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Livelihoods

Gendered Mobilities and Food Security: Exploring Possibilities for Human Movement within Hunger Prone Rural Tanzania

Citation:

Mason, Ryan, John R. Parkins, and Amy Kaler. 2017. “Gendered Mobilities and Food Security: Exploring Possibilities for Human Movement within Hunger Prone Rural Tanzania.” Agriculture and Human Values 34 (2): 423-34.

Authors: Ryan Mason, John R. Parkins, Amy Kaler

Abstract:

This paper explores the movements, meanings and potential movements of men and women as they seek to secure food resources. Using a gendered mobilities framework, we draw on 66 in-depth interviews in the Kongwa district of rural Tanzania, illustrating how people move, their motivations and understandings of these movements, the taboos, rituals, and cultural characteristics of movement that hold implications for men and women and their food security needs. Results show that male potential mobility and female relative immobility is a critical factor in understanding how mobility affects food security differentially for men and women. We identify the links between mobilities and the development of social capital, particularly amongst men. We also illustrate problems with greater integration of women into the agricultural sector when these women risk stigma and censure from the increased physical movement that this integration requires. Implications from this study are examined in light of gender transformative approaches to agricultural interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. 

Keywords: gender analysis, social norms, poverty alleviation, food production, livelihoods, social capital

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2017

Gender, Agroforestry and Food Security in Africa

Citation:

Kiptot, Evelyne, Steven Franzel, and Ann Degrande. 2014. “Gender, Agroforestry and Food Security in Africa.” Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6: 104-9.

Authors: Evelyne Kiptot, Steven Franzel, Ann Degrande

Abstract:

This paper reviews agroforestry’s contribution to food security from a gender perspective. Emphasis is placed on women’s contribution relative to men and the challenges they face. Agroforestry practices examined include fodder shrubs, ‘fertilizer trees’ and indigenous fruit trees. In examining the practices, we highlight women’s and men’s involvement in management, utilization and marketing of agroforestry products. The review shows that agroforestry makes a substantial contribution to food security. Furthermore, women are as actively involved as men; however, their level of participation and benefits are constrained by cultural norms and lack of resources. For women to benefit fully from agroforestry and hence contribute to food security, various policies, technological and institutional interventions are recommended.

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa

Year: 2014

A Political Ecology of Women, Water and Global Environmental Change

Citation:

Buechler, Stephanie, and Anne-Marie S. Hanson, eds. 2015. A Political Ecology of Women, Water and Global Environmental Change. Abingdon: Routledge.

Authors: Stephanie Buechler, Anne-Marie S. Hanson

Annotation:

Summary: 
This edited volume explores how a feminist political ecology framework can bring fresh insights to the study of rural and urban livelihoods dependent on vulnerable rivers, lakes, watersheds, wetlands and coastal environments. Bringing together political ecologists and feminist scholars from multiple disciplines, the book develops solution-oriented advances to theory, policy and planning to tackle the complexity of these global environmental changes.
 
Using applied research on the contemporary management of groundwater, springs, rivers, lakes, watersheds and coastal wetlands in Central and South Asia, Northern, Central and Southern Africa, and South and North America, the authors draw on a variety of methodological perspectives and new theoretical approaches to demonstrate the importance of considering multiple layers of social difference as produced by and central to the effective governance and local management of water resources.
 
This unique collection employs a unifying feminist political ecology framework that emphasizes the ways that gender interacts with other social and geographical locations of water resource users. In doing so, the book further questions the normative gender discourses that underlie policies and practices surrounding rural and urban water management and climate change, water pollution, large-scale development and dams, water for crop and livestock production and processing, resource knowledge and expertise, and critical livelihood studies.
This book will be of interest to students and scholars of environmental studies, development studies, feminist and environmental geography, anthropology, sociology, environmental philosophy, public policy, planning, media studies, Latin American and other area studies, as well as women’s and gender studies. (Summary from Routledge) 
 
Table of Contents: 
Foreword 
Leila Harris 
 
1. Introduction: Towards a Feminist Political Ecology of Women, Global Change and Vulnerable Waterscapes 
Anne-Marie Hanson and Stephanie Buechler 
 
2. Interrogating Large-scale Development and Inequality in Lesotho: Bridging Feminist Political Ecology, Intersectionality and Environmental Justice Frameworks 
Yvonne Braun 
 
3. The Silent (and Gendered) Violence: Understanding Water Access in Mining Areas 
Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt 
 
4. Urban Water Visibility in Los Angeles: Legibility and Access for All
Kathleen Kambic
 
5. Advances and Setbacks in Women's Participation in Water Management in Brazil 
Andrea Moraes 
 
6. Climate-water Challenges and Gendered Adaptation Strategies in Rayon, a Riparian Community in Sonora, Mexico 
Stephanie Buechler 
 
7. International Partnerships of Women for Sustainable Watershed Governance in Times of Climate Change 
Patricia E. (Ellie) Perkins and Patricia Figuieredo Walker 
 
8. Women's Contributions to Climate Change Adaptation in Egypt's Mubarak Resettlement Scheme through Cactus Cultivation and Adjusted Irrigation 
Dina Najjar 
 
9. Shoes in the Seaweed and Bottles on the Beach: Global Garbage and Women's Oral Histories of Socio-Environmental Change in Coastal Yucatán 
Anne-Marie Hanson 
 
10. Heen Kas' el'ti Zoo: Among the Ragged Lakes - Storytelling and Collaborative Water Research with Carcross/Tagish First Nation (Yukon Territory, Canada) 
Eleanor Hayman with Mark Wedge and Colleen James 
 
11. Pamiri Women and the Melting Glaciers of Tajikistan: A Visual Knowledge Exchange for Improved Environmental Governance 
Citt Williams and Ivan Golovnev 
 
12. Conclusion: Advancing Multi-Disciplinary Scholarship on Gender, Water and Environmental Change through Feminist Political Ecology 
Stephanie Buechler, Anne-Marie Hanson, Diana Liverman and Miriam Gay-Antaki

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods

Year: 2015

To Measure and to Narrate: Paths Toward a Sustainable Future

Citation:

Berik, Günseli. 2018. “To Measure and to Narrate: Paths Toward a Sustainable Future.” Feminist Economics 24 (3): 136–59.

Author: Günseli Berik

Abstract:

This contribution engages with the question of measurement of economic well-being from a feminist ecological perspective. It starts from the dual premises that it is necessary to recognize and value as important the economic, social, and environmental contributors to economic welfare and desirable for ecological and feminist economists to collaborate in moving toward a sustainable future. The study examines the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), formulated and developed by environmental-ecological economists, as a potentially useful measure that responds to both feminist and ecological economic concerns by making visible unpaid care labor and the environment. As an accounting framework that applies the monetary imputation approach, the GPI is objectionable to some ecological and feminist economists. Reviewing debates among feminist and ecological economists, this study argues that the goals and potential objections of both groups may be addressed by complementing GPI with a narrative approach in a plural and conditional policy-input process.

Keywords: Genuine Progress Indicator, unpaid care work, sustainability, ecology

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminist Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Livelihoods

Year: 2018

What Determines Poverty Transition? An Investigation of Women Livestock Farmers in Bangladesh

Citation:

Akter, Shaheen, and John Farrington. 2011. “What Determines Poverty Transition? An Investigation of Women Livestock Farmers in Bangladesh.” Development in Practice 21 (2): 269–81.

Authors: Shaheen Akter, John Farrington

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article evaluates poverty transition using self-assessment in a quasi-experimental framework. Data are drawn from a survey conducted in 2006 of 400 women who were the beneficiaries of a poverty-alleviation programme which involved longer-term interventions towards building the strength of government departments, participating organisations, and beneficiaries. During the survey, when the project was approaching its conclusion, about 50 per cent of these farmers were still in the programme. The article addresses a number of key questions related to pathways out of poverty through livestock-based activities, heterogeneity in livelihood choice and its impact on household welfare, and wider applications.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Cet article évalue la transition hors de la pauvreté à l'aide de l'auto-évaluation dans un cadre quasi-expérimental. Les données sont tirées d'une étude menée en 2006 parmi 400 femmes qui étaient les bénéficiaires d'un programme d'atténuation de la pauvreté qui faisait intervenir des interventions à plus long terme visant à renforcer les départements gouvernementaux, les organisations participantes et les bénéficiaires. Durant cette étude, alors que le projet touchait à sa fin, environ 50 pour cent de ces éleveuses étaient encore dans le programme. Cet article aborde un certain nombre de questions clés liées aux chemins possibles pour sortir de la pauvreté au moyen d'activités basées sur le bétail, l'hétérogénéité dans le choix du moyen de subsistance et son impact sur le bien-être des ménages, ainsi que des applications plus larges.
 
PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT:
Este artigo avalia a transição da pobreza utilizando a auto-avaliação em uma estrutura quase-experimental. Os dados são extraídos de um levantamento realizado em 2006 com 400 mulheres que eram as beneficiárias de um programa de alívio da pobreza que envolveu intervenções de mais longo prazo voltadas ao fortalecimento de departamentos governamentais, organizações participantes e beneficiários. Durante o levantamento, quando o projeto estava abordando sua conclusão, cerca de 50 por cento destas produtoras rurais ainda estavam no programa. O artigo aborda algumas questões-chave relacionadas a maneiras de se deixar a pobreza através de atividades que envolvem gado, heterogeneidade na escolha dos meios de subsistência e seu impacto no bem-estar familiar e aplicações mais abrangentes.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Este ensayo analiza la evolución de la pobreza utilizando un método de autoevaluación en un marco semiexperimental. Las estadísticas proceden de encuestas realizadas a 400 mujeres beneficiarias de un programa de reducción de la pobreza en 2006. El programa consistió en acciones a largo plazo para fortalecer a agencias gubernamentales, organizaciones y beneficiarias. Durante el periodo de las encuestas, hacia el final del programa, alrededor de la mitad de las campesinas seguía participando. Este ensayo aborda varias interrogantes en torno a las vías para superar la pobreza a través de actividades ganaderas, de la diversificación de medios de subsistencia y de su impacto en el bienestar familiar, entre otras aplicaciones.

Keywords: Gender and Diversity, Labour and livelihoods, technology, South Asia

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2011

The Role of Gender in Improving Adaptation to Climate Change among Small-Scale Fishers

Citation:

Musinguzi, Laban, Vianny Natugonza, Jackson Efitre, and Richard Ogutu-Ohwayo. 2018. “The Role of Gender in Improving Adaptation to Climate Change among Small-Scale Fishers.” Climate and Development 10 (6): 566-76.

Authors: Laban Musinguzi, Vianny Natugonza, Jackson Efitre, Richard Ogutu-Ohwayo

Abstract:

Climate change disproportionately affects marginalized groups, especially women. To guide the integration of gender roles in interventions to improve adaptation, we examined gender roles among fishers on Lake Wamala, Uganda, which has been increasingly affected by climate change. We found lower participation of women than men in preharvest and postharvest fishing activities, with 99% of fishers and 92.9% of fish processors and traders combined being men. The men had more fishing experience, started fishing at a younger age and exited at a later age, targeted more species, used more fishing gears and bought more fish for processing and trading. Although we observed diversification to non-fishery livelihoods, such as crop and livestock production to increase food security and income among others, income from these activities was not controlled or shared equally between men and women. Compared to men, women worked longer hours, engaging in more simultaneous activities both in and out of the home and reported less time resting. The income controlled by women was used directly to meet household needs. The implications of these differences for adaptation, what men and women can do best to enhance adaptation and how some adaptation practices and interventions can be implemented to benefit both men and women are discussed.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, small-scale fishers, gender, livelihoods, Uganda

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018

The Role of Gender Norms in Access to Agricultural Training in Chikwawa and Phalombe, Malawi

Citation:

Mudege, Netsayi N., Norita Mdege, Putri E. Abidin, and Sandra Bhatasara. 2017. “The Role of Gender Norms in Access to Agricultural Training in Chikwawa and Phalombe, Malawi.” Gender, Place & Culture 24 (12): 1689-710.

Authors: Netsayi N. Mudege, Norita Mdege, Putri E. Abidin, Sandra Bhatasara

Abstract:

Based on qualitative research conducted in Chikwawa and Phalombe in Malawi, this article discusses how gender relations shape men and women’s access to and participation in agricultural training. It also examines how men and women justify or challenge gender inequalities in relation to access to agricultural information and knowledge. Data on gender and recruitment to and participation in training, barriers to training and access to information as well as farmer to farmer extension models were collected and analysed. A gender relations approach, focusing on power and inequality, was used to analyse the data. The data shows that the perception of men as household heads and women as carers or helpers who are also illiterate and ignorant often has implications on women’s ability to access training and information. Negative stereotypical perceptions about women by their husbands and extension workers militate against women’s access to training and information. Institutional biases within extension systems reproduce gender inequality by reinforcing stereotypical gender norms. Extension officers should be targeted with training on gender responsive adult learning methodologies and gender awareness to help them be more inclusive and sensitive to women’s needs.

Keywords: agriculture, extension, gender, gender relations, Malawi

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Malawi

Year: 2017

Farm Income, Gender Differentials and Climate Risk in Cameroon: Typology of Male and Female Adaptation Options across Agroecologies

Citation:

Molua, Ernest L. 2011. “Farm Income, Gender Differentials and Climate Risk in Cameroon: Typology of Male and Female Adaptation Options across Agroecologies.” Sustainability Science 6: 21-35. 

Author: Ernest L. Molua

Abstract:

This paper explores the response to risk of smallholder agricultural producers in the face of variable and changing climate in Cameroon. The low rainfall distribution in some regions of the country and the high inter-seasonal variability of rainfall makes crop production, on which the livelihood of rural inhabitants is based, a risky enterprise. Women farmers in Cameroon are an important group for whom risk aversion influences production outcomes and welfare. This study identifies and analyses the effect of climate risks on the productive activities and the management options of male and female farmers. Women-owned farms, on average, record profits of US$ 620 per hectare to about US$ 935 for crop enterprises across the different agroecological zones. Comparatively static results indicate that increases in climate variability and the uncertainty of climate conditions have an explicit impact on farm profit. The impacts of increased uncertainty in climate and risk aversion are ambiguous depending on the agroecology. Ex-ante and ex-post risk management options reveal that female-owned farms in the northern Sahel savannah zone rely on more sophisticated strategies to reduce the impact of shocks. While adapting to uncertain climate positively influences profit levels, risk measured as the variance of rainfall or temperature per unit variation in profit is significant. This analysis stresses the increased importance of climate risk management as a prelude to the panoply of adaptation choice in response to expected climatic change. 

Keywords: Cameroon, agriculture, female-owned farm, climate, uncertainty, risk aversion

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon

Year: 2011

Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment

Citation:

MacGregor, Sherilyn, ed. 2017. Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment. New York: Routledge.

Author: Sherilyn MacGregor

Annotation:

Summary:
The Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment gathers together state-of-the-art theoretical reflections and empirical research from leading researchers and practitioners working in this transdisciplinary and transnational academic field. Over the course of the book, these contributors provide critical analyses of the gender dimensions of a wide range of timely and challenging topics, from sustainable development and climate change politics, to queer ecology and interspecies ethics in the so-called Anthropocene.
 
Presenting a comprehensive overview of the development of the field from early political critiques of the male domination of women and nature in the 1980s to the sophisticated intersectional and inclusive analyses of the present, the volume is divided into four parts:
 
Part I: Foundations
Part II: Approaches
Part III: Politics, Policy and Practice
Part IV: Futures
 
Comprising chapters written by forty contributors with different perspectives and working in a wide range of research contexts around the world, this Handbook will serve as a vital resource for scholars, students, and practitioners in environmental studies, gender studies, human geography, and the environmental humanities and social sciences more broadly. (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Rachel Carson Was Right – Then and Now 
Joni Seager
 
2. The Death of Nature: Foundations of Ecofeminist Thought 
Charis Thompson and Sherilyn MacGregor
 
3. The Dilemma of Dualism 
Freya Mathews
 
4. Gender and Environment From ‘Women, Environment and Development’ to Feminist Political Ecology
Bernadette P. Resurrección
 
5. Ecofeminist Political Economy: A Green and Feminist Agenda
Mary Mellor
 
6. Naturecultures and Feminist Materialism
Helen Merrick
 
7. Posthumanism, Ecofeminism, and Inter-species Relations
Greta Gaard
 
8. Gender, Livelihoods, and Sustainability: Anthropological Research
Maria Cruz-Torres and Pamela McElwee
 
9. Gender’s Critical Edge: Feminist Political Ecology, Postcolonial Intersectionality, and the Coupling of Race and Gender
Sharlene Mollett
 
10. Gender and Environmental Justice
Julie Sze
 
11. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern: Sociological Explanations
Chenyang Xiao and Aaron M. McCright
 
12. Social Ecology: A Transdisciplinary Approach to Gender and Environment Research
Diana Hummel and Immanuel Stieß
 
13. Gender and Environmental (In)security: From Climate Conflict to Ecosystem Instability
Nicole Detraz
 
14. Gender, Environmental Governmentality, and the Discourses of Sustainable Development
Emma A. Foster
 
15. Feminism and Biopolitics: A Cyborg Account
Catriona Sandilands
 
16. Exploring Industrial, Eco-Modern, and Ecological Masculinities
Martin Hultman
 
17. Transgender Environments
Nicole Seymour
 
18. A Fruitless Endeavour: Confronting the Heteronormativity of Environmentalism
Cameron Butler
 
19. Gender and Environmental Policy
Seema Arora-Jonsson
 
20. Gender Politics in Green Parties
Stewart Jackson
 
21. Good Green Jobs for Whom? A Feminist Critique of the Green Economy
Beate Littig
 
22. Gender Dimensions of Sustainable Consumption
Ines Weller
 
23. Sexual Stewardship: Environment, Development, and the Gendered Politics of Population
Jade Sasser
 
24. Gender Equality, Sustainable Agricultural Development, and Food Security
Agnes A. Babugura
 
25. Whose Debt for Whose Nature? Gender and Nature in Neoliberalism’s War Against Subsistence
Ana Isla
 
26. Gender and Climate Change Politics
Susan Buckingham
 
27. Changing the Climate of Participation: The Gender Constituency in the Global Climate Change Regime
Karren Morrow
 
28. Planning for Climate Change: REDD+SES as Gender-Responsive Environmental Action
Marcela Tovar-Restrepo
 
29. Pragmatic Utopias: Intentional Gender-Democratic and Sustainable Communities
Helen Jarvis
 
30. Feminist Futures and ‘Other Worlds’: Ecologies of Critical Spatial Practice
Meike Schalk, Ulrika Gunnarsson-Östing and Karin Bradley
 
31. Orca Intimacies and Environmental Slow Death: Earthling Ethics for a Claustrophobic World 
Margret Grebowicz
 
32. The End of Gender or Deep Green Trans-Misogyny?
Laura Houlberg
 
33. Welcome to the White (m)Anthropocene? A Feminist-Environmentalist Critique
Giovanna Di Chiro

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Intersectionality, Livelihoods, Political Economies

Year: 2017

Measuring Care: Gender, Empowerment, and the Care Economy

Citation:

Folbre, Nancy. 2006. "Measuring Care: Gender, Empowerment, and the Care Economy." Journal of Human Development 7 (2): 183-99.

Author: Nancy Folbre

Abstract:

How should “care” be defined and measured in ways that enhance our understanding of the impact of economic development on women? This paper addresses this question, suggesting several possible approaches to the development of indices that would measure gender differences in responsibility for the financial and temporal care of dependents.

Keywords: gender, care, empowerment, dependents, unpaid work, Time use

Topics: Development, Economies, Care Economies, Gender, Livelihoods, Political Economies

Year: 2006

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