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Justice

Gendered Discourse About Climate Change Policies

Citation:

Swim, Janet K., Theresa K. Vescio, Julia L. Dahl, and Stephanie J. Zawadzki. 2018. “Gendered Discourse About Climate Change Policies.” Global Environmental Change 48: 216–25.

Authors: Janet K. Swim, Theresa K. Vescio, Julia L. Dahl, Stephanie J. Zawadzki

Abstract:

Extending theory and research on gender roles and masculinity, this work predicts and finds that common ways of talking about climate change are gendered. Climate change policy arguments that focus on science and business are attributed to men more than to women. By contrast, policy arguments that focus on ethics and environmental justice are attributed to women more than men (Study 1). Men show gender matching tendencies, being more likely to select (Study 2) and positively evaluate (Study 3) arguments related to science and business than ethics and environmental justice. Men also tend to attribute negative feminine traits to other men who use ethics and environmental justice arguments, which mediates the relation between type of argument and men’s evaluation of the argument (Study 3). The gendered nature of public discourse about climate change and the need to represent ethical and environmental justice topics in this discourse are discussed.

Keywords: gender, climate change, political discourse, masculinity, environmental justice

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Justice

Year: 2018

Access to Justice and Corporate Accountability: A Legal Case Study of HudBay in Guatemala

Citation:

Crystal, Valerie, Shin Imai, and Bernadette Maheandiran. 2014. “Access to Justice and Corporate Accountability: A Legal Case Study of HudBay in Guatemala.” Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue Canadienne D’Études Du Développement 35 (2): 285–303.

Authors: Shin Imai, Bernadette Maheandiran, Valerie Crystal

Abstract:

This case study looks at the avenues open for addressing serious allegations of murder, rape and assault brought by indigenous Guatemalans against a Canadian mining company, HudBay Minerals. While first-generation legal and development policy reforms have facilitated foreign mining in Guatemala, second-generation reforms have failed to address effectively conflicts arising from the development projects. The judicial mechanisms available in Guatemala are difficult to access and suffer from problems of corruption and intimidation. Relevant corporate social responsibility policies and mechanisms lack the necessary enforcement powers. Canadian courts have been reluctant to permit lawsuits against Canadian parent companies; however, in Choc v. HudBay and Yaiguaje v. Chevron Corporation, Ontario judges have allowed cases to proceed on the merits of the case, providing an important, if limited, avenue toward corporate accountability.

Keywords: mining, Latin America, Chevron, HudBay, corporate social responsibility

Topics: Corruption, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender-Based Violence, International Law, Justice, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, North America Countries: Canada, Guatemala

Year: 2014

Security Sector Reform and the Paradoxical Tension between Local Ownership and Gender Equality

Citation:

Gordon, Eleanor, Anthony Cleland Welch, and Emmicki Roos. 2015. “Security Sector Reform and the Paradoxical Tension between Local Ownership and Gender Equality.” Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 4 (1).

Authors: Eleanor Gordon, Anthony Cleland Welch, Emmicki Roos

Abstract:

This article analyses the tension or conflict that can exist between the principles of local ownership and gender equality that guide Security Sector Reform (SSR) programmes when gender discrimination and patriarchal values characterise the local environment (and ‘locals’ do not value gender equality). In these situations, international actors may be reluctant to advocate gender equality, regarding it as imposing culturally alien values and potentially destabilising to the SSR process. It is argued, however, that the tension between local ownership and gender equality is deceptive and merely serves to protect the power of dominant groups and disempower the marginalised, often serving to disguise the power relations at play in post-conflict environments and avoid addressing the security needs of those who are often at most risk. The paper concludes that rather than a tension existing between the two principles, in fact, local ownership without gender equality is meaningless. Moreover, failing to promote gender equality undermines the extent to which SSR programmes result in security and justice sector institutions that are representative of and responsive to the needs of both men and women. It can also perpetuate structural inequalities and conflict dynamics and, ultimately, limit the success of SSR and broader peacebuilding processes.

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Security, Security Sector Reform

Year: 2015

Feminism, Fairness, and Welfare: An Invitation to Feminist Law and Economics

Citation:

Hadfield, Gillian K. 2005. “Feminism, Fairness, and Welfare: An Invitation to Feminist Law and Economics.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 1 (1): 285–306.

Author: Gillian K. Hadfield

Abstract:

In recent years there has been a renewed effort to ground conventional law and economics methodology, with its exclusive focus on efficiency and income redistribution through the tax system, in modern welfare economics (Kaplow & Shavell 1994, 2001). This effort raises a challenge to the possibility of a feminist law and economics: Is it possible to be a good (welfare) economist and still maintain the ethical and political commitments necessary to address feminist concerns with, for example, rights, inequality, and caring labor? In this review, I argue that modern welfare economics, rather than supporting the ethical minimalism of conventional methodology advocated by Kaplow and Shavell, ratifies the need for an ethically and politically informed economic analysis. Feminists can, and should, use the tools of both positive and normative economics to analyze feminist issues in law.

Keywords: welfare economics, care, justice, efficiency, normative, ethics

Topics: Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Rights

Year: 2005

What About the Global South? Towards a Feminist Decolonial Degrowth Approach

Citation:

Dengler, Corinna, and Lisa Marie Seebacher. 2019. “What About the Global South? Towards a Feminist Decolonial Degrowth Approach.” Ecological Economics 157 (March): 246–52.

Authors: Corinna Dengler, Lisa Marie Seebacher

Abstract:

Degrowth calls for a profound socio-ecological transformation towards a socially just and environmentally sound society. So far, the global dimensions of such a transformation in the Global North have arguably not received the required attention. This article critically reflects on the requirements of a degrowth approach that promotes global intragenerational justice without falling into the trap of reproducing (neo-)colonial continuities. Our account of social justice is inherently tied to questions of gender justice. A postcolonial reading of feminist standpoint theory provides the theoretical framework for the discussion. In responding to two main points of criticism raised by feminist scholars from the Global South, it is argued that degrowth activism and scholarship has to reflect on its coloniality and necessarily needs to seek alliances with social movements from around the world on equal footing. Acknowledging that this task is far from easy, some cornerstones of a feminist decolonial degrowth approach are outlined.

Keywords: degrowth, decoloniality, postcolonial theory, feminist standpoint theory, post-development, environmental justice

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Environment, Gender, Gender Analysis, Globalization, Justice

Year: 2019

Re-establishing Justice as a Pillar of Ecological Economics Through Feminist Perspectives

Citation:

Spencer, Phoebe, Patricia E. Perkins, and Jon D. Erickson. 2018. “Re-Establishing Justice as a Pillar of Ecological Economics Through Feminist Perspectives.” Ecological Economics 152 (October): 191–8.

Authors: Phoebe Spencer, Patricia E. Perkins, Jon D. Erickson

Abstract:

Ecological economics has long claimed distributive justice as a central tenet, yet discussions of equity and justice have received relatively little attention over the history of the field. While ecological economics has aspired to be transdisciplinary, its framing of justice is hardly pluralistic. Feminist perspectives and justice frameworks offer a structure for appraising the human condition that bridges social and ecological issues. Through a brief overview of the uptake of feminist perspectives in other social sciences, this paper outlines an initial justice-integration strategy for ecological economics by providing both a point of entry for readers to the vast and diverse field of feminist economic thought, as well as a context for the process of disciplinary evolution in social sciences. We also critique ecological economics' toleration of neoclassical mainstays such as individualism that run counter to justice goals. The paper concludes with a call for ecological economics practitioners and theorists to learn from other social sciences and elevate their attention to justice, to open possibilities for more dynamic, interdisciplinary, community-oriented, and pluralistic analysis.

Keywords: feminist theory, justice, social science, equity, economic theory

Topics: Economies, Environment, Gender, Gender Analysis, Justice

Year: 2018

Invisible Bodies: Gender, Conflict and Peace in Mindanao

Citation:

Hilsdon, Anne-Marie. 2009. “Invisible Bodies: Gender, Conflict and Peace in Mindanao.” Asian Studies Review 33 (3): 349–65.

Author: Anne-Marie Hilsdon

Annotation:

Summary:
"Against a backdrop of “conflict” and “violence”, this article explores several community spaces where Maranao women become “invisible”. It argues that through attempts to explain how and why such exclusions and omissions occur, Maranao women's negotiated embodied existence can be understood. I focus on a number of aspects of women's invisibility. First, although women are active in community peacemaking, this activity remains invisible and generally unacknowledged in both Muslim and Christian communities. Second, the intra-community conflict of rido remains unacknowledged in both “war” and peacemaking as the government focuses almost solely on the resolution of national political conflict. In addition, Muslim women's peacemaking abilities remain unacknowledged in national peace forums. Third, although religious tolerance underpins and often propels peacemaking processes, social justice for women is lacking" (Hilsdon 2009, 350).

 

Topics: Gender, Women, conflict, Justice, Peace Processes, Religion, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2019

Women, Climate Change and Liberation in Africa

Citation:

Steady, Filomina Chioma. 2014. “Women, Climate Change and Liberation in Africa.” Race, Gender & Class 21 (1/2): 312–33.

Author: Filomina Chioma Steady

Abstract:

Women in Africa have been among the first to notice the impact of climate change and its effects on the agricultural cycle, human and animal life; food production and food security. As major custodians and consumers of natural resources, the lives of women in rural areas are profoundly affected by seasonal changes, making them among the most vulnerable to climate change. Their pivotal role in any measure aimed at mitigation and adaptation is indisputable. Despite Africa's minimal emission of green house gases, it is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate change and climate variability and is prone to ecosystem degradation and complex natural disasters. (United Nations Environment Programme, 2006). This article examines women and climate change in Africa as an aspect of Africa's environmental problems. It is argued that the ideologies that drive the exploitation of the earth's resources are linked to the legacy of colonialism and its aftermath of economic globalization. Both have important implications for continuing oppression of the environment and people, with important implications for race, gender and class. Particular attention is given to women in rural areas in Africa, who are the main custodians of environmental conservation and sustainability and who are highly threatened by environmental degradation and climate change. Yet, they are often marginalized from the decision-making processes related to solving problems of Climate Change. The paper combines theoretical insights with empirical data to argue for more attention to women's important ecological and economic roles and comments on the policy implications for Climate Change. It calls for liberation that would bring an end to economic and ecological oppression through climate justice and gender justice.

Keywords: Africa's Vulnerability, women, natural resources, colonial legacies, hazardous waste dumping, land grabs, biofuels, mining, deforestation, liberation, gender justice, climate justice

Topics: Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Globalization, Justice, Land grabbing, Race Regions: Africa

Year: 2014

Two Solitudes, Many Bridges, Big Tent: Women’s Leadership in Climate and Disaster Risk Reduction

Citation:

Enarson, Elaine. 2013. “Two Solitudes, Many Bridges, Big Tent: Women’s Leadership in Climate and Disaster Risk Reduction.” In Research, Action and Policy: Addressing the Gendered Impacts of Climate Change, edited by Margaret Alston and Kerri Whittenbury. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Author: Elaine Enarson

Abstract:

Despite commonalities in the theoretical, policy, and practical domains of climate and disaster work, unnecessary divisions persist. The chapter posits that gender analysis, too, overlooks important synergies and replicates the unhelpful ‘two solitudes’ approach. The discussion then turns to identifying positive models and concrete steps for bridging these gaps. Given the integral relationship on the ground between gender, climate and disaster, a ‘big tent’ approach is urged to reflect the concerns, resources, and expertise of gender, climate, and disaster actors equally. Neither disaster risk reduction nor climate adaptation is women’s work alone, but the historic organizing of women for social justice positions them as leaders toward community resilience.

Keywords: disaster, gender relations, climate change, Environmental challenges, women's leadership

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Justice

Year: 2013

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