interviews with environmental movement members in British Columbia, Canada, in order to examine participants' interpretations of the relationship between gender and environmental politics. Four claims emerge from this analysis. First, our results support the notion that there is an affinity between environmental politics and feminism. Second, despite recent critiques of ecomaternalism and the dual subjugation of nature and women within ecofeminism, these discourses remain useful as interpretive resources for research participants. Third, while ecomaternalism is a recurrent theme, it appears to be declining in relative importance as a discursive resource. Finally, notions of hegemonic masculinity are becoming more salient as an interpretive framework. While the first two claims emphasize continuity in participants' interpretive framework, the latter findings describe shifts in participants' understandings of gender and environmental politics.

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2011

Real Men Don’t Eat (Vegetable) Quiche: Masculinity and the Justification of Meat Consumption

Citation:

Rothgerber, Hank. 2013. “Real Men Don’t Eat (Vegetable) Quiche: Masculinity and the Justification of Meat Consumption.” Psychology of Men & Masculinity 14 (4): 363–75. 

Author: Hank Rothgerber

Abstract:

As arguments become more pronounced that meat consumption harms the environment, public health, and animals, meat eaters should experience increased pressure to justify their behavior. Results of a first study showed that male undergraduates used direct strategies to justify eating meat, including endorsing pro-meat attitudes, denying animal suffering, believing that animals are lower in a hierarchy than humans and that it is human fate to eat animals, and providing religious and health justifications for eating animals. Female undergraduates used the more indirect strategies of dissociating animals from food and avoiding thinking about the treatment of animals. A second study found that the use of these male strategies was related to masculinity. In the two studies, male justification strategies were correlated with greater meat consumption, whereas endorsement of female justification strategies was correlated with less meat and more vegetarian consumption. These findings are among the first to empirically verify Adams’s (1990) theory on the sexual politics of meat linking feminism and vegetarianism. They suggest that to simply make an informational appeal about the benefits of a vegetarian diet may ignore a primary reason why men eat meat: It makes them feel like real men. 

Keywords: vegetarianism, meat eating, masculinity, meat justification

Topics: Environment, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Health, Religion

Year: 2013

Beasts, Burgers, and Hummers: Meat and the Crisis of Masculinity in Contemporary Television Advertisements

Citation:

Rogers, Richard A. 2008. “Beasts, Burgers, and Hummers: Meat and the Crisis of Masculinity in Contemporary Television Advertisements.” Environmental Communication 2 (3): 281–301.

Author: Richard A. Rogers

Abstract:

This paper examines three recent television advertisements that symbolically link meat not only with masculinity, but specifically with the “crisis in masculinity.” Using an ecofeminist lens, I engage in an intersectional analysis of these advertisements to demonstrate how they articulate the eating of meat with primitive masculinities as a response to perceived threats to hegemonic masculinity. These advertisements demon- strate that scholars interested in the status of masculinity must pay attention to the “threats” to masculinity posed by environmental and animal rights movements, and that scholars interested in environmental movements must pay attention to the role of masculinity in resisting moves toward sustainability. This analysis demonstrates the utility of ecofeminism in understanding the relationship between hegemonic masculinity and environmentalism while also pointing to the need for ecofeminism to continue to explore the implications of intersectionality for ecofeminist theory and criticism.

Keywords: ecofeminism, environmentalism, intersectionality, masculinity, meat

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Intersectionality

Year: 2008

International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities

Citation:

Flood, Michael, Judith Kegan Gardiner, Bob Pease, and Keith Pringle, eds. 2007. International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities. London: Routledge.

Authors: Michael Flood, Judith Kegan Gardiner, Bob Pease, Keith Pringle

Annotation:

Summary:
The International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities offers a comprehensive guide to the current state of scholarship about men, masculinities, and gender around the world. The Encyclopedia's coverage is comprehensive across three dimensions: areas of personal and social life, academic disciplines, and cultural and historical contexts and formations.
 
The Encyclopedia:
  • examines every area of men's personal and social lives as shaped by gender
  • covers masculinity politics, the men's groups and movements that have tried to change men's roles
  • presents entries on working with particular groups of boys or men, from male patients to men in prison
  • incorporates cross-disciplinary perspectives on and examinations of men, gender and gender relations
  • gives comprehensive coverage of diverse cultural and historical formations of masculinity and the bodies of scholarship that have documented them.
 
The Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities is composed of over 350 free-standing entries written from their individual perspectives by eminent scholars in their fields. Entries are organized alphabetically for general ease of access but also listed thematically at the front of the encyclopedia, for the convenience of readers with specific areas of interest. (Summary from CRC Press)

Topics: Gender, Men, Boys, Masculinity/ies

Year: 2007

Green Intersections: Caring Masculinities and the Environmental Crisis

Citation:

Requena-Pelegrí, Teresa. 2017. “Green Intersections: Caring Masculinities and the Environmental Crisis.” In Masculinities and Literary Studies: Intersections and New Directions, edited by Josep M. Armengol, Marta Bosch Vilarrubias, Àngels Carabí, and Teresa Requena, 143–52. New York: Routledge.

Author: Teresa Requena-Pelegrí

Abstract:

This chapter addresses the issues raised by the interrelation between the studies on men and masculinities with environmental concerns and care. In the first one, "Raw Water" by Wells Tower, the aggressive domination of nature is coupled with the development of a hypermasculinity that proves to be ultimately destructive to both others and the environment. In the second case, Scott Russell Sander's nonfiction text Hunting for Hope, which constitutes a manifesto for engagement and responsibility for the world we live in, a meditation on the ways to build a masculine identity upon the foundations of care and restoration. The weight of the destructive responsibility men have historically had in their relationship with nature remains paramount in the shape of the impending economic, social, and environmental issues. The particular intersection between two different areas, gender and ecocriticism, has been accomplished by the field of ecofeminism, thus revealing the ways in which patriarchal attitudes have historically exploited both women and nature. (Taylor and Francis)

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy

Year: 2017

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