Male Combatants

A Gendered Uprising: Political Representation and Minority Ethnic Communities

Citation:

Burlet, Stacey, and Helen Reid. 1998. “A Gendered Uprising: Political Representation and Minority Ethnic Communities.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 21 (2): 270-87.

Authors: Stacey Burlet, Helen Reid

Abstract:

This article explores the interface between gender and ethnicity in a microlevel study of a conflict which involved members of a minority ethnic community. Focusing on gender reactions to the unfolding conflict, it explores arguments raised by women in its aftermath. These arguments concern who has the right to define and represent them in public spaces in the future. The specific conflict examined took place in Bradford, UK, in 1995, and involved male Pakistani Muslim youths and the police. In the aftermath, public debate on the issue has centered on community representation in general and the role of male youth in particular. It is argued that the conflict also accelerated a process whereby Pakistani Muslim women are (re)defining intra- and inter-community relationships in the public sphere. This article affirms that the gender analysis being employed by these women to understand the events of 1995 has wider implications for the future management of plural societies, and poses a challenge to the dominance of men in creating, maintaining and managing public spaces.

Topics: Age, Youth, Armed Conflict, Combatants, Male Combatants, Ethnicity, Gender, Gender Analysis Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 1998

Association of Combatant Status and Sexual Violence with Health and Mental Health Outcomes in Postconflict Liberia

Citation:

Johnson, Kirsten, Jana Asher, Stephanie Rosborough, Amisha Raja, Rajesh Panjabi, Charles Beadling, and Lynn Lawry. 2008. “Association of Combatant Status and Sexual Violence with Health and Mental Health Outcomes in Postconflict Liberia.” JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 300 (6): 676–90.

Authors: Kirsten Johnson, Jana Asher, Stephanie Rosborough, Amisha Raja, Rajesh Panjabi, Charles Beadling, Lynn Lawry

Abstract:

The article reports on the results of research which was conducted in an effort to assess the prevalence and impact of war related psychosocial trauma, including information on participation in the Liberian civil wars, exposure to sexual violence, social functioning and mental health. Researchers surveyed 1,666 adults over a three week period. They found that both female and male former combatants who experienced sexual violence had worse mental health outcomes than noncombatants and other former combatants who did not experience exposure to sexual violence.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Trauma, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2008

Gender Differences in Mental Health Diagnoses Among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans Enrolled in Veterans Affairs Health Care

Citation:

Maguen, Shira, Li Ren, Jeane O. Bosch, Charles R. Marmar, and Karen H. Seal. 2010. “Gender Differences in Mental Health Diagnoses Among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans Enrolled in Veterans Affairs Health Care.” American Journal of Public Health 100 (12): 2450–56.

Authors: Shira Maguen, Li Ren, Jeane O. Bosch, Charles R. Marmar, Karen H. Seal

Abstract:

We examined gender differences in sociodemographic, military service, and mental health characteristics among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans. We evaluated associations between these sociodemographic and service characteristics and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses.

Methods: In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, we used univariate descriptive statistics and log binominal regression analyses of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data on 329049 OEF and OIF veterans seeking VA health care from April 1, 2002, through March 31, 2008.

Results: Female veterans were younger and more likely to be Black and to receive depression diagnoses than were male veterans, who were more frequently diagnosed with PTSD and alcohol use disorders. Older age was associated with a higher prevalence of PTSD and depression diagnoses among women but not among men.

Conclusions: Consideration of gender differences among OEF and OIF veterans seeking health care at the VA will facilitate more targeted prevention and treatment services for these newly returning veterans.

Topics: Age, Combatants, Female Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries

Year: 2010

Prevalence of War-Related Sexual Violence and Other Human Rights Abuses Among Internally Displaced Persons in Sierra Leone

Citation:

Amowitz, Lynn L., Chen Reis, Kristina Hare Lyons, Beth Vann, Binta Mansaray, Adyinka Akinsulure-Smith, Louise Taylor, and Vincent Iacopino. 2002. “Prevalence of War-Related Sexual Violence and Other Human Rights Abuses Among Internally Displaced Persons in Sierra Leone.” JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 287 (4): 513-21.

Authors: Lynn L. Amowitz, Chen Reis, Kristina Hare Lyons, Beth Vann, Binta Mansaray, Adyinka Akinsulure-Smith, Louise Taylor, Vincent Iacopino

Abstract:

Context: Sierra Leone's decade-long conflict has cost tens of thousands of lives and all parties to the conflict have committed abuses.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and impact of war-related sexual violence and other human rights abuses among internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Sierra Leone.

Design and Setting: A cross-sectional, randomized survey, using structured interviews and questionnaires, of internally displaced Sierra Leone women who were living in 3 IDP camps and 1 town, which were conducted over a 4-week period in 2001.

Participants: A total of 991 women provided information on 9166 household members. The mean (SE) age of the respondents was 34 (0.48) years (range, 14-80 years). The majority of the women sampled were poorly educated (mean [SE], 1.9 [0.11] years of formal education); 814 were Muslim (82%), and 622 were married (63%).

Main Outcome Measures: Accounts of war-related sexual assault and other human rights abuses.

Results: Overall, 13% (1157) of household members reported incidents of war-related human rights abuses in the last 10 years, including abductions, beatings, killings, sexual assaults and other abuses. Ninety-four (9%) of 991 respondents and 396 (8%) of 5001 female household members reported war-related sexual assaults. The lifetime prevalence of non–war-related sexual assault committed by family members, friends, or civilians among these respondents was also 9%, which increased to 17% with the addition of war-related sexual assaults (excluding 1% of participants who reported both war-related and non–war-related sexual assault). Eighty-seven percent of women believed that there should be legal protection for women's human rights. More than 60% of respondents believed that a man has a right to beat his wife if she disobeys, and that it is a wife's duty/obligation to have sex with her husband even if she does not want to.

Conclusions: Sexual violence committed by combatants in Sierra Leone was widespread and was perpetrated in the context of a high level of human rights abuses against the civilian population.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Male Combatants, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against Women Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2002

Sexual Symbolism in the Language of the Air Force Pilot: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Folk Speech

Citation:

Kenagy, S. G. 1978. “Sexual Symbolism in the Language of the Air Force Pilot: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Folk Speech.” Western Folklore 37 (2): 89–101.

Author: S. G. Kenagy

Topics: Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1978

‘Same Banana’: Hazing and Honor at the Philippine Military Academy

Citation:

McCoy, Alfred W. 1995. “‘Same Banana’: Hazing and Honor at the Philippine Military Academy.” The Journal of Asian Studies 54 (3): 689-726.

Author: Alfred W. McCoy

Topics: Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Men, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 1995

Domesticating Military Masculinities: Home, Performance and the Negotiation of Identity

Citation:

Atherton, Stephen. 2009. “Domesticating Military Masculinities: Home, Performance and the Negotiation of Identity.” Social & Cultural Geography 10 (8): 821-36.

Author: Stephen Atherton

Abstract:

Here, I explore the domestication of masculine identities that occurs within the British Army, and the transitions that take place upon re-entry into civilian life. Through oral accounts I highlight how men renegotiate their identity within the 'home' and within 'society' and seek to add to the debate on how we analyse a cultural repertoire of masculinities that are appropriate to particular places. In particular, I draw out: (1) how a domesticated body fit for purpose is created and maintained within the British Army; (2) how and with what effect an embodied routine and self-discipline is transferred into a home environment; and (3) the re-imaging of home life through the performance of these masculine identities.

Topics: Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2009

Doing Gender in the Midst of War: The Example of the Demobilization Process of Paramilitaries in Medellín, Colombia 2003-2007

Citation:

Echavarría Alvarez, Josefina. 2009. “Doing Gender in the Midst of War: The Example of the Demobilization Process of Paramilitaries in Medellín, Colombia 2003-2007.” Peace Studies Journal 2 (2): 51-75.

Author: Josefina Echavarría Alvarez

Abstract:

This article examines how the demobilization process of former paramilitary groups in the Colombian city of Medellín does gender by representing the ‘traditional nuclear family’ as the marker of pacification for former male combatants. By reading the Democratic Security Policy, it makes visible the ways in which the state project of security aims at fixing the moral boundaries of the identity category of nationals. It looks at the security practice of demobilization, individual as well as collective ones, and interrogates how it informs and shapes traditional notions of family. Finally, this article highlights the functions and effects that the invisibility of gender plays in the legitimation of the state project of security and questions the violence embedded in sanctioned gender relationships.

Keywords: security, identity, Gender, war on terror, demobilization

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Male Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Men, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Security, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2009

Dismembering the Male: Men's Bodies, Britain and the Great War

Citation:

Bourke, Joanna. 1996. Dismembering the Male: Men's Bodies, Britain and the Great War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Author: Joanna Bourke

Abstract:

Some historians contend that femininity was "disrupted, constructed and reconstructed" during World War I, but what happened to masculinity? Using the evidence of letters, diaries, and oral histories of members of the military and of civilians, as well as contemporary photographs and government propoganda, Dismembering the Male explores the impact of the First World War on the male body. Each chapter explores a different facet of the war and masculinity in depth. Joanna Bourke discovers that those who were dismembered and disabled by the war were not viewed as passive or weak, like their civilian counterparts, but were the focus of much government and public sentiment. Those suffering from disease were viewed differently, often finding themselves accused of malingering. Joanna Bourke argues convincingly that military experiences led to a greater sharing of gender identities between men of different classes and ages. Dismembering the Male concludes that ultimately, attempts to reconstruct a new type of masculinity failed as the threat of another war, and with it the sacrifice of a new generation of men, intensified.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Post-Conflict Regions: Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 1996

Disarming Masculinities

Citation:

Myrttinen, Henri. 2003. “Disarming Masculinities.” Disarmament Forum: Women, Men, Peace and Security 4: 37–46.

Author: Henri Myrttinen

Abstract:

In this article, the author analyzes some of the ways in which enactments of masculinities and the wielding of weapons go together, as well as the sexualized imagery used in conjunction with weapons. He argues that the public display, the threat of or actual use of weapons is an intrinsic part of violent, militarized models of masculinity. He further states that weapons are part of one notion of masculinity and are used as masculine status symbols. (ISN ETH Zurich)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Male Combatants, DDR, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Sexuality, Violence, Weapons /Arms

Year: 2003

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