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Land Grabbing

Gender and Land Grabbing

Citation:

Chung, Youjin B. 2020. “Gender and Land Grabbing.” In Routledge Handbook of Gender and Agriculture, edited by Carolyn E. Sachs, Leif Jensen, Paige Castellanos, and Kathleen Sexsmith. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author: Youjin B. Chung

Abstract:

In the wake of food, fuel, and financial crises of 2007/8, there has been a surge in large-scale land acquisitions in the global South, a phenomenon which became popularly known as a “global land grab.” The early literature on the topic focused broadly on making sense of what was happening when, where, how, and why. Since mid-2012, there has been a growing body of empirical research on contemporary land deals that foreground gender and other forms of social difference. This chapter provides an overview of five thematic issues on gender and land grabbing, emerging from scholarship in feminist political ecology, critical agrarian studies, feminist economics, rural sociology, and related fields. These themes include: a) consultation and negotiation; b) access to land and livelihoods; c) compensation and resettlement; d) labor relations; and e) political reactions from below and above. The chapter concludes with an invitation for continued feminist inquiry into these interconnected issues, while opening up new questions and concerns for consideration.

Topics: Economies, Feminist Economics, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Land Grabbing, Livelihoods

Year: 2020

Gender and Land Dispossession: A Comparative Analysis

Citation:

Levien, Michael. 2017. “Gender and Land Dispossession: A Comparative Analysis.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 44 (6): 1111–34.  

Author: Michael Levien

Abstract:

This paper seeks to advance our understanding of the gendered implications of rural land dispossession. It does so through a comparative analysis of five cases of dispossession that were driven by different economic purposes in diverse agrarian contexts: the English enclosures; colonial and post-colonial rice irrigation projects in the Gambia; large dams in India; oil palm cultivation in Indonesia; and Special Economic Zones in India. The paper identifies some of the common gendered effects of land dispossession, showing in each case how this reproduced women’s lack of independent land rights or reversed them where they existed, intensified household reproductive work and occurred without meaningful consultation with—much less decision-making by—rural women. The paper also demonstrates ways in which the gendered consequences of land dispossession vary across forms of dispossession and agrarian milieu. The most important dimension of this variation is the effect of land loss on the gendered division of labour, which is often deleterious but varies qualitatively across the cases examined. In addition, the paper illustrates further variations within dispossessed populations as gender intersects with class, caste and other inequalities. The paper concludes that land dispossession consistently contributes to gender inequality, albeit in socially and historically specific ways. So while defensive struggles against land dispossession will not in themselves transform patriarchal social relations, they may be a pre-condition for more offensive struggles for gender equality.

Keywords: land grabs, gender, dispossession, displacement, enclosure

Topics: Agriculture, Caste, Class, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Patriarchy, Households, Land Grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Gambia, India, Indonesia

Year: 2017

Territorialidad y desterritorialización en Atenco, Estado de México. Un análisis desde las mujeres

Citation:

Tenango, María de los Ángeles, Verónica Vázquez García, María Eugenia Chávez Arellano, y Miguel Jorge Escalona Maurice. 2017. “Territorialidad y desterritorialización en Atenco, Estado de México. Un análisis desde las mujeres.” Clivajes: Revista de Ciencias Sociales, no. 8, 25-46.

Authors: María de los Ángeles Tenango, Verónica Vázquez García, María Eugenia Chávez Arellano, Miguel Jorge Escalona Maurice

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
En este texto se examina, desde la perspectiva de las mujeres, la transformación territorial de Nexquipayac y Atenco, dos de los seis ejidos que conforman el municipio de Atenco. Los datos fueron obtenidos, entre octubre de 2014 y junio de 2016, mediante observación participante, entrevistas, talleres y cuestionarios. Aquí se describe la vocación lacustre y agropecuaria de ambos ejidos, para documentar la transformación del territorio a raíz de nuevos usos ocupacionales del suelo, alteraciones del ecosistema, conflictos en torno a la tenencia de la tierra y, más recientemente, a causa de la aprobación del dominio pleno y la venta de tierras para el nuevo Aeropuerto Internacional de la Ciudad de México, anunciado por Enrique Peña Nieto en septiembre de 2014. Concluye que hay una pérdida de recursos naturales y que las mujeres perciben de manera negativa las transformaciones del territorio, lo que ha dado lugar a un proceso de desterritorialización. 

Keywords: ejido, dominio pleno, aeropuerto, urbanización, territorio

Topics: Gender, Women, Land Grabbing, Land Tenure Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2017

Género y despojo: El caso de Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí

Citation:

Cortés Cortés, Ramon, Zapata Martelo, Emma María, y Ayala Carrillo María del Rosario. 2019. “Género y despojo: El caso de Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí.” La Manzana de la Discordia 14 (1): 7-20.

Authors: Ramon Cortés Cortés, Emma María Zapata Martelo, Ayala Carrillo María del Rosario

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
In this paper, we analyze from a gender perspective the land and identity dispossession, through the occupation of the physical space by the Minera San Xavier mining company in the municipality of Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí. Through semi-structured surveys and feminist ethnography, the results show that the mining extraction had to be supported by previous and current capitalist and patriarchal structures which favored the land dispossession, thus reproducing and spreading a hierarchical gender order, where the power of decision for the settling of the corporation, the leasing of the Cerro de San Pedro ejido, and the displacement of the La Zapatilla community was all in the hands of the men, thus privileging the male experience, while the females experienced a process of minorization and invisibilization. In order to take away the land, capitalism and patriarchy take advantage of the powerless bodies of women.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
En este trabajo se analiza, desde la perspectiva de género, el despojo territorial e identitario, a través de la ocupación del espacio físico que Minera San Xavier realizó en el municipio de Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí. Por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas y etnografía feminista, los resultados muestran que el extractivismo minero requirió apoyarse en estructuras capitalistas y patriarcales previas y actuales que facilitaron el despojo territorial, reproduciendo y ampliando un orden jerárquico de género, en donde el poder de decisión para el asentamiento de la corporación, el arrendamiento del ejido Cerro de San Pedro y el desplazamiento de la comunidad La Zapatilla, quedaron en manos de los hombres, privilegiando la experiencia masculina, mientras que la femenina experimentó un proceso de minorización e invisibilización. Para lograr despojar los territorios, capitalismo y patriarcado se aprovecharon de los cuerpos despojados de poder de las mujeres.

Keywords: género y despojo, territorio, extractivismo y género, megaminería y género, minera San Xavier, gender and dispossession, land, extractivism and gender, megamining and gender

Topics: Feminisms, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Land Grabbing Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2019

Género y arrebato de tierras: El caso del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de Ciudad de México

Citation:

García, Verónica Vázquez. 2018. “Género y arrebato de tierras: El caso del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de Ciudad de México.” Región y Sociedad 73.

Author: Verónica Vázquez García

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
En este artículo se explora la dinámica de género del arrebato de tierras en el municipio de Atenco, Estado de México, para la construcción del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de la Ciudad de México. A partir de datos obtenidos mediante la sistematización de expedientes ejidales, la observación participante y las entrevistas a profundidad, se analiza la discriminación de género en la venta de tierras y las estrategias de las mujeres para enfrentarla. El artículo contribuye a estudiar la infraestructura de comunicaciones, un sector poco teorizado; a utilizar información documental, principalmente testimonial, y a visibilizar los efectos de género y el papel de las mujeres en la resistencia. Se muestra que los agentes del arrebato de tierras son el Estado, el capital y las estructuras comunitarias que reproducen la inequidad de género, para concentrar la riqueza y los privilegios políticos en manos predominantemente masculinas.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This paper explores the gender dynamics of land grabbing in the municipality of Atenco, State of Mexico, for the construction of the New Mexico City International Airport. Drawing on data obtained through three research tools (ejidal file systematization; participant observation; in-depth interviews), the paper examines gender discrimination in land sales and women’s strategies to fight it. The article makes three contributions: analyzing a poorly theorized sector (communication infrastructure); relying on both documental and grass-root testimonies in order to do so; highlighting gender impacts and women’s roles in resistance movements. The paper shows that land grabbing involves not only State and capital, but also community structures that reproduce gender inequality and contribute to the concentration of wealth and political privilege in few, masculine hands.

Keywords: gênero, desigualdad, acaparamiento de tierras, derecho de propiedad, mercados de tierra, desamortización, gender, inequality, land grabbing, property right, land markets, disentailment

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Land Grabbing, Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2018

A Stronger Voice for Women in Local Land Governance: Effective Approaches in Tanzania, Ghana and Senegal

Citation:

Sutz, Philippine, Amaelle Seigneret, Mary Richard, Patricia Blankson Akapko, Fati Alhassan, and Mamadou Fall. 2019. A Stronger Voice for Women in Local Land Governance: Effective Approaches in Tanzania, Ghana and Senegal. London: International Institute for Environment and Development. 

 

Authors: Philippine Sutz, Amaelle Seigneret, Mary Richard, Patricia Blankson Akapko, Fati Alhassan, Mamadou Fall

Abstract:

Pressures on land have been on the rise over the past two decades across subSaharan Africa, notably due to increasing commercial interests fuelled by global demand for agricultural commodities. In Tanzania, Ghana and Senegal, such pressures have exacerbated tenure insecurity for rural populations and resulted in numerous cases of dispossession and displacement.

In many cases, rural livelihoods are being undermined: increased competition and reduced access to land impact communities’ economic development, sometimes threatening food security, and bear significant impacts on wellbeing and sociocultural identities. Communities with fragile and exclusionary governance structures are more likely to lose out. Although important progress has been made in terms of legal empowerment – including women’s empowerment –, local land governance systems across the three countries studied remain weak and gender-discriminatory.

Vulnerable members – in particular women – often hold little to no control over land and are significantly under-represented in decision-making processes, although situations can vary across areas. As a result, they tend to be more severely affected by the impacts of commercial pressures on land.

This highlights a need to address exclusion and gender-discrimination in local level governance structures. The rationale underlining this idea is that increasing social cohesion and making decision-making arrangements more participative and gender-equitable will strengthen a community’s capacity to collectively discuss and deliberate on land-related matters.

This report focuses on initiatives that have been taking place in Tanzania, Ghana and Senegal since 2016, and that aim to reinforce governance structures to make them inclusive and gender-inclusive in response to the challenges aforementioned. The approaches they developed aim to support women in entering the political space and participate meaningfully in land governance. In Tanzania, where village authorities play a key role in local land governance, the Tanzania Women Lawyers Association (TAWLA) has been working with village councils across several districts to support the adoption of gender-sensitive village bylaws promoting more inclusive and participative land governance.

In Ghana, the Network for Women’s Rights (NETRIGHT) and the Grassroots Sisterhood Foundation (GSF) have overseen the establishment of local, gender sensitive governance committees in nine communities. These advise traditional authorities in land-related decision-making processes, reflecting a local context where customs play a key role in land management.

In Senegal where customary land tenure has been abolished and land management has been devolved to the municipal level, Innovation Environnement Développement en Afrique (IED Afrique) has piloted the reform of a local government body responsible for land management. The aim is to promote the inclusion and participation of women and the adoption of a local land charter.

The report presents each initiative and associated outcomes and lessons, and then reflects on their broader implications for the future of work on gender and land rights.

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Land Grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania

Year: 2019

Agricultural Diversification and Dietary Diversity: a Feminist Political Ecology of the Everyday Experiences of Landless and Smallholder Households in Northern Ghana

Citation:

Nyantaki-Frimpong, Hanson. 2017. “Agricultural Diversification and Dietary Diversity: a Feminist Political Ecology of the Everyday Experiences of Landless and Smallholder Households in Northern Ghana.” Geoforum 86: 63-75.

Author: Hanson Nyantaki-Frimpong

Abstract:

There is an emerging literature suggesting that when smallholder households diversify their agriculture, a wide range of food groups will be available, and consequently, dietary diversity will be improved. The present article brings this literature into critical conversation with research in feminist political ecology. Grounded in five years of repeated fieldwork, the article weaves together 70 in-depth interviews, and dietary as well as farm production diversity data from 30 households in northern Ghana. This dataset is analyzed by considering not only the diversity of farming systems, but also household headship, including male-headed, de facto female-headed, and de jure female-headed. Among other findings, the paper suggests that dietary diversity scores are lowest for households who have lost their farmlands to on-going land grabbing in Ghana. Furthermore, the paper suggests that while agricultural diversification is essential, it is not sufficient in itself to address nutritional challenges confronting smallholder households. In the contested and political arena of the household, the gendered politics of access to food can deeply shape how agricultural diversification contributes to dietary diversity. Overall, I do not wish to conclude that there are no benefits of increasing the diversity of farm production. Rather, I wish to stress that farm production diversity might not be the best or only strategy to improving dietary diversity among rural households. Through this case study, I also contribute to emerging research in new feminist political ecologies by demonstrating how the intersection of gender, seniority, marital status, and sexual politics shapes resource access and control.

Keywords: farm production diversity, dietary diversity, land, gender, feminist political ecology, Ghana

Topics: Agriculture, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Households, Intersectionality, Land Grabbing Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2017

The Gender and Equity Implications of Land-Related Investments on Land Access and Labour and Income-Generating Opportunities: A Case Study of Selected Agricultural Investments in Zambia

Citation:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2013. The Gender and Equity Implications of Land-Related Investments on Land Access and Labour and Income-Generating Opportunities: A Case Study of Selected Agricultural Investments in Zambia. Rome: United Nations. 

Authors: Charlotte Wonanai, William Mbuta, Augustine Mkandawire

Annotation:

Summary:
“In recent years, Zambia has witnessed increased interest from private investors in acquiring land for agriculture. As elsewhere, large-scale land acquisitions are often accompanied with promises of capital investments to build infrastructure, bring new technologies and know-how, create employment, and improve market access, among other benefits. But agricultural investments create risks as well as opportunities, for instance in relation to loss of land for family farmers. While much debate on ‘land grabbing’ has discussed risks and opportunities in an aggregate way, it is critical to understand the distribution of the costs and benefits created by an investment project. For example agricultural investments create gendered outcomes that are poorly understood. Gender inequalities in Zambia, as seen across much of Sub-Saharan Africa, shape access to land, agricultural assets, inputs, services and rural employment opportunities. These gender inequalities are partially responsible for the underperformance of the agricultural sector. Investments in the agriculture sector must therefore account for and challenge these inequalities if they are to deliver their stated benefits.
 
This study investigates the gender dimensions of agricultural investments in Zambia through two case studies. The first case study is the Kaleya Smallholder Company Ltd (KASCOL), an agribusiness company operating in Mazabuka district in Zambia’s Southern Province since 1980. KASCOL produces sugar cane, which it sells to Zambia Sugar PLC. Cane is produced both from KASCOL’s nucleus estate and from an outgrower scheme currently involving 160 smallholders who hold 14-year renewable sub-leases on company-leased land. The second case is ETC Bio-Energy Limited, previously Mpongwe Development Company (MDC), in Mpongwe District, Copperbelt Province. ETC cultivates a mix of crops, including jatropha, on company run plantations. In 2011 ETC sold the farms to a Zambian multinational agribusiness firm, Zambeef. As this transfer occurred so recently, attention is focused in this report on assessing the experience under MDC and ETC Bio-Energy. Both KASCOL and MDC projects began as joint ventures between the government of Zambia and the Commonwealth Development Corporation (CDC). This indicates the development orientation of both of the projects from the outset albeit through a vision of agricultural modernisation through large-scale agricultural enterprises. These two cases are not representative of the new wave of land-based investments for agriculture but, because of their duration, have some lessons to share concerning gender and equity in agricultural investments” (Wonani et al. 2013, iv).

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Land Grabbing Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zambia

Year: 2013

New Agribusiness Investments Mean Wholesale Sell-out for Women Farmers

Citation:

Tandon, Nidhi. 2010. “New Agribusiness Investments Mean Wholesale Sell-out for Women Farmers.” Gender & Development 18 (3): 503–14.

Author: Nidhi Tandon

Abstract:

Globalisation impacts on local land markets and land-use; land transaction costs affect food prices; and the combined effect is particularly damaging to women who produce food and who put food on the table for their families. This paper examines three issues: what is attracting investors and market speculators into the farm and land sectors? What is at stake for small farmers and especially women farmers and long-term impacts for food production and food security? And what action is needed to enable women to secure access to natural resource and land assets for current and future generations?

Keywords: land-grab, food prices, women farmers, commodity futures trading

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Women, Globalization, Land Grabbing, Security, Food Security

Year: 2010

Post-Earthquake Land Appropriations and the Dispossession of Rural Women in Haiti

Citation:

Steckley, Marylynn, and Joshua Steckley. 2019. “Post-Earthquake Land Appropriations and the Dispossession of Rural Women in Haiti.” Feminist Economics 25 (4): 45-67.

Authors: Marylynn Steckley, Joshua Steckley

Abstract:

This study examines the trajectory of rural women’s labor in the wake of post-earthquake land appropriations in Haiti. Drawing on ethnographic field research conducted between 2010 and 2013, it explores gendered access to land in Haiti in both historical and contemporary contexts, paying attention to the nature of rural gender relations and how they influence women’s access to land and their roles in petty commerce. The study describes the stratification of rural market women, their lived experience, and how losing land access will affect their traditional roles as market women. Ultimately it argues that without access to land, and a paucity of available wage work, recent dispossession will intensify existing vulnerabilities for rural women and narrow their means of household production by forcing them to depend on informal market activity in their roles as machann (market women). 

Keywords: women's labor, primitive accumulation, agrarian transition, Haiti, earthquake, land grabs

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Households, Land Grabbing, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Haiti

Year: 2019

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