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Labor Trafficking

Trafficking Women after Socialism: To, Through, and From Eastern Europe

Citation:

Kligman, Gail, and Stephanie Limoncelli. 2005. “Trafficking Women after Socialism: To, Through, and From Eastern Europe.” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society 12 (1): 118–40.

Authors: Gail Kligman, Stephanie Limoncelli

Annotation:

Summary:
"In this article, we examine the traffic in women to, through, and from postsocialist Eastern Europe. We first discuss the complex interrelations between trafficking, prostitution, and labor migration, as well as the relationship between gendered economic transitions in Eastern Europe, the traffic, and the global sex trade. We then review contemporary trafficking routes to, through, and from eastern Europe, noting the significance of militarization, poverty, and gender. We close by outlining key issues in the development of strategies to combat trafficking and suggest the need to more critically refine its conceptualization" (Kligman and Limoncelli 2005, 120).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Europe, Eastern Europe

Year: 2005

Trafficking in girls and women in Nepal for commercial sexual exploitation: emerging concerns and gaps

Citation:

Subedi, Govind. 2009. “Trafficking in girls and women in Nepal for commercial sexual exploitation: emerging concerns and gaps.” Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies: Alam e Niswan 16 (1&2): 121-145.

Author: Govind Subedi

Abstract:

Trafficking in girls and women for sexual exploitation has a long history in Nepal. Its magnitude, processes and factors leading to trafficking have changed with the growing phenomena of urbanization, Nepal’s entry in the world labour market for carpet industry, armed conflict and the emergence of foreign labour market opportunities for Nepali youth especially after 2000. Utilising secondary data from different sources and narratives of the trafficking survivors, this article aims to critically review the contemporary trafficking situation in Nepal and Government’s and civil society’s efforts to combat trafficking and identify the new areas of concerns and gaps to combat trafficking in girls and women.

Topics: Age, Youth, Gender, Women, Girls, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2009

Trafficking and Global Crime Control

Citation:

Lee, Maggy. 2011. Trafficking and Global Crime Control. London: SAGE.

Author: Maggy Lee

Abstract:

In a world where global flows of people and commodities are on the increase, crimes related to illegal trafficking are creating new concerns for society. This in turn has brought about new and contentious forms of regulation, surveillance, and control. There is a pressing need to consider both the problem itself, and the impact of international anti-trafficking responses.

This authoritative work examines key issues and debates on sex and labor trafficking, drawing on theoretical, empirical, and comparative material to inform the discussion of major trends and future directions. The text brings together key criminological and sociological literature on migration studies, gender, globalization, human rights, security, victimology, policing, and control to provide the most complete overview available on the subject.

Suitable for students and scholars in criminology, criminal justice and sociology, this book sheds unique light on this highly topical and complex subject. (Sage Publications)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

Introduction

1. Contested Definitions of Human Trafficking

2. Contemporary Patterns of Human Trafficking

3. Constructing and Denying Victimhood in Trafficking

4. Trafficking and Transnational Organised Crime

5. The War on Human Trafficking

6. Transnational Policing in Human Trafficking

7. Rethinking Human Trafficking

Appendix A: Timeline: Key international conventions and national legislation against human trafficking

Appendix B: Useful Websites

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Globalization, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Rights, Human Rights, Security, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2011

An Atlas of Trafficking in Southeast Asia the Illegal Trade in Arms, Drugs, People, Counterfeit Goods and Natural Resources in Mainland Southeast Asia

Citation:

Chouvy, Pierre-Arnaud. 2012. An Atlas of Trafficking in Southeast Asia the Illegal Trade in Arms, Drugs, People, Counterfeit Goods and Natural Resources in Mainland Southeast Asia. London: I.B. Tauris.

Author: Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy

Abstract:

Mainland Southeast Asia is one of the world's key regions for trafficking of illegal goods. It is home to an international trade in small arms, nuclear smuggling rings, human trafficking, contraband and counterfeit goods, illicit currency and smuggled medicinal drugs. The scope and mechanisms of such trafficking, however, are far from understood. An Atlas of Trafficking in Southeast Asia brings together key researchers and cartographic specialists to provide a unique overview of the major forms of illegal trafficking in the region. Featuring 32 specially drawn full-colour maps detailing the trafficking hubs, counter-trafficking facilities and border status for each of the trafficking activities, together with political, historical, topographic, ecological and linguistic regional maps, the atlas provides an unparalleled reference resource that will be welcomed by professionals and academics across a wide range of disciplines. (I.B. Tauris)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

1. Introduction: Illegal Trades Across National Borders
Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy
2. Drug Trafficking In and Out of the Golden Triangle
Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy
3. Trafficking, Trade and Migration: Mapping Human Trafficking in the Mekong Region
David A. Feingold
4. Arms Trafficking in Mainland Southeast Asia
David Capie
5. The Jagged Edge: Illegal Logging in Southeast Asia
Vanda Felbab-Brown
6. The Illegal Trade in Wildlife in Southeast Asia and Its Links to East Asian Markets
Vanda Felbab-Brown
7. The Trade in Counterfeit Goods and Contraband in Mainland Southeast Asia
Bertil Lintner

Quotes:

“Human trafficking feeds an extensive regional prostitution market with Thailand being infamous the world over for that reason; and in terms of drug trafficking, opium and heroin are produced in bulk within the similarly ill-famed Golden Triangle. Complexity arises from the fact that human trafficking and drug trafficking can be said to be linked in some places, and to some extent, from whether drug consumption by prostitutes – and by many of their clients – is concerned or whether economic havoc created by excessively brutal and rapid eradication of illegal crops pushes women into prostitution. However, as we will see, complexity is likewise increased by the fact that many other illegal trades feed off these two major trafficking activities and their sometimes congruous networks. Some of these trades may, at some point, contribute to one another; they may also proceed, to some extent, from propitious specific regional dynamics (trafficking in drugs and arms in the context of armed conflicts, for example). It is this great diversity and complexity of illegal trading across mainland Southeast Asia that this book addresses, focusing on five of its most pervasive phenomenon: drug trafficking, human trafficking, arms trafficking, wildlife and timber trafficking, and the trade in counterfeit goods and contraband.” (1-2)

“The most active illegal border trade between Burma and Thailand occurred and still occurs at three points: Mae Sai, Mae Sot and Ranong.” (12)

“The evolution of drug trafficking in the Golden Triangle has forged new transport routes in the region and has brought abandoned routes back into service, such as those previously used by communist guerrillas. Other pathways were never abandoned. Traditional caravaners such as the Haw of Thailand and the Hui (Panthay) of Burma are very active in the regional illicit drug trade, and still use routes today that their forebears used at the end of the nineteenth century.” (13)

“Trafficking of various illegal goods almost invariably occurs along a single route, in the same cargo or not.” (14)

“The number and diversity of drug trafficking routes enable other types of smuggling and/or trafficking activities, sometimes by notorious drug traffickers themselves.” (16)

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Sexual Violence, Trafficking, Arms Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia

Year: 2012

Treading along a Treacherous Trail: Research on Trafficking in Persons in South Asia

Citation:

Ali, A.K.M. Masud. 2005. “Treading along a Treacherous Trail: Research on Trafficking in Persons in South Asia.” International Migration 43 (1/2): 141–64.

Author: A.K.M. Masud Ali

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of research on trafficking in persons in South Asia. The trend of trafficking is on the rise, but the existing knowledge base is inadequate for a full understanding of the phenomenon at the regional level. The paper is based on secondary data and analysis of existing literature on trafficking in South Asia.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2005

Understanding and Improving Law Enforcement Responses to Human Trafficking: Final Report

Citation:

Farrell, Amy, Jack McDevitt, Stephanie Fahy, Scott Decker, Vince Webb, and Nikos Passas. 2008. Understanding and Improving Law Enforcement Responses to Human Trafficking: Final Report. Boston: Northeastern University: Institute on Race and Justice.

Authors: Amy Farrell, Jack McDevitt, Stephanie Fahy, Scott Decker, Vince Webb, Nikos Passas

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Globalization, Health, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, NGOs, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2008

Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey

Citation:

Gozdziak, Elzbieta, and Frank Laczko, eds. 2005. Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey. Offprint of the Special Issues of International Migration 43 (1/2). Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Authors: Elzbieta Gozdziak, Frank Laczko

Abstract:

Human trafficking has become a global business, reaping huge profits for traffickers and organized crime syndicates, generating massive human rights violations, and causing serious problems for governments. Despite the magnitude of the problem, however, it has only recently seized policy makers’ attention.

During the last decade there has been a considerable increase in the number of studies about human trafficking. This review of research and data on trafficking shows that despite the growing literature on trafficking around the world, relatively few studies are based on extensive or empirical research, and information on the actual numbers of people trafficked remains very sketchy. The book, which includes 9 regional chapters, and 3 chapters dealing with methodological issues, suggests a number of ways in which to enhance research and data on human trafficking.

The study includes papers from more than a dozen experts. These papers were first discussed at an international conference sponsored by the Italian government which was held in Rome in May 2004. The volume is edited by Dr. Frank Laczko, Head of Research, IOM Geneva, and Dr. Elzbieta Gozdziak, Research Director, Institute for the Study of International Migration, Washington.

Topics: Gender, Health, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, NGOs, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, Oceania

Year: 2005

HUMAN TRAFFICKING AROUND THE WORLD: HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT

Citation:

Hepburn, Stephanie, and Rita J. Simon. 2013. HUMAN TRAFFICKING AROUND THE WORLD: HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT. New York: Columbia University Press.

Authors: Stephanie Hepburn, Rita J. Simon

Abstract:

An examination of human trafficking around the world including the following countries: United States, Japan, United Arab Emirates, Thailand, Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Colombia, Iraq, Syria, Canada, Italy, France, Iran, India, Niger, China, South Africa, Australia, United Kingdom, Chile, Germany, Poland, Mexico, Russia, and Brazil. (WorldCat)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Part I: Work Visa Loopholes for Traffickers
1) United States
2) Japan
3) United Arab Emirates

Part II: Stateless Persons
4) Thailand
5) Israel & The Occupied Palestinian Territories

Part III: Unrest, displacement, and Who is in charge
6) Colombia
7) Iraq
8) Syria

Part IV: Conflation
9) Canada

Part V: Conflicting Agendas
10) Italy
11) France

Part VI: Gender Apartheid
12) Iran

Part VII: Social Hierarchy
13) India
14) Niger
15) China

Part VIII: Muti Murder
16) South Africa

Part IX: Hard-to-Prove Criterion and a slap on the wrist
17) Australia
18) United Kingdom
19) Chile
20) Germany

Part X: Transparent borders
21) Poland

Part XI: Fear Factor
22) Mexico

Part XII: Poverty and Economic Boom
23) Russia
24) Brazil

Conclusion

*Each Chapter follows the following format with some variations:

Introduction
As a destination
Internal trafficking
Trafficking abroad
What happens to victims after trafficking
What happens to traffickers
Internal efforts to decrease trafficking

 

Quotes:

"Devestation from a natural disaster...creates a sudden high demand for low-wage and largely unskilled labor. Disruption of the traditional labor supply leaves room for illicit contractors to move in, and new workers can be brought in unnoticed." (19)

"There continue to be more criminal convictions of sex traffickers than of forced-labor traffickers [However, this number of individuals victimized by forced labor may be increasing]." (32)

"Many experts state that the yakuza (organized crime) networks play a significant role in the smuggling and subsequent debt bondage of women--particularly women from China, Thailand, and Colombia--for forced prostitution in Japan. Determining the exact extent of yakuza involvement is difficult because of the covert nature of the sex industry. Consequently, the yakuza are able to minimize people's direct knowledge of their involvement...The yakuza networks work with organized crime groups from other nations, such as China, Russia, and Colombia." (49-50)

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, International Law, International Human Rights, Multi-national Corporations, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Niger, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Poland, Russian Federation, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2013

Was the Slave Trade Dominated by Men?

Citation:

Eltis, David, and Stanley L. Engerman. 1992. “Was the Slave Trade Dominated by Men?” The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 23 (2): 237–57. 

Authors: David Etlis, Stanley L. Engerman

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Women, Men, Race, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking Regions: Africa, Americas

Year: 1992

Armed Conflict, War Rape, and the Commercial Trade in Women and Children’s Labour

Citation:

Farr, Kathryn. 2009. “Armed Conflict, War Rape, and the Commercial Trade in Women and Children’s Labour.” Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies: Alam-e-Niswan 16 (1 & 2): 1-31.

Author: Kathryn Farr

Abstract:

This research examined militarized sexual violence and the commercial trade in women and children in twenty three countries with ongoing or recently- ended civil wars. Findings indicate a progressive connection between assaultive violence against women during armed conflict and the commercial trade in women and children for sexual and other labour. Today’s armed conflicts target civilian in their homes and towns, in flight from violence, and in refugee and IDP settlements which are largely populated by women and children. In these wars, women suffer severe declines in their economic and security positions, and are at severely increased risk of sexual assaults by military combatants and numerous other war-related groups. Rebel and militia groups’ demands for sexual and other labour lead to both sexual enslavement and the trade of enslaved women and children. War-traumatized women and girls fall prey to traffickers, and trafficking across borders is carried out with relative impunity. With the expansion of supply and demand, sex industries gain a foothold in developing and transitioning civil- war-torn countries, and retain their prominence in traditional trafficking destination countries in the economic North, the Gulf states, and parts of South and Southeast Asia.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Displacement & Migration, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Militias, Non-state Armed Groups, Security, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, SV against women, Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking, Violence

Year: 2009

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