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The Myths of Violence: Gender, Conflict, and Community in El Salvador


Hume, Mo. 2008. “The Myths of Violence: Gender, Conflict, and Community in El Salvador.” Latin American Perspectives 35 (5): 59-76.

Author: Mo Hume


Emprirical data gathered in El Salvador indicate that knowledge about violence there is built upon an exclusionary and highly masculinist logic. Violence has come to be perceieved  as normal through a political  project that has actively employed terror to persure its ends. The process has been made possible by a legitimiation of violence as a key element of male gender identity. Political circumstances in El Salvador, principally in war, have both nourished and reinforced a sense of gender identity based on polarization, exclusion, and hegemony.

Keywords: El Salvador, masculinities, violence, gender, Subaltern

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: El Salvador

Year: 2008

Scripting the Macho Man: Hypermasculine Socialization and Enculturation


Mosher, Donald L., and Silvan S. Tomkins. 1988. “Scripting the Macho Man: Hypermasculine Socialization and Enculturation.” The Journal of Sex Research 25 (1): 60–84.

Authors: Donald L. Mosher , Silvan S. Tomkins


Tomkins' (1979) script theory offers a coherent, heuristic, and elegant account of the macho personality constellation (Mosher & Sirkin, 1984), consisting of: (a) callous sexual attitudes, (b) violence as manly, and (c) danger as exciting. A script is a set of rules for interpreting, directing, defending, and creating the scenes making up the life of the macho man. The macho script organizes childhood scenes in which so-called "superior, masculine" affects–like excitement and anger–were socialized to be favored over so-called "inferior, feminine" affects–like distress and fear. Furthermore, both adolescent rites of passage in male youth social networks and processes of enculturation in the American culture and its mass media continue that hypermasculine socialization. The ideological script of machismo descends from the ideology of the warrior and the stratifications following warfare–victor and vanquished, master and slave, the head of the house and woman as his complement, the patriarch and his children. The personality script of the macho man and his ideology of machismo mutually amplify one another–simultaneously justifying his lifestyle and celebrating his world view. In his dangerous, adversarial world of scarce resources, his violent, sexually callous, and dangerous physical acts express his "manly" essence.

Keywords: Macho, hypermasculinity, Script, Affect, Socialization

Topics: Gender, Men, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Masculinism, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1988

Putting ‘Mercenary Masculinities’ on the Research Agenda


Higate, Paul. 2009. “Putting ‘Mercenary Masculinities’ on the Research Agenda.” SPAIS Working Paper 03-09, School of Sociology, Politics, and International Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Author: Paul Higate


Private Military Security Companies (PMSC) have come increasingly to supplant the activities of regular, national militaries - most notably in such contexts as Iraq and Afghanistan. Though a wide scholarship has addressed questions of legitimacy, regulation and control of PMSCs, critical commentators on gender have almost entirely overlooked the masculinised cultures of these private firms, the majority of which employ former military personnel. This is surprising since masculine norms, values and cultures shape private contractors security practices and can be used to explain human rights abuses, as well as the everyday ways in which these men imagine security. In these terms, the key critical issue concerns what is missed when masculinity is ignored in analyses of PMSCs, a question that is taken up in this working paper within the context of a potential research agenda for this topic of research.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Rights, Human Rights, Security, Violence, Weapons /Arms

Year: 2009

Bodies In/out of Place: Hegemonic Masculinity and Kamins’ Motherhood in Indian Coal Mines


Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala. 2013. “Bodies In/out of Place: Hegemonic Masculinity and Kamins’ Motherhood in Indian Coal Mines.” South Asian History and Culture 4 (2): 213–29. doi:10.1080/19472498.2013.768846.

Author: Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt


In public discourse and representation, mine pits are naturalized as masculine domains – as the most obvious place of work for men by virtue of their physiological or biological traits. In this article I explore how such hegemonic masculinity is constructed, propagated and accepted as natural. Towards this aim, I bring together within a large frame the debates around the past and present conditions of women in the coal mines in eastern India, debates that allow us to further excavate the sources and spaces of masculinist discourses in the mining industry as a whole. More specifically, I analyse the debate that took place in the 1920s centering on women’s reproductive functions in the collieries. Within this context, women’s bodies are the source of biological essentialism, which justifies their exclusion and promulgates mining masculinity.

Keywords: coal mines, kamins, masculinity, women miners, colonial mines, women workers

Topics: Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Livelihoods, Sexuality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2013

Marketing Militarized Masculinities: An Ethnographic Account of Racial and Gendered Practices in Private Security Contractors in Afghanistan


Chisholm, Amanda. 2011. "Marketing Militarized Masculinities: An Ethnographic Account of Racial and Gendered Practices in Private Security Contractors in Afghanistan." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association Annual Conference ‘Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition,' Montreal, March 16-19.

Author: Amanda Chisholm

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Militarization, Race Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2011

Military Privatization and the Remasculinization of the State: Making the Link Between the Outsourcing of Military Security and Gendered State Transformations


Stachowitsch, Saskia. 2013. “Military Privatization and the Remasculinization of the State: Making the Link Between the Outsourcing of Military Security and Gendered State Transformations.” International Relations 27 (1): 74-94.

Author: Saskia Stachowitsch


This article examines the gendered implications of military privatization and argues that the outsourcing of military functions to the private sector excludes women from newly developing private military labour markets, impedes gender equality policies and reconstructs masculinist gender ideologies. This process constitutes a remasculinization of the state, in the course of which the nexus between state-sanctioned violence and masculinity is being reaffirmed. Recent research has introduced the concept of masculinity to the study of the private security sector. Building upon these approaches, the article integrates feminist theories of the state into the research field and evaluates their potential contributions to the analysis of military privatization. In an exemplary case study of the US military sector, this privatization is embedded within debates on the neo-liberal restructuring of the state and addressed as a gendered process through which the boundaries between the public and the private are being redrawn. The implications of these transformations are investigated at the levels of gender-specific labour division, gender policy and gender ideologies.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security

Year: 2013

Learning to Love after Learning to Harm: Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Gender Equality and Cultural Values


Andrews, Penelope E. 2007. “Learning to Love after Learning to Harm: Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Gender Equality and Cultural Values.” Michigan State Journal of International Law 15 (1): 41–62.

Author: Penelope E. Andrews


The question that the Jacob Zuma rape trial and its aftermath raised was how a country like South Africa, with such a wonderful Constitution and expansive Bill of Rights, could generate such negative and retrogressive attitudes towards women. In line with this inquiry, this article raises three issues: The first focuses on the legacy of apartheid violence and specifically the cultures of masculinity, the underbelly of apartheid violence. Second, the article explores the findings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), a vital part of the post-apartheid  transformation agenda, to examine how the TRC pursued violations of women's human rights. The third part of the analysis is an examination of the last twelve years of constitutional transformation in South Africa, and particularly the pursuit of gender equality and the eradication of violence against women.

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Governance, Constitutions, Justice, TRCs, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2007

Hirsch Lecture: Gender, Masculinities, and Transition in Conflicted Societies


Cahn, Naomi, and Fionnuala Ní Aoláin. 2009. “Hirsch Lecture: Gender, Masculinities, and Transition in Conflicted Societies.” New England Law Review 44 (1): 1–23.

Authors: Naomi Cahn, Fionnuala Ní Aoláin


This Article uses a gender lens to explore how conflict affects men and women differently. It examines issues related to the emergence of certain kinds of "hyper" masculinity in situations of conflict and how such masculinities continue to function in subsequent peace-building attempts. This Article argues that a failure to account for and be cognizant of these specific masculinities has a significant effect for women in particular and, more generally, on the success of the conflict transition process. Finally, we show how using a gender lens could make a difference by considering the specific example of the impact of violent masculinities on disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration programs.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, DDR, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Year: 2009

Gender, Masculinity, and Globalization: Soldiers for Hire and Hegemonic Masculinity


Via, Sandra. 2010. “Gender, Masculinity, and Globalization: Soldiers for Hire and Hegemonic Masculinity.” In Gender, War, and Militarism: Feminist Perspectives, edited by Sandra Via and Laura Sjoberg, 42-54. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Author: Sandra Via

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Masculinism, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism

Year: 2010

Gender and Nationalism: The Masculinizations of Hinduism and Female Political Participation in India


Banerjee, Sikata. 2003. “Gender and Nationalism: The Masculinization of Hinduism and Female Political Participation in India.” Women’s Studies International Forum 26 (2): 167-79. doi:10.1016/S0277-5395(03)00019-0.

Author: Sikata Banerjee


Feminist analysis has revealed the gendered nature of nations and nationalism. Adopting such a perspective, this paper analyzes the relationship between the masculinization of Hindu nationalism and female political participation. The image of an aggressive male warrior is central to certain versions of Hindu nationalism or Hindutva in contemporary India. This image is embedded within a political narrative, which declares its affinity for ideas of resolute masculinity through an array of symbols, historic icons, and myths. Given that Indian women are very visible in the politics of Hindutva, this paper interrogates how women have created a political space for themselves in a very masculinist narrative. This interrogation focuses on historical and cultural processes that enabled this masculinization, certain ideals of femininity implicit within this narrative which opens the door for female participation, and womens' use of images and icons drawn from a common cultural milieu to enter the political landscape of Hindutva.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Nationalism, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2003


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