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Livelihoods

The Role of Gender in Improving Adaptation to Climate Change among Small-Scale Fishers

Citation:

Musinguzi, Laban, Vianny Natugonza, Jackson Efitre, and Richard Ogutu-Ohwayo. 2018. “The Role of Gender in Improving Adaptation to Climate Change among Small-Scale Fishers.” Climate and Development 10 (6): 566-76.

Authors: Laban Musinguzi, Vianny Natugonza, Jackson Efitre, Richard Ogutu-Ohwayo

Abstract:

Climate change disproportionately affects marginalized groups, especially women. To guide the integration of gender roles in interventions to improve adaptation, we examined gender roles among fishers on Lake Wamala, Uganda, which has been increasingly affected by climate change. We found lower participation of women than men in preharvest and postharvest fishing activities, with 99% of fishers and 92.9% of fish processors and traders combined being men. The men had more fishing experience, started fishing at a younger age and exited at a later age, targeted more species, used more fishing gears and bought more fish for processing and trading. Although we observed diversification to non-fishery livelihoods, such as crop and livestock production to increase food security and income among others, income from these activities was not controlled or shared equally between men and women. Compared to men, women worked longer hours, engaging in more simultaneous activities both in and out of the home and reported less time resting. The income controlled by women was used directly to meet household needs. The implications of these differences for adaptation, what men and women can do best to enhance adaptation and how some adaptation practices and interventions can be implemented to benefit both men and women are discussed.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, small-scale fishers, gender, livelihoods, Uganda

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018

The Role of Gender Norms in Access to Agricultural Training in Chikwawa and Phalombe, Malawi

Citation:

Mudege, Netsayi N., Norita Mdege, Putri E. Abidin, and Sandra Bhatasara. 2017. “The Role of Gender Norms in Access to Agricultural Training in Chikwawa and Phalombe, Malawi.” Gender, Place & Culture 24 (12): 1689-710.

Authors: Netsayi N. Mudege, Norita Mdege, Putri E. Abidin, Sandra Bhatasara

Abstract:

Based on qualitative research conducted in Chikwawa and Phalombe in Malawi, this article discusses how gender relations shape men and women’s access to and participation in agricultural training. It also examines how men and women justify or challenge gender inequalities in relation to access to agricultural information and knowledge. Data on gender and recruitment to and participation in training, barriers to training and access to information as well as farmer to farmer extension models were collected and analysed. A gender relations approach, focusing on power and inequality, was used to analyse the data. The data shows that the perception of men as household heads and women as carers or helpers who are also illiterate and ignorant often has implications on women’s ability to access training and information. Negative stereotypical perceptions about women by their husbands and extension workers militate against women’s access to training and information. Institutional biases within extension systems reproduce gender inequality by reinforcing stereotypical gender norms. Extension officers should be targeted with training on gender responsive adult learning methodologies and gender awareness to help them be more inclusive and sensitive to women’s needs.

Keywords: agriculture, extension, gender, gender relations, Malawi

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Malawi

Year: 2017

Farm Income, Gender Differentials and Climate Risk in Cameroon: Typology of Male and Female Adaptation Options across Agroecologies

Citation:

Molua, Ernest L. 2011. “Farm Income, Gender Differentials and Climate Risk in Cameroon: Typology of Male and Female Adaptation Options across Agroecologies.” Sustainability Science 6: 21-35. 

Author: Ernest L. Molua

Abstract:

This paper explores the response to risk of smallholder agricultural producers in the face of variable and changing climate in Cameroon. The low rainfall distribution in some regions of the country and the high inter-seasonal variability of rainfall makes crop production, on which the livelihood of rural inhabitants is based, a risky enterprise. Women farmers in Cameroon are an important group for whom risk aversion influences production outcomes and welfare. This study identifies and analyses the effect of climate risks on the productive activities and the management options of male and female farmers. Women-owned farms, on average, record profits of US$ 620 per hectare to about US$ 935 for crop enterprises across the different agroecological zones. Comparatively static results indicate that increases in climate variability and the uncertainty of climate conditions have an explicit impact on farm profit. The impacts of increased uncertainty in climate and risk aversion are ambiguous depending on the agroecology. Ex-ante and ex-post risk management options reveal that female-owned farms in the northern Sahel savannah zone rely on more sophisticated strategies to reduce the impact of shocks. While adapting to uncertain climate positively influences profit levels, risk measured as the variance of rainfall or temperature per unit variation in profit is significant. This analysis stresses the increased importance of climate risk management as a prelude to the panoply of adaptation choice in response to expected climatic change. 

Keywords: Cameroon, agriculture, female-owned farm, climate, uncertainty, risk aversion

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon

Year: 2011

Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment

Citation:

MacGregor, Sherilyn, ed. 2017. Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment. New York: Routledge.

Author: Sherilyn MacGregor

Annotation:

Summary:
The Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment gathers together state-of-the-art theoretical reflections and empirical research from leading researchers and practitioners working in this transdisciplinary and transnational academic field. Over the course of the book, these contributors provide critical analyses of the gender dimensions of a wide range of timely and challenging topics, from sustainable development and climate change politics, to queer ecology and interspecies ethics in the so-called Anthropocene.
 
Presenting a comprehensive overview of the development of the field from early political critiques of the male domination of women and nature in the 1980s to the sophisticated intersectional and inclusive analyses of the present, the volume is divided into four parts:
 
Part I: Foundations
Part II: Approaches
Part III: Politics, Policy and Practice
Part IV: Futures
 
Comprising chapters written by forty contributors with different perspectives and working in a wide range of research contexts around the world, this Handbook will serve as a vital resource for scholars, students, and practitioners in environmental studies, gender studies, human geography, and the environmental humanities and social sciences more broadly. (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Rachel Carson Was Right – Then and Now 
Joni Seager
 
2. The Death of Nature: Foundations of Ecofeminist Thought 
Charis Thompson and Sherilyn MacGregor
 
3. The Dilemma of Dualism 
Freya Mathews
 
4. Gender and Environment From ‘Women, Environment and Development’ to Feminist Political Ecology
Bernadette P. Resurrección
 
5. Ecofeminist Political Economy: A Green and Feminist Agenda
Mary Mellor
 
6. Naturecultures and Feminist Materialism
Helen Merrick
 
7. Posthumanism, Ecofeminism, and Inter-species Relations
Greta Gaard
 
8. Gender, Livelihoods, and Sustainability: Anthropological Research
Maria Cruz-Torres and Pamela McElwee
 
9. Gender’s Critical Edge: Feminist Political Ecology, Postcolonial Intersectionality, and the Coupling of Race and Gender
Sharlene Mollett
 
10. Gender and Environmental Justice
Julie Sze
 
11. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern: Sociological Explanations
Chenyang Xiao and Aaron M. McCright
 
12. Social Ecology: A Transdisciplinary Approach to Gender and Environment Research
Diana Hummel and Immanuel Stieß
 
13. Gender and Environmental (In)security: From Climate Conflict to Ecosystem Instability
Nicole Detraz
 
14. Gender, Environmental Governmentality, and the Discourses of Sustainable Development
Emma A. Foster
 
15. Feminism and Biopolitics: A Cyborg Account
Catriona Sandilands
 
16. Exploring Industrial, Eco-Modern, and Ecological Masculinities
Martin Hultman
 
17. Transgender Environments
Nicole Seymour
 
18. A Fruitless Endeavour: Confronting the Heteronormativity of Environmentalism
Cameron Butler
 
19. Gender and Environmental Policy
Seema Arora-Jonsson
 
20. Gender Politics in Green Parties
Stewart Jackson
 
21. Good Green Jobs for Whom? A Feminist Critique of the Green Economy
Beate Littig
 
22. Gender Dimensions of Sustainable Consumption
Ines Weller
 
23. Sexual Stewardship: Environment, Development, and the Gendered Politics of Population
Jade Sasser
 
24. Gender Equality, Sustainable Agricultural Development, and Food Security
Agnes A. Babugura
 
25. Whose Debt for Whose Nature? Gender and Nature in Neoliberalism’s War Against Subsistence
Ana Isla
 
26. Gender and Climate Change Politics
Susan Buckingham
 
27. Changing the Climate of Participation: The Gender Constituency in the Global Climate Change Regime
Karren Morrow
 
28. Planning for Climate Change: REDD+SES as Gender-Responsive Environmental Action
Marcela Tovar-Restrepo
 
29. Pragmatic Utopias: Intentional Gender-Democratic and Sustainable Communities
Helen Jarvis
 
30. Feminist Futures and ‘Other Worlds’: Ecologies of Critical Spatial Practice
Meike Schalk, Ulrika Gunnarsson-Östing and Karin Bradley
 
31. Orca Intimacies and Environmental Slow Death: Earthling Ethics for a Claustrophobic World 
Margret Grebowicz
 
32. The End of Gender or Deep Green Trans-Misogyny?
Laura Houlberg
 
33. Welcome to the White (m)Anthropocene? A Feminist-Environmentalist Critique
Giovanna Di Chiro

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Intersectionality, Livelihoods, Political Economies

Year: 2017

Measuring Care: Gender, Empowerment, and the Care Economy

Citation:

Folbre, Nancy. 2006. "Measuring Care: Gender, Empowerment, and the Care Economy." Journal of Human Development 7 (2): 183-99.

Author: Nancy Folbre

Abstract:

How should “care” be defined and measured in ways that enhance our understanding of the impact of economic development on women? This paper addresses this question, suggesting several possible approaches to the development of indices that would measure gender differences in responsibility for the financial and temporal care of dependents.

Keywords: gender, care, empowerment, dependents, unpaid work, Time use

Topics: Development, Economies, Care Economies, Gender, Livelihoods, Political Economies

Year: 2006

Women, Mining and Power in Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo: The Case of Kisengo

Citation:

Bashwira, Marie-Rose, and Jeroen Cuvelier. 2019. "Women, Mining and Power in Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo: The Case of Kisengo." The Extractive Industries and Society. In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.02.010

Authors: Marie-Rose Bashwira, Jeroen Cuvelier

Abstract:

Recent decades have witnessed a growing scholarly interest in women’s involvement in ASM, with many authors drawing attention to two frequently occurring trends: the fact that women move to mining areas to escape oppressive gender rules and norms, and the remarkable efforts of women miners to exercise agency in the typically complex and unstable socio-political environments of artisanal mining sites. An important gap in the existing literature is the lack of attention for the differences in agency and the power relations between these women. This article seeks to fill this gap by presenting an ethnographic case study on the so-called mamans moutrousses, a group of women assisting artisanal miners with the drying and cleaning of minerals in coltan mines close to Kisengo, a locality situated in the Congolese Tanganyika province. Drawing inspiration from Vigh’s navigation theory, the work of Honwana, and the spatial approach advanced by Watts and Korf, the article argues that the less successful women in Kisengo’s mining business have only been able to display ‘tactic agency’, while the more successful ones have succeeded in demonstrating ‘strategic agency’.

Keywords: ASM (artisanal and small-scale mining), gender, women, Democratic Republic of Congo, governance, social navigation, agency

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2019

Diversity of Livelihoods and Social Sustainability in Established Mining Communities

Citation:

Segerstedt, Eugenia, and Lena Abrahamsson. 2019. "Diversity of Livelihoods and Social Sustainability in Established Mining Communities." The Extractive Industries and Society 6 (2): 610-9. 

Authors: Eugenia Segerstedt, Lena Abrahamsson

Abstract:

The challenges for any community that seeks to maintain a healthy and thriving social life around an operating mine have been considered at some length in research, but the picture is still far from complete. In order to pinpoint some of the gaps in research, the literature on social sustainability as applied to established mining communities in developed countries is here reviewed, and the general understanding of the social sustainability of such communities is touched on. Diversity of livelihoods is explored as an analytical lens which can be used to approach social sustainability challenges without essentializing the preferences of social groups. Extensive literature searches with keywords such as mining, work, gender, organization, social, sustainability, community, town, area, cohesion and inclusion were conducted. The results of our review show a research gap between studies of mining companies and studies of wider mining communities. We conclude that considering diversity of livelihoods can be a productive analytical tool when approaching aspects of social sustainability such as social cohesion and inclusion, gender equality, managed migration, demographics, and housing infrastructure. Continued research is recommended to further bridge the gap between studies of mining companies and studies of mining communities from the perspective of social sustainability.

Keywords: social sustainability, mining, gender, diversity, Community planning

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods

Year: 2019

Changing Masculinities in Response to Environmental Impacts of Mining: Reflections from Mindre Village, Papua New Guinea

Citation:

I-Chang, Kuo. 2019. "Changing Masculinities in Response to Environmental Impacts of Mining: Reflections from Mindre Village, Papua New Guinea." The Extractive Industries and Society. In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.03.016

Author: Kuo I-Chang

Abstract:

This article explores the relationship between environmental impacts and changing masculinities, and shows how large mining projects change men’s ‘ways of being’. Towards this goal, it reports a study carried out in Mindre village adjacent to the Basamuk refinery, in the Madang province, Papua New Guinea (PNG). First, I outline two broad strands in current arguments regarding the study of the environmental impacts of mining activities in PNG. Then I illustrate the reasons why both of these arguments can be applied in the context of Mindre. I then explain the ways in which some Mindre young men, particularly those who have been excluded from the benefits and employment of the Ramu Nickel project and have experienced environmental impacts, have struggled with coming to terms with their masculinities, and how these experiences have threatened their masculinities. Finally, this article offers suggestions regarding future studies of gendered impacts of extractive industries.

Keywords: environmental impacts, the mining industry, masculinities, Papua New Guinea

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2019

Water Hauling and Girls’ School Attendance: Some New Evidence from Ghana

Citation:

Nauges, Céline, and Jon Strand. 2017. “Water Hauling and Girls’ School Attendance: Some New Evidence from Ghana.” Environmental and Resource Economics 66 (1): 65–88.

Authors: Céline Nauges, Jon Strand

Abstract:

In large parts of the world, a lack of home tap water burdens households as the water must be brought to the house from outside, at great expense in terms of effort and time. We here study how such costs affect girls’ schooling in Ghana, with an analysis based on four rounds of the Demographic and Health Surveys. We address potential endogeneity issues by building an artificial panel of clusters using GPS coordinates. Our results indicate a significant negative relation between girls’ school attendance and water hauling activity, as a halving of water fetching times increases girls’ school attendance by about 7 percentage points on average, with stronger impacts in rural communities. Our results seem to be the first definitive documentation of such a relationship in Sub-Saharan Africa. They document some of the multiple and wide population benefits of increased tap water access, that are likely to be relevant in many African countries, and elsewhere.

Keywords: Household water access, panel data, school attendance, Sub-Saharan Africa

Topics: Education, Gender, Girls, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2017

Gender, Water, and Nutrition in India: An Intersectional Perspective

Citation:

Mitra, Amit, and Nitya Rao. 2019. “Gender, Water, and Nutrition in India: An Intersectional Perspective.” Water Alternatives 12 (1): 169–91.

Authors: Amit Mitra, Nitya Rao

Abstract:

Despite the global recognition of women’s central role in the provision, management, and utilisation of water for production and domestic use, and despite the close links between production choices, the security of water for consumption, and gendered social relations, the implications of these interlinkages for health and nutrition are under-explored. This paper seeks to fill this gap. It unpacks the gendered pathways mediating the links between water security in all its dimensions and nutritional outcomes, based on research in 12 villages across two Indian states. The findings point to the importance of the dynamic links between natural (land and water) systems and gendered human activities, across the domains of production and reproduction, and across seasons. These links have implications for women’s work and time burdens. They impact equally on physical and emotional experiences of well-being, especially in contexts constrained by the availability, access, quality, and stability of water.

Keywords: gender, water, agriculture, nutrition, food security, India

Topics: Agriculture, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Intersectionality, Livelihoods, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

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