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Effects of Gender Mainstreaming Efforts on Rural Transport Institutions in Kenya


Nyangueso, Samuel Ouma, Samuel Oyoo Orwa, Margaret Ombai, and Salma Sheba. 2020. “Effects of Gender Mainstreaming Efforts on Rural Transport Institutions in Kenya.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Transport 173 (2): 76-86.

Authors: Samuel Ouma Nyangueso , Samuel Oyoo Orwa, Margaret Ombai, Salma Sheba


This paper reports on an investigation into the effects of gender mainstreaming efforts on the institutions that deliver and support rural transport infrastructure and services in Kenya. It comes at a time when the nation is implementing robust policies, supported by enabling legislative and institutional frameworks for gender mainstreaming as required by the Constitution of Kenya 2010. A multi-level case study was conducted at national and county levels where many institutions were surveyed. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected, covering gender analysis in staffing, decision-making and procurement for a sample of rural transport institutions. Results show that gender mainstreaming efforts have transformed rural transport institutions towards gender-responsive staffing, human resource practices, budgeting, procurement and implementation of transport-related works. However, achieving the constitutional two-thirds affirmative action policy in staffing remains a challenge, more so in technical and decision-making bodies. The study found that the meaning and purpose of gender mainstreaming is not sufficiently understood by the majority of transport sector institutions. Additionally, gender-disaggregated data are neither readily available nor applied to rural transport programming and implementation. A change of strategy and long-term progressive efforts are required to realise gender equity in rural transport institutions in Kenya and beyond.

Keywords: procurement, recruitment, transport, planning

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Constitutions, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2020

Reasons of Gender. Gender, Household Composition and Land Restitution Process in Colombia


García-Reyes, Paola, and Henrik Wiig. 2020. "Reasons of Gender. Gender, Household Composition and Land Restitution Process in Colombia. Journal of Rural Studies 75: 89-97. 

Authors: Paola García-Reyes, Henrik Wiig


This article analyses the gender context of the land restitution process in Colombia using our own survey data of beneficiaries in Montes de María region on the Atlantic Coast. We find that the fulfilment of legal gender provisions takes place in cultural frames and social structures that could undermine the program's gender distributive potential. As studies on land policies and their gender impacts show, context matters greatly. Our findings confirm main insights of earlier literature with respect to occupation, origin of property and household composition as sources of gender differentiation in Latin America, but advance the agenda in two directions: by showing more nuanced differences between genders, and by highlighting the relevance of household composition in respondents’ decision-making. In particular, it is more likely that women live in one-parent households than men. Furthermore, female respondents expect other family members to work their land, while male respondents intend to work the land themselves. Such differences might have distributional effects so far not sufficiently understood and investigated.


Keywords: rural policies, gender, households composition, land restitution, land property

Topics: Gender, Land Tenure, Households, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

Mujeres campesinas, capitalismo e implementación de los Acuerdos de Paz en Dabeiba, Antioquia (Colombia)


Franco, Yeny Pino, and Yesica Paola Naranjo. 2018. "Mujeres campesinas, capitalismo e implementación de los Acuerdos de Paz en Dabeiba, Antioquia (Colombia)." Revista Kavilando 10 (1): 112-36. 

Authors: Yeny Pino Franco, Yesica Paola Naranjo


El aparato institucional del estado Colombiano está en confrontación con las demandas sociales; al día de hoy se niega a reconocer al campesinado como un grupo con unas condiciones sociales e históricas de discriminación, con una identidad en relación con la tierra y el territorio, históricamente vulnerado tanto por la guerra como por el modelo de desarrollo económico que requiere de medidas especiales para el goce de sus derechos, de igual forma se niegan a reconocer a la mujer campesina y su aporte a la economía nacional como sujeto que tiene unas condiciones de vulnerabilidad, y con grandes afectaciones por el conflicto armado. Por ello, la misma institucionalidad Estado, termina generando, desde su aparato jurídico y político, exclusión, discriminación y violencia hacia el campesinado y más, sobre la mujer campesina.
The institutional apparatus of the Colombian State is in confrontation with social demands. Today it refuses to recognize the peasantry as a group with social and historical conditions of discrimination, with an identity in relation to land and territory, which is historically violated by both war and the model of economic development, which requires special measures for the enjoyment of their rights. Likewise, they refuse to recognize the peasant woman and her contribution to the national economy as a subject, who has conditions of vulnerability, and who is highly affected by the armed conflict. Therefore, the same institutionality, the State, ends up generating, from its legal and political apparatus, exclusion, discrimination, and violence toward the peasantry and more, on the peasant woman.


Keywords: Mujeres, mujer campesina, Conflicto Armado, acuerdos de paz en Colombia, exclusión y violencia, women, peasant women, armed conflict, peace agreements in Colombia, exclusion, and violence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Class, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Peace Processes, Rights, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Masculinities and Environment


Paulson, Susan, and William Boose. 2019. “Masculinities and Environment.” CAB Reviews 14 (30): 1-12.

Authors: Susan Paulson, William Boose


This review article supports researchers and practitioners to strengthen attention to variously positioned men and masculine identities in order to increase the rigour of empirical research and to enhance outcomes of work addressing environmental issues. Masculinities interact with other factors to shape patterns of environmental management and to influence responses to environmental challenges; at the same time, human-environment dynamics produce differing expressions and experiences of masculinity. Yet, environmental initiatives implemented in many contexts and scales have been hindered by lack of attention to gendered conditions, identities and expectations associated with diversely positioned men. Theoretically, studies gathered here strive to overcome these limitations by applying concepts of plural masculinities, intersectionality and hegemonic masculinity. Methodologically, this body of work challenges universalizing stereotypes about men by situating empirical studies in specific sociocultural, ethnoracial, ecological and geographical contexts around the world. The 160 publications reviewed here illuminate three realms: productive enterprises including logging, mining, petroleum exploitation, ranching and agroindustry; lifeways and attitudes involving care for health, families and nature; environmental crises, from disasters to refugees and climate change. Evidence in each realm suggests that some masculine-identified behaviours, attitudes and resources are intertwined with environmentally destructive processes, while others support, or can support, moves toward dynamics that are healthier for humans and non-human nature. After considering skills, tools and frameworks for further research and practice, die review ends with a look at challenges of developing more systemic approaches to gender and environment.

Keywords: agroindustrial sector, attitudes, climate change, crises, environment management, gender relations, human ecology, lifestyle, literature reviews, logging, mining, natural disasters, petroleum, ranching, refugees

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Intersectionality, Livelihoods

Year: 2019

Gendered Dimensions of Population Mobility Associated with HIV Across Three Epidemics in Rural Eastern Africa


Camlin, Carol S., Adam Akullian, Torsten B. Neilands, Monica Getahun, Anna Bershteyn, Sarah Ssali, Elvin Geng, Monica Gandhi, Craig R. Cohen, Irene Maeri, Patrick Eyul, Maya L. Petersen, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, and Edwin Charlebois. and Charlebois. 2019. "Gendered Dimensions of Population Mobility Associated with HIV Across Three Epidemics in Rural Eastern Africa." Health & Place 57: 339-51.

Authors: Carol S. Camlin, Adam Akullian, Torsten B. Neilands, Monica Getahun, Anna Bershteyn, Sarah Ssali, Elvin Geng, Monica Gandhi, Craig R. Cohen, Irene Maeri, Patrick Eyul, Maya L. Petersen, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Edwin D. Charlebois


Mobility in sub-Saharan Africa links geographically-separate HIV epidemics, intensifies transmission by enabling higher-risk sexual behavior, and disrupts care. This population-based observational cohort study measured complex dimensions of mobility in rural Uganda and Kenya. Survey data were collected every 6 months beginning in 2016 from a random sample of 2308 adults in 12 communities across three regions, stratified by intervention arm, baseline residential stability and HIV status. Analyses were survey-weighted and stratified by sex, region, and HIV status. In this study, there were large differences in the forms and magnitude of mobility across regions, between men and women, and by HIV status. We found that adult migration varied widely by region, higher proportions of men than women migrated within the past one and five years, and men predominated across all but the most localized scales of migration: a higher proportion of women than men migrated within county of origin. Labor-related mobility was more common among men than women, while women were more likely to travel for non-labor reasons. Labor-related mobility was associated with HIV positive status for both men and women, adjusting for age and region, but the association was especially pronounced in women. The forms, drivers, and correlates of mobility in eastern Africa are complex and highly gendered. An in-depth understanding of mobility may help improve implementation and address gaps in the HIV prevention and care continua.

Keywords: HIV, mobility, migration, gender, Kenya, Uganda, population-based

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Health, HIV/AIDS, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya, Uganda

Year: 2019

The Impact of Non-Government Organizations on Women's Mobility in Public Life: An Empirical Study in Rural Bangladesh


Nawaz, Faraha. 2020. "The Impact of Non-Government Organizations on Women's Mobility in Public Life: An Empirical Study in Rural Bangladesh." Journal of International Women's Studies 21 (2): 94-113.

Author: Faraha Nawaz


The article aims to analyse the impact of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) on Bangladeshi rural women’s mobility in the public domain, since this is an area that is generally only frequented by men whilst women are confined to their own home and neighbourhood. In other words, the author explored how and to what extent, NGOs have brought changes to women’s freedom of movement in the public sphere. The author was influenced by the existing literature that portrays Bangladesh as a country that is characterized by poverty, patriarchy and inequality, where there is no tradition of rural women participating in the labour force, and where women’s mobility is severely restricted. In this study, the indicators of women’s mobility were explored that include women’s movement in various public places such as market, medical centre, children’s schools, and cinema. By conducting series of in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), the author collected primary data from rural women and their husbands through purposive network sampling. Secondary data was collected from the contemporary literature regarding women’s freedom of movement globally in general and Bangladesh in particular. By analysing empirical data, the article confirms that rural women’s participation in microfinance program of NGOs have enhanced their mobility in different ways. However, the women who had education and training had more mobility in public life since those women utilized the benefits of NGO programs more effectively. Surprisingly husband’s education, occupation and exposure have no positive impact on women’s mobility. 

Keywords: women, mobility, education, public life, development NGOs, women's mobility, women in Bangladesh

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2020

Rethinking Masculinity in Disaster Situations: Men's Reflections of the 2004 Tsunami in Southern Sri Lanka


Dominelli, Lena. 2020. "Rethinking Masculinity in Disaster Situations: Men's Reflections of the 2004 Tsunami in Southern Sri Lanka." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 48: 1-9. 

Author: Lena Dominelli


The role of men in disasters is rarely discussed in depth and research on this topic is scarce. Yet, masculinity is an important dimension of disasters, whether considering men's active roles in disasters, their position within family relations pre- and post-disasters, or during reconstruction. The research project, International Institutional and Professional Practices conducted in 12 southern Sri Lankan villages sought to understand men's experiences of supporting their families after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. It highlighted the importance of patriarchal relations and men's roles as providers throughout the disaster cycle. However, the picture is complicated. While most humanitarian aid is aimed at the generic person, a man, men do not have their needs as men specifically addressed during the receipt of humanitarian aid. Men who receive nothing post-disaster can become desperate, and misuse substances such as alcohol and drugs. This creates situations where men fight each other and abuse women and children within intimate relationships because the tsunami has destroyed their livelihoods and nothing has replaced these. In this article, I examine the complexities men navigate to understand their position when seeking to re-establish their connections to family and community life. I conclude that their specific needs as men require targeted interventions throughout all stages of the disaster cycle, and especially during the delivery of humanitarian aid if they are to fulfil their provider and protector roles and be steered away from behaviour that is abusive of close members of their families: wives, children, and other men.

Keywords: men, masculinity(ies), breadwinner/provider, protector, humanitarian aid, Disasters, differentiated disaster experiences, family relations, domestic violence, abusive relations

Topics: Domestic Violence, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Households, Humanitarian Assistance, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2020

Extractive Industry and the Politics of Manhood in Nigeria's Niger Delta: a Masculinity Perspective of Gender Implication of Resource Extractivism


Ashamole, Darlington C. 2019. "Extractive Industry and the Politics of Manhood in Nigeria’s Niger Delta: A Masculinity Perspective of Gender Implication of Resource Extractivism." Norma 14 (4): 255-70. 

Author: Darlington C. Ashamole


Using an empirical case study focusing on the oil-rich region of Nigeria’s Niger Delta, this paper contributes to discourse on the gender and environmental politics of resource extractivism. It examines the ways in which oil resource extraction and other activities undertaken by oil multinationals operating in the Niger Delta have impacted on men and masculinities by interfering with the process of becoming a man and triggering what the paper terms the ‘frustration of unrealised masculinity’ or the ‘frustration of failed manhood’, which the young men affected tend to express through violence. The paper further identifies the resulting violence as one of the implications of the construction of masculinity in the Niger Delta and elsewhere based on socio-economic achievements – namely marriage or breadwinning for a family and financial independence. The study uses a qualitative research paradigm involving purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews to enable direct engagement with the research population.

Keywords: masculinity, resource extractivism, environmental sustainability, livelihood, gender politics and violence, Niger Delta, corporate social responsibility

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Households, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Niger

Year: 2019

The Embodied Politics of Climate Change: Analysing the Gendered Division of Environmental Labour in the UK


Wilson, Joanna, and Eric Chu. 2019. "The Embodied Politics of Climate Change: Analyzing the Gendered Division of Environmental Labour in the UK." Environmental Politics: 1-20. 

Authors: Joanna Wilson, Eric Chu


The intersection between gender and climate change action has received little scholarly attention. To facilitate a critical orientation towards the informal economies of social reproduction, the ways that the UK’s climate politics are rooted in masculinist discourses of a green economy are illustrated. Adopting an intersectional approach, it is argued that such a green economy perspective diverts attention from labouring bodies in climate politics, invisibilising the ‘who’ in the experience of climate solutions. Through critically engaging divisions of labour in climate policy, evidenced through a feminist critical discourse analysis, it is shown how a surface-level inclusion of gender perpetuates the labouring bodies associated with specific labour markets. In response, it is suggested that an intersectional approach to climate policy can account for these omissions and highlights the ways in which a more just, intersectional climate politics might be formulated.

Keywords: climate change, politics, gender, feminism, intersectionality, environmental justice

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2019

Industrial/Breadwinner Masculinities and Climate 4 Change: Understanding the 'White Male Effect' of Climate Change Denial


Pulé, Paul, and Martin Hultman. 2019. "Industrial/Breadwinner Masculinities and Climate 4 Change: Understanding the 'White Male Effect' of Climate Change Denial." In Climate Hazards, Disasters, and Gender Ramifications, edited by Catarina Kinnvall and Helle Rydström. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Paul Pulé, Martin Hultman


Modern Western men and masculinities are shaped by socialised performances that are conditioned rather than predetermined. This chapter considers the lives of those men who occupy the most privileged positions in society in the Global North and the masculine socialisations that define them. The correlations despite class disparities are blaringly evident; they share in common an addictive allegiance to the hegemonic allegiances of hyper-masculinities or the hierarchicalisation of wealth distribution generated by natural resource exploitation. The chapter focuses on a critical analysis of industrial/breadwinner masculinities, reflective of the typology’s most acute intersections with white male effect and its compounding impacts of climate change denial. In the modern context, the beneficiaries of extractive dependent industrialisation are not only the owners of the means of production, but also include fossil fuel and mining executives, financial managers and bankers, corporate middle and senior level managers and administrators–the vast majority of direct beneficiaries being Western, white and male.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods

Year: 2019


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