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Livelihoods

Covid-19 and Feminism in the Global South: Challenges, Initiatives and Dilemmas

Citation:

Al-Ali, Nadje. 2020. "Covid-19 and Feminism in the Global South: Challenges, Initiatives and Dilemmas."' European Journal of Women's Studies: 1-15. doi: 10.1177/1350506820943617. 

Author: Nadje Al-Ali

Abstract:

 

The article addresses the gendered implications of Covid-19 in the Global South by paying attention to the intersectional pre-existing inequalities that have given rise to specific risks and vulnerabilities. It explores various aspects of the pandemic-induced ‘crisis of social reproduction’ that affects women as the main caregivers as well as addressing the drastic increase of various forms of gender-based violence. Both, in addition to growing poverty and severely limited access to resources and health services, are particularly devastating in marginalized and vulnerable communities in the Global South. The article looks at specific regions and countries to illustrate wider challenges faced by LGBTQ populations, ethnic minorities, domestic workers, migrants and sex workers. Against the background of these gendered intersectional challenges, the article then moves to discuss feminist initiatives and mobilizations to deal with the crisis in specific local contexts as well as nationally, regionally and transnationally. It concludes by highlighting a number of visions, tensions and dilemmas faced by feminists in the Global South that will need to be taken into consideration in terms of transnational feminist solidarities.

Keywords: africa, Asia, Covid-19 pandemic, crisis in social reproduction, Global South feminism, accumulation by dispossession, middle east, transnational feminism

Topics: Domestic Violence, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Intersectionality, LGBTQ, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods Regions: Africa, MENA, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America, Asia, Middle East

Year: 2020

Climate Trouble: Women in Coastal Communities in the Philippines Respond to Climate Changes

Citation:

Dalisay, Soledad Natalia. 2018. "Climate Trouble: Women in Coastal Communities in the Philippines Respond to Climate Changes." Diliman Gender Review 1: 53-73.

Author: Soledad Natalia Dalisay

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Climate change characterized by sea level change and extreme weather events, among others, is currently experienced by communities worldwide. Coastal communities are particularly vulnerable as climate change adversely affects fishing, the main source of livelihood of settlements along the shore. This paper looks into the experiences of the participants in the First Philippine National Workshop on Women in Fisheries and Climate Change held in Bohol, Philippines in 2010; women in coastal communities from the three major island groups of the Philippines (namely, Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao); and NGO workers who had deep engagement with grassroots women in their partner coastal communities. It covers the challenges the women faced, the explanatory models they utilized as they tried to make sense of the environmental changes, and the strategies they employed to cope with these challenges. It reveals how some of the local knowledge utilized by the people continued to help them cope with the environmental and climatic challenges while other traditional knowledge no longer seemed to be adaptive in the current environmental context. It shows the health and socio-economic impacts of climate changes. It highlights gendered differences in concerns and strategies, particularly those employed by women within their respective fishing communities as shaped by their roles and responsibilities -- including the burden of household recovery and rehabilitation. The paper also tackles recommendations drawn from the women themselves, particularly on self-empowerment towards working hand in hand with the men in achieving resilience and reducing disaster risk in their communities.

FILIPINO ABSTRACT:
Ang pagbabago ng klima at kapaligiran ay ramdam na sa mundo sa kasalukuyan. Ang papel na ito ay nagpakita ng mga karanasan ng mga kababaihan na naninirahan sa mga komunidad sa tabing-dagat na lumahok sa First Philippine National Workshop on Women in Fisheries and Climate Change na ginanap sa Tagbilaran, Bohol. Ang mga komunidad na ito ay masasabing bulnerable dahil sa pag-angat ng lebel ng karagatan at pati na rin ang pabagubagong panahon. Dahil dito ay nasabi ng mga kababaihan na apektado ang kanilang pangunahing kabuhayan na pangingisda, ilang aspeto ng kanilang kalusugan, relasyong pampamilya at iba pang gawain sa buhay. Kasama ring inilalahad ng papel na ito ang mga paraan kung paano nila naipapaliwanag ang mga pagbabago sa kanilang kapaligiran hango sa kanilang kaalamang-bayan at kung paano nila nireresolba ang mga hamong kanilang hinaharap. Ang mga karanasang naisalaysay ng mga kababaihan ay nagpapakita ng pagkakaiba nila sa mga gawi ng mga kalalakihan na naninirahan din sa tabing-dagat. Naipakita rin ng papel na ito na ang bigat ng pagharap sa mga hamon ng pabagubagong klima ay pasan ng mga kababaihan, habang ang mga kalalakihan naman ay abala sa paghahanap-buhay. Ang papel ay nagtatapos sa paglalahad ng mga rekomendasyon na mula na rin sa mga kababaihang naglalayong ibayong pagtibayin ang kanilang kakayahan kasama ang kanilang asawa at mga mahal sa buhay, nang mangibabaw sa mga paghamon ng pagbabago ng klima at kapaligiran.

Keywords: women in coastal communities, climate change, climate coping, climatic and environmental extremes

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Roles, Health, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2018

A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Women's Agency and Adaptive Capacity in Climate Change Hotspots in Asia and Africa

Citation:

Rao, Nitya, Arabinda Mishra, Anjal Prakash, Chandni Singh, Ayesha Qaisrani, Prathigna Poonacha, Katharine Vincent, and Claire Bedelian. 2019. "A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Women's Agency and Adaptive Capacity in Climate Change Hotspots in Asia and Africa." Nature Climate Change 9: 964-71.

Authors: Nitya Rao, Arabinda Mishra, Anjal Prakash, Chandni Singh, Ayesha Qaisrani, Prathigna Poonacha, Katharine Vincent, Claire Bedelian

Abstract:

There is growing concern about sustainable and equitable adaptation in climate change hotspots, commonly understood as locations that concentrate high climatic variability, societal vulnerability and negative impacts on livelihood systems. Emphasizing gender within these debates highlights how demographic, socioeconomic and agro-ecological contexts mediate the experiences and outcomes of climate change. Drawing on data from 25 qualitative case studies across three hotspots in Africa and Asia, analysed using qualitative comparative analysis, we show how and in what ways women’s agency, or the ability to make meaningful choices and strategic decisions, contributes to adaptation responses. We find that environmental stress is a key depressor of women’s agency even when household structures and social norms are supportive or legal entitlements are available. These findings have implications for the effective implementation of multilateral agreements such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction and the Sustainable Development Goals.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Regions: Africa, Asia

Year: 2019

Women's Vulnerability to Climate Change: Gender-skewed Implications on Agro-based Livelihoods in Rural Zvishavane, Zimbabwe

Citation:

Chidakwa, Patience, Clifford Mabhena, Blessing Mucherera, Joyline Chikuni, and Chipo Mudavanhu. 2020. "Women's Vulnerability to Climate Change: Gender-skewed Implications on Agro-based Livelihoods in Rural Zvishavane, Zimbabwe." Indian Journal of Gender Studies 27 (2): 259-81.

Authors: Patience Chidakwa, Clifford Mabhena, Blessing Mucherera, Joyline Chikuni, Chipo Mudavanhu

Abstract:

Climate change presents a considerable threat to human security, with notable gender disproportions. Women's vulnerability to climate change has implications on agro-based livelihoods, especially the rural populace. The primary purpose of this study was to assess women's vulnerability to climate change and the gender-skewed implications on agro-based livelihoods in rural Zvishavane, Zimbabwe. A qualitative approach that used purposive sampling techniques was adopted. Data was collected through 20 in-depth interviews with 11 de jure and 9 de facto small-scale female-headed farmer households. Two focus group discussions with mixed de facto and de jure small-scale female-headed farmer households were also conducted. Five key informant interviews were held with departmental heads of the Ministry of Women's Affairs, Gender and Community Development; the Agriculture Technical Extension Service Department; the Livestock Production Department; the Runde Rural District Council and the Meteorological Services Department. Gendered effects were noted in terms of increased roles and responsibilities for women. Observations showed that there was an increase in distances travelled by women to fetch water owing to a depleted water table. Climate-induced migration of men due to depleted livelihoods in rural areas has also increased roles and responsibilities for women. The traditional male responsibilities assumed by women included cattle herding and ox-driven ploughing. This study concluded that adaptation strategies towards vulnerability to climate change have to be gender-sensitive and area-specific. This study also recommended that response programmes and policies meant to curb existing gendered vulnerabilities should be informed by evidence because climate-change effects are unique for different geographical areas. Moreover, adaptation activities should be mainstreamed in community processes so as to reduce the burden on women and increase sustainability opportunities.

Keywords: de facto household head, de jure household head, gender, smallholder farmers, vulnerability, climate change

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2020

The Role of the Microcredit Program in Women's Empowerment in a Natural Disaster-Prone Area of Bangladesh: A Critical Analysis

Citation:

Ara, Mst Jesmin. 2019. "The Role of the Microcredit Program in Women's Empowerment in a Natural Disaster-Prone Area of Bangladesh: A Critical Analysis." International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research 5 (3).

Author: Mst Jesmin Ara

Abstract:

Natural disasters such as cyclone and flood in the coastal areas of Bangladesh has become a common phenomenon, especially since the last two decades due to the impact of global climate change and global warming. The impacts of natural disasters among the residents of coastal areas are enormous. They face huge financial loss due to the unemployment, deaths of domestic animals, lower crop productions, broken or affected houses, and so on. In addition, they become vulnerable both physically and psychologically during and post-disaster period. However, the impacts of the natural disasters are not the same over men and women. Women become more vulnerable due to their double duties, lack of safety, and for the patriarchal nature of society. The microcredit organizations arguably try to reduce the vulnerabilities of these women by providing short-term loan and also claim to empower them. Therefore, the study emphasizes whether these women are, in reality, becoming empowered. The study was conducted among 384 women who were purposively selected from 6367 households in Southkhali Union, Sarankhola Upazila (sub-district), Bagherhat district, Bangladesh. Results show the overwhelming majority of the participants (90%) were somehow affected by the last natural disaster, either by a cyclone or flood. Regarding the usage of microcredit, the majority of the participants (57%) who are the receivers of microcredit could not use the money independently, as their husbands took the loan from them forcefully. And only 8% of them could invest the microcredit in productive activity such as starting a small business. It is worth noting that 82% of the participants mentioned that their engagement with the microcredit organizations could not change their role in the family, e.g., they could participate in the decision making procedure within the household.

Keywords: natural disaster, empowerment, microcredit, women, Bangladesh

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework for Gender Analysis of Attitudes and Adaptation Mechanisms to Climate Change for Sustainable Livelihoods in Uganda

Citation:

Nagasha, Judith Irene, Michael Ocaido, and Elizabeth Kaase-Bwanga. 2019. "Theoretical and Conceptual Framework for Gender Analysis of Attitudes and Adaptation Mechanisms to Climate Change for Sustainable Livelihoods in Uganda." Journal of African Studies and Development 11 (4): 51-8.

Authors: Judith Irene Nagasha, Michael Ocaido, Elizabeth Kaase-Bwanga

Abstract:

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity today. The prerequisite to respond to the effects of climate change is widely recognized in scholarly literature. Climate change will bring with it increased frequency of natural disasters that distresses crop farmers and livestock keepers which eventually affects the livelihoods of rural households. Uganda is one of the African countries severely hit by these impacts with women being the most affected. Despite the existence of institutions and policies, evidence shows that climate change effects are real. This paper provides a comprehensive review of different concepts, theories, models and frameworks using a gender perspective. It describes theories and a framework for gender analysis, attitudes and adaptation mechanisms to climate change for sustainable livelihoods. Gender socialization, role constraint; intra-household decision making and institutional theories were underpinned using gender lenses to identify conceptual framework to identify practical strategies for addressing climate change. The paper emphasizes that a successful adaptation hinges on the nature of participation of the existing formal and informal institutions through focusing on the involvement of both men and women. The paper concludes by proposing a gender sensitive theoretical and conceptual framework that should be adopted in rural communities of marginal productive lands in sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: climate change, gender, sustainable livelihoods

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2019

Connecting to Economic Opportunity: the Role of Public Transport in Promoting Women’s Employment in Lima

Citation:

Martinez, Daniel F., Oscar A. Mitnik, Edgar Salgado, Lynn Scholl, and Patricia Yañez-Pagans. 2020. “Connecting to Economic Opportunity: the Role of Public Transport in Promoting Women’s Employment in Lima.” Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy 3 (March): 1–23.

Authors: Daniel Martinez, Oscar A. Mitnik, Edgar Salgado, Lynn Scholl, Patricia Yañez-Pagans

Abstract:

Limited access to safe transportation is one of the greatest challenges to labor force participation faced by women in developing countries. This paper quantifies the causal impacts of improved urban transport systems in women’s employment outcomes, looking at Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and elevated light rail investments in the metropolitan region of Lima, Perú. We find large gains in employment and earnings per hour among women, and not for men, due to these investments. Most of the gains arise on the extensive margin, with more women being employed, but employment does not appear to be of higher quality than that for comparison groups. We find also evidence of an increase in the use of public transport. Results are robust to alternative specifications and we do not find evidence that they are driven by neighborhood composition changes or reorganization of economic activity. Overall, these findings suggest that infrastructure investments that make it faster and safer for women to use public transport can generate important labor market impacts for women who reside in the area of influence of the improved infrastructure.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2020

Climate Change, Agriculture and Gender in Gaza: Assessing the Implications of the Climate Crisis for Smallholder Farming and Gender within Olive and Grape Value Chains in Gaza

Citation:

Casas, Norman Martín, Asmaa Abumezied, and Charlotte L. Sterrett. 2020. Climate Change, Agriculture and Gender in Gaza: Assessing the Implications of the Climate Crisis for Smallholder Farming and Gender within Olive and Grape Value Chains in Gaza. Oxfam.

Authors: Norman Martín Casas, Asmaa Abumezied, Charlotte L. Sterrett

Annotation:

Summary:
Women and men working in smallholder olive and grape sectors in Gaza face many difficulties in eking out a living, many as a result of a long blockade that restricts free movement of people and goods and access to land needed for agriculture, severely hampering any economic prospects. Climate change exacerbates the crisis, with rising temperatures and sea levels causing further shocks, stresses and uncertainty. This research assesses smallholder farmers’ capacity to absorb, adapt and transform their livelihoods in the face of these challenges – with a particular focus on women, who bear the brunt of climate change and inequality – and suggests a range of actions that should be taken to address the crisis. (Summary from Oxfam)

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2020

Gender and Climate Change Adaptation Decisions among Farm Households in Southwest Nigeria

Citation:

Ade, Amusa Taofeeq. 2014. "Gender and Climate Change Adaptation Decisions among Farm Households in Southwest Nigeria." PhD diss., University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Author: Amusa Taofeeq Ade

Abstract:

This study investigated gender and climate change adaptation decisions among farm households in Southwest Nigeria. In carrying out the study, five specific objectives and five hypotheses were developed to guide the study. Multi-stage random sampling techniques were employed in selecting the 348 farm units for the study. Data for the study were obtained from primary source using structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as multinomial logit (MNL) model, vulnerability analysis, Heckman’s double stage selection model, factor analysis, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Based on the data analyzed, the study found that majority (76%) of the farmers were males while 24% were females. The average year of education of the farmers was 7 years with an average household size about 8 persons. The average year of farming experience of the farmers was 36 years. The result on source of awareness of the farmers indicated that, greater percentage (79%) of the farmers were aware of climate change through personal observation, followed by 63% of the farmers that that indicated awareness through extension agents. The study identified 13 effects of climate change of agricultural production with mean values that ranged from 2.51 to 3.58 on a 4- point rating scale. Using household adaptive capacity approach, female headed farming households in southwest Nigeria were more vulnerable to effects of climate change with higher vulnerability index of 0.73 as against male headed households with vulnerability index of 0.43. The result of Heckman’s double stage selection model with rho 0.61561, Wald2 χ= 743.72 and p≤0.0000 showed strong explanatory power of the model. The mean comparison of gender contribution to climate change adaptation decision in crop production activities showed that men had higher mean contribution of 3.42 than women with mean contribution of 2.67. On gender contribution to climate change adaptation decision making in livestock production, women had higher mean contribution of 3.55 against men with mean contribution of 3.27. The result of the parameter estimates from the multinomial logit (MNL) model was significant as indicated by χ 2 statistics are highly significant at (p<0.0000). The explanatory power of the factors as reflected by Pseudo R2 was high (69%). The factors that militate against women contributions to climate change adaptation decision as revealed by the result of varimax-rotated principal component factor analysis include: socio-infrastructural, financial/cultural, technological and institutional factors. The findings on analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was no significant (p≤0.05) difference in the mean ratings of farmers from Ekiti, Ogun and Oyo states on the intensity of the effects of climate change across the local ecological zones. The result of the t-test statistics showed a significant (p≤0.05) difference in vulnerabilities of male and female headed households to the effects of climate change in southwest Nigeria. Based on the above findings, the study inter alia recommended that government should formulate specific policies providing increased women access to education, land and off-farm activities to alleviate the gender disparity in contribution to climate adaptation decision.

Topics: Agriculture, Education, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2014

Identifying Gender Vulnerabilities in Context of Climate Change in Indus Basin

Citation:

Abbasi, Saqib Shakeel, Muhammad Zubair Anwar, Nusrat Habib, Qaisar Khan, and Kanwal Waqar. 2019. "Identifying Gender Vulnerabilities in Context of Climate Change in Indus Basin." Environmental Development 31: 34-42.

Authors: Saqib Shakeel Abbasi, Muhammad Zubair Anwar, Nusrat Habib, Qaisar Khan, Kanwal Waqar

Abstract:

Changes in temperature and hydro-meteorological patterns in Indus basin due to climate change are believed to be impacting farming communities in different ways. From a gender perspective however, impacts of change vary from place to place, household to household and for individual members of the household due to a multiplicity of factors including expectation of individual members of a household to take additional responsibilities in difficult times. As an unavoidable coping strategy, the affected communities in upper Indus basin are compelled to send male members away from home in search of alternate sources of livelihoods. This compels women to take additional responsibilities at farm, household and community levels which ultimately increase the vulnerabilities of local women. However, scenario is different in mid-stream, where women have an additional workload to manage water requirements for household and livestock. While in downstream of the basin, women are culturally and socially dependent on men which increase their vulnerability many folds. Therefore, differentiated analysis of climate change impacts, based on gender roles and responsibilities, is crucial in climate change research. This paper presents gendered vulnerabilities at different scales in up, mid and downstream of the basin.

Keywords: Indus Basin, gender vulnerability, gender role, scale

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: China, Pakistan

Year: 2019

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