Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

Land grabbing

Gendered Eviction, Protest and Recovery: A Feminist Political Ecology Engagement with Land Grabbing in Rural Cambodia


Lamb, Vanessa, Laura Schoenberger, Carl Middleton, and Borin Un. 2017. “Gendered Eviction, Protest and Recovery: A Feminist Political Ecology Engagement with Land Grabbing in Rural Cambodia.” The Journal of Peasant Studies, 44 (6) : 1215-1234. 

Authors: Vanessa Lamb , Laura Schoenberger, Carl Middleton, Borin Un


We examine what we argue has been overlooked in the Cambodian context: the roles and practices of women in relation to men and their complementary struggles to protest land grabbing and eviction, and subsequently rebuild community and state relations. We present research carried out in Cambodia in 2014–2015 in Kratie, the country’s most concessioned province. Through a feminist political ecology lens, we examine how protest and post-eviction community governance are defined as women’s or men’s work. Our case also reveals how ‘rebuilding’ gender relations in rural Cambodia simultaneously rebuilds uneven community and state relations.

Keywords: gender, land grab, eviction, Cambodia, South East Asia, state-gender relations

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gendered Discourses, Governance, Land grabbing Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2017

“We Have No Voice for That”: Land Rights, Power, and Gender in Rural Sierra Leone


Millar, Gearoid. 2015. “We Have No Voice for That”: Land Rights, Power, and Gender in Rural Sierra Leone.” Journal of Human Rights 14 (4): 45–462. 

Author: Gearoid Millar


Much attention has recently focused on the lease of land throughout the global south to nations and corporations in the global north. It is argued that local people's access to and relationships with the land are being redefined and that large segments of these populations are being denied their rights to land with potentially detrimental effects for their livelihoods and food security. This article explores one such project in Sierra Leone, focusing specifically on the experiences of rural women. The data illustrate how these women experience this 40,000 hectare bioenergy project as disempowering and disruptive. While these women may have the formal right to participate in land decisions and project benefits, they had no such right in practice. I argue here that this outcome is the result of compound disempowerment that results from the complex interaction of indigenous social and cultural dynamics and the supposedly gender-neutral logic of liberal economics.

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, International Organizations, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2015

Peasant Mining Production as a Development Strategy: The Case of Women in Gold Mining in The Brazilian Amazon


Graulau, Jeannette. 2001. “Peasant Mining Production as a Development Strategy: The Case of Women in Gold Mining in The Brazilian Amazon.” Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y Del Caribe, no. 71: 71–106.

Author: Jeannette Graulau


"The purpose of this research is to establish the grounds for a critical social scientific analysis of mineral development based upon the case study of women in informal peasant gold mining or garimpagem in the Brazilian Amazon. Situated at the local/regional level of analysis, this case study illustrates the main tensions of contemporary mineral development. First, the region's mineral development paths appear as a result of the application of liberal and neo-liberal economic policies of modernization and liberalization of primary export sectors and late on import substituting industrialization...In the second place, intersecting and conflictive discourses of local, national, and international mineral development drive regional production. Nationally owned mining companies, subsidiaries of multinational corporations, and formal and informal small-scale mining enterprises fight against each other for legitimate 'rights' over land management and mineral extraction...Third, historically dispossessed female peasantry of North, Centre, South Eastern Amazon and North East Brazil, compete against national and multinational mining firms in the extraction of minerals, mainly gold and semi-precious stones" (Graulau, 2001, p. 71).

Topics: Development, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2001

Justicia de género y tierras en Colombia: Desafíos para la era del ‘pos-acuerdo’


Meertens, Donny. 2016. "Justicia de género y tierras en Colombia: Desafíos para la era del ‘pos-acuerdo’." Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe 102: 89-100.

Author: Donny Meertens


Spanish Abstract:

Con la firma del Acuerdo de Paz entre FARC guerrilla y el Gobierno de Colombia, en Agosto de 2016, el país enfrenta un sinnúmero de desafíos para la implementación de lo pactado, no sólo en lo inmediato (desarme-desmovilización-reintegración de excombatientes y de justicia-verdad-reparación para las víctimas) sino frente a las transformaciones democráticas estipuladas para el pos-conflicto. En esta exploración reflexiono sobre la restitución de tierras como medida de reparación a víctimas y su alcance transformativo en términos de justicia de género. Colombia es el primer país en América Latina en el cual estos dos elementos, tierras y género, han sido incorporados explícitamente en un proceso de paz. Una de las conclusiones de esta reflexión es que se requiere un mayor impulso institucional a la organización de las mujeres rurales para consolidar los resultados de la restitución, articularlos a la reforma agraria pactada en el Acuerdo de Paz y contribuir así a una participación más democrática de hombres y mujeres en el desarrollo rural del pos-conflicto. 

English Abstract:

Gender and Land Justice in Colombia: Challenges for the Post-Peace Accords Era

With the signature of a Peace Accord between FARC guerrilla and the Colombian Government in August 2016, the country confronts a great number of challenges in terms of the implementation, not only of the immediate actions needed to carry out the DDR process for ex-combatants and the truth, justice and reparations measures for the victims, but also of the long-term democratic transformations agreed upon at the negotiations table. In this exploration I will reflect on the scope of land restitution as a measure of reparations, and its transformative potential in terms of gender justice. Colombia is the first country in Latin America in which these two elements, land and gender, have been explicitly included in the peace process. One of the conclusions of this reflection is that more institutional support is needed for rural women’s organizations in order to consolidate the results of a gender-just land restitution and link these to the rural reforms of the peace agenda, as a contribution to a more democratic participation of men and women in post-conflict rural development. 

Keywords: restitución de tierras, justicia, organizaciones de mujeres, proceso de paz, gênero, gender, land restitution, justice, women's organizations, peace process

Topics: Gender, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, Land grabbing, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Making the Invisible Seen: Putting Women's Rights on the Vanuatu's Land Reform Agenda


Naupa, Anna. 2017. "Making the Invisible Seen: Putting Women’s Rights on Vanuatu’s Land Reform Agenda." In Kastom, Property and Ideology: Land Transformations in Melanesia, edited by McDonnell Siobhan, Allen Matthew G., and Filer Colin, 305-26. Acton ACT, Australia: ANU Press.

Author: Anna Naupa



"While land reform was a key political driver of Vanuatu’s Independence in 1980, land policy reform only recently returned to the political arena in the mid-2000s. Finding the space to raise awareness about women’s land rights in a Vanuatu land reform context is challenged by competing reform priorities, such as redress mechanisms for unscrupulous deals, customary conflict resolution, and anti-corruption measures that had been overlooked for a couple of decades. Predominantly viewed as a male domain, the absence of women is notable in land discussions. Women have been largely invisible in state-managed land decisions, not least due to exclusionary practices by the males who control access to land in the traditional arena. Compounded by the primacy of customary land practice enshrined by Vanuatu’s Constitution and state reinforcement of such gender bias, advocating for women’s land rights—and women’s rights in general—has required culturally and politically strategic approaches to finding a place in the land reform agenda.

"This paper analyses the different strategies used to raise awareness and advocate for the recognition of women’s rights to land in Vanuatu’s policy reform context. Given the cultural context in Vanuatu, it has been necessary to adopt an advocacy model that goes beyond framing the language of rights within accepted socio-cultural constructs, to also address the political-economic dimensions of gendered access to land through identifying male champions, and to combine both upstream (awareness-raising) and downstream (coalition-building) advocacy paths. Future advocacy efforts must include greater engagement by women themselves, not just their advocates, for reform efforts to be sustainable (Naupa, 2017, 306)."

Topics: Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Oceania Countries: Vanuatu

Year: 2017

Land Tenure, Gender and Globalization: Research and Analysis from Africa, Asia and Latin America


Tsikata, Dzodzi, and Pamela Golah. 2010. Land Tenure, Gender and Globalization: Research and Analysis from Africa, Asia and Latin America. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Authors: Dzodzi Tsikata, Pamela Golah


Drawing from field research in Cameroon, Ghana, Viet Nam, and the Amazon forests of Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru, this book explores the relationship between gender and land, revealing the workings of global capital and of people's responses to it. A central theme is the people's resistance to global forces, frequently through an insistence on the uniqueness of their livelihoods." "For instance, in the Amazon, the focus is on the social movements that have emerged in the context of struggles over land rights concerning the extraction of Brazil nuts and babatu kernels in an increasingly globalised market. In Viet Nam, the process of 'de-collectivising' rights to land is examined with a view to understanding ho* gender and other social differences are reworked in a market economy." "The book addresses a gap in the literature on land tenure and gender in developing countries. It raises new questions about the process of globalisation, particularly about who the actors are (local people, the state, NGOs, multinational companies) and the shifting relations amongst them. The book also challenges the very concepts of gender, land and globalisation. (Abstract from WorldCat)


Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Dzodzi Tsikata 
2. Gender, Land Tenure and Globalisation: Exploring the Conceptual Ground
 Fiona D. Mackenzie 
3. Gender, Globalisation and Land Tenure: Methodological Challenges and Insights
Allison Goebel
4. Economic Liberalisation, Changing Resource Tenures and Gendered Livelihoods: A Study of Small-Scale Gold Mining and Mangrove Exploitation in Rural Ghana
Mariama Awumbila and Dzodzi Tsikata 
5. The Politics of Gender, Land and Compensation in Communities Traversed by the Chad- Cameroon Oil Pipeline Project in Cameroon
Joyce B.M. Endeley
6. Facing Globalisation: Gender and Land at Stake in the Amazonian Forests of Bolivia, Brazil and Peru 
Noemi Miyasaka Porro, Luciene Dias Figueiredo, Elda Vera Gonzalez, Sissy Bello Nakashima and Alfredo Wagner B. de Almeida 
7. Gender, Kinship and Agrarian Transitions in Vietnam 
Steffanie Scott, Danièle Bélanger, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, and Khuat Thu Hong 
8. Conclusion: For a Politics of Difference
Noemi Miyasaka Porro

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Globalization, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cameroon, Ghana, Peru, Vietnam

Year: 2010

Land Grab: Green Neoliberalism, Gender, and Garifuna Resistance in Honduras


Brondo, Keri Vacanti. 2013. Land Grab: Green Neoliberalism, Gender, and Garifuna Resistance in Honduras. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Author: Keri Vacanti Brondo


This is a rich ethnographic account of the relationship between identity politics, neoliberal development policy, and rights to resource management in native communities on the north coast of Honduras. It also answers the question: can freedom be achieved under the structures of neoliberalism?" (Summary from WorldCat)

Table of Contents:

1. Identity, Labor, and the Banana Economy

2. Development and Territorialization on the North Coast

3. Mestizo Irregularities, Garifuna Displacement, and the Emergence of a "Mixed" Garifuna Community

4. Gendered Rights and Responsibilities: Privatization and Women's Land Loss in Sambo Creek

5. Representing the Garifuna: Development, Territory, Indigeneity, and Gendered Activism 

6. Roots, Rights, and Belonging in Sambo Creek 

7. "Businessmen Disguised as Environmentalists": Neoliberal Conservation in Garifuna Territory

8. Research Voluntourism as Rights-Based Conservation: Could It Work?

9. Neoliberalism's Limit Points in Post-Coup Honduras 

Topics: Development, Environment, Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Political Participation, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Honduras

Year: 2013

Black Women against the Land Grab: The Fight for Racial Justice in Brazil


Perry, Keisha-Khan Y. 2013. Black Women against the Land Grab: The Fight for Racial Justice in Brazil. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Author: Keisha-Khan Y. Perry


In Brazil and throughout the African diaspora, black women, especially poor black women, are rarely considered leaders of social movements let alone political theorists. But in the northeastern city of Salvador, Brazil, it is these very women who determine how urban policies are established. Focusing on the Gamboa de Baixo neighborhood in Salvador's city center, Black Women against the Land Grab explores how black women's views on development have radicalized local communities to demand justice and social change. In Black Women against the Land Grab, Keisha-Khan Y. Perry describes the key role of local women activists in the citywide movement for land and housing rights. She reveals the importance of geographic location for understanding the gendered aspects of urban renewal and the formation of black women-led social movements. How have black women shaped the politics of urban redevelopment, Perry asks, and what does this kind of political intervention tell us about black women's agency? Her work uncovers the ways in which political labor at the neighborhood level is central to the mass mobilization of black people against institutional racism and for citizenship rights and resources in Brazil. Highlighting the political life of black communities, specifically those in urban contexts often represented as socially pathological and politically bankrupt, Black Women against the Land Grab offers a valuable corrective to how we think about politics and about black women, particularly poor black women, as a political force.

Topics: Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Political Participation, Race Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2013

Women and Gender Equity in Development Theory and Practice: Institutions, Resources, and Mobilization


Jaquette, Jane, and Gale Summerfield, eds. 2006. Women and Gender Equity in Development Theory and Practice: Institutions, Resources, and Mobilization. Duke University Press.

Author: Jane Jaquette


"Seeking to catalyze innovative thinking and practice within the field of women and gender in development, editors Jane S. Jaquette and Gale Summerfield have brought together scholars, policymakers, and development workers to reflect on where the field is today and where it is headed. The contributors draw from their experiences and research in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to illuminate the connections between women’s well-being and globalization, environmental conservation, land rights, access to information technology, employment, and poverty alleviation. Highlighting key institutional issues, contributors analyze the two approaches that dominate the field: women in development (WID) and gender and development (GAD). They assess the results of gender mainstreaming, the difficulties that development agencies have translating gender rhetoric into equity in practice, and the conflicts between gender and the reassertion of indigenous cultural identities. Focusing on resource allocation, contributors explore the gendered effects of land privatization, the need to challenge cultural traditions that impede women’s ability to assert their legal rights, and women’s access to bureaucratic levers of power. Several essays consider women’s mobilizations, including a project to provide Internet access and communications strategies to African NGOs run by women. In the final essay, Irene Tinker, one of the field’s founders, reflects on the interactions between policy innovation and women’s organizing over the three decades since women became a focus of development work. Together the contributors bridge theory and practice to point toward productive new strategies for women and gender in development" (Duke University Press).



Preface and Acknowledgments vii

Introduction - Jane S. Jaquette and Gale Summerfield

Part I Institutional Opportunities and Barriers pg. 15

Women, Gender, and Development - Jane S. Jaquette and Kathleen Staudt pg. 17

Mainstreaming Gender in International Organizations - Elisabeth Prugl and Audrey Lustgarten pg. 53

From “Home Economics” to “Microfianace: Gender Rhetoric and the Bureaucratic Resistance - David Hirschmann pg. 71

Contributions of a Gender Perspective to the Analysis of Poverty - Sylvia Chant pg. 87

What is Justice? Indigenous Women in Andean Development Projects - Maruja Barrig pg. 107

Part II. Livelihood and Control of Resouces pg. 135

Gender Equity and Rural Land Reform In China - Gale Summerfield pg. 137

Unequal Rights: Women and Property - Diana Lee-Smith and Catalina Hinchey Trujillo pg. 159

On Loan from Home: Women’s Participation in Formulating Human Settlements Policies - Faranak Miraftab pg. 173

In Theory and in Practice: Women Creating Better Accounts of the World - Louise Fortmann pg. 191

Women’s Work: The Kitchen Kills More than the Sword - Kirk R. Smith pg. 202

Part III. Women’s Mobilization and Power pg. 217

Women’s Movements in the Globalizing World: The Case of Thailand - Amara Pongsapich pg. 219

T-Shirts to Web Links: Women Connect! Communications Capacity-Building with Women’s NGOs - Doe Mayer, Barbara Pillsbury, and Muadi Mukenge pg. 240

Empowerment Just Happened: The Unexpected Expansion of Women’s Organizations - Irene Tinker pg. 268

Acronyms pg. 303

Bibliography pg. 306

Contributors pg. 352

Index pg. 357

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Justice, Land grabbing, NGOs, Rights Regions: Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia

Year: 2006

A Gendered Analysis of Land Reforms in Zimbabwe


Pasura, Dominic. 2010. “A Gendered Analysis of Land Reforms in Zimbabwe.” Women’s Studies International Forum 33 (5): 443–54. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2010.04.002.

Author: Dominic Pasura


Between 1980, when Zimbabwe attained political independence, and 2003 the government has implemented two phases of land redistribution programmes, designed to transfer land from large-scale commercial white farmers to black farmers. However, the state has paid scant attention to rural women's access to land. Studies documenting women's exclusion from Phase I land reform have tended to rely on the operation of customary law to explain why women have missed out. I question these liberal accounts and argue that a comprehensive understanding of the way rural women access land, or fail to access land, can only be gained by examining gender and power relations that operate in the villages. Phase II land reform has seen a complex intersection of criteria based on gender and political affiliation used to deny potential beneficiaries access to land, as patronage politics became the dominant means of achieving access to land.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Land grabbing, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2010


© 2019 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at

Subscribe to RSS - Land grabbing