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Justice

Towards New EcoMasculinities, EcoGenders, and EcoSexualities

Citation:

Gaard, Greta. 2014. “Towards New EcoMasculinities, EcoGenders, and EcoSexualities.” In Ecofeminism: Feminist Intersections with Other Animals and the Earth, edited by Carol J. Adams and Lori Gruen, 225–39. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Author: Greta Gaard

Annotation:

Summary:
“Are there masculinities that could be consistent with ecofeminist praxis? From years of organizing through the ‘chain of radical equivalences’ among social movement actors, advocated by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe (1985) as crucial to the formation of a radically democratic social movement, eco-justice activists and scholars have learned the value of deconstructing the role of the Dominant Master Self, and providing a location for even those constructed as dominant (whether via race, gender, class, sexuality, or nationality) to embrace a radically ecological vision and stand with—rather than on top of—the earth’s oppressed majorities. For any egalitarian socioeconomic and eco-political transformation, such as that advocated by ecofeminism to be possible, both individuals and institutions need to shift away from overvaluing exclusively white, male, and masculinized attributes and behaviors, jobs, environments, economic practices, laws and political practices, in order to recognize and enact eco-political sustainability and ecological genders” (Gaard 2014, 225).

Topics: Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Justice

Year: 2014

Feminist Political Ecology Practices of Worlding: Art, Commoning and the Politics of Hope in the Classroom

Citation:

Harcourt, Wendy. 2019. “Feminist Political Ecology Practices of Worlding: Art, Commoning and the Politics of Hope in the Classroom.” International Journal of the Commons 13 (1): 153–74.

Author: Wendy Harcourt

Abstract:

In the paper I argue that in a world where our lives are intricately interconnected and our environments are rapidly changing, commoning produces ecological imaginaries and understandings of places that could build a sense of global commons based on mutuality, reciprocity, and relationality. In exploring commoning in the international classroom, my paper contributes to ongoing dialogues on community economies and feminist political ecology in the Community Economies Research Network (CERN), and the newly formed EU project Well-being, Ecology, Gender and cOmmunity (WEGO). In the article I first set out how I use commoning in my teaching. In section two I present my methodology, followed by section three where I present the community economies research network. In section four I present a case study of how I employ the community economies iceberg diagram in my teaching process using drawing/ art-making to create an emergent commons-in-practice. In section five I discuss the productivity of bringing community economies and commoning to a broader feminist, ecological justice project followed by a conclusion.

Keywords: commoning, community economies, feminist political ecology, gender, postdevelopment

Topics: Economies, Education, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Justice

Year: 2019

Introducing New Feminist Political Ecologies

Citation:

Elmhirst, Rebecca. 2011. “Introducing New Feminist Political Ecologies.” Geoforum 42 (2): 129–32. 

Author: Rebecca Elmhirst

Abstract:

Political Ecology is firmly established as an important area of enquiry within Geography that attends to many of the most important questions of our age, including the politics of environmental degradation and conservation, the neoliberalisation of nature and ongoing rounds of accumulation, enclosure and dispossession, focusing on access and control of resources, and environmental struggles around knowledge and power, justice and governance. This short introductory paper considers how feminists working in this field of enquiry consider the gender dimension to such issues, and how political ecologies might intersect with a feminist objectives, strategies and practices: a focus for early iterations of a promising sub-field, labelled Feminist Political Ecology. It considers a number of epistemological, political and practical challenges that together may account for the relatively limited number of works that self-identify as feminist political ecology. Whilst this has made it difficult for Feminist Political Ecology to gain purchase as a sub- field within the political ecology cannon, this introductory piece highlights fruitful new ways that developments in feminist thinking enrich work in this field, evident in a flowering of recent publications.

Keywords: feminist political ecology, political ecology, gender, Subjectivity, scale, embodiment

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Governance, Justice

Year: 2011

Practising Feminist Political Ecologies: Moving Beyond the 'Green Economy'

Citation:

Harcourt, Wendy, and Ingrid L. Nelson, eds. 2015. Practising Feminist Political Ecologies: Moving Beyond the 'Green Economy'. London: Zed Books.

Authors: Wendy Harcourt, Ingrid L. Nelson

Annotation:

Summary:
Practicing Feminist Political Ecologies explores the latest thinking on feminist political ecology. Included is a collective critique of the “green economy,” an analysis of the post-Rio+20 UN conference debates, and a nuanced study of the impact that the current ecological and economic crisis will have on a diverse range of women and their communities. By including such well-known contributors as Dianne Rocheleau, Catherine Walsh, and Christa Wichterich, along with an upcoming generation of new activist scholars, it fills the gap in the literature on the relationship between the environment and gender.
 
This timely and important book launches the Zed Books’ Gender, Development and Environment series and puts feminist political ecology securely on the map, making it an important new contribution to environmental studies. (Summary from The University of Chicago Press)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction: Are We ‘Green’ Yet? and the Violence of Asking Such a Question
Wendy Harcourt and Ingrid L. Nelson
 
1. A Situated View of Feminist Political Ecology from my Networks, Roots and Territories
Dianne Rocheleau
 
2. Contesting Green Growth, Connecting Care, Commons and Enough
Christa Wichterich
 
3. Life, Nature and Gender Otherwise: Feminist Reflections and Provocations from the Andes
Catherine Walsh
 
4. Feminist Political Ecology and the (Un)making of ‘Heroes’: Encounters in Mozambique
Ingrid L. Nelson
 
5. Hegemonic Waters and Rethinking Natures Otherwise
Leila M. Harris
 
6. Challenging the Romance with Resilience: Communities, Scale and Climate Change
Andrea J. Nightingale
 
7. A New Spelling of Sustainability: Engaging Feminist-Environmental Justice Theory and Practice
Giovanna Di Chiro
 
8. The Slips and Slides of Trying to Live Feminist Political Ecology
Wendy Harcourt
 
9. Knowledge About, Knowledge With: Dilemmas of Researching Lives, Nature and Genders Otherwise
Larissa Barbosa da Costa, Rosalba Icaza and Angélica María Ocampo Talero
 
10. World-Wise Otherwise Stories for our Endtimes: Conversations on Queer Ecologies
Wendy Harcourt, Sacha Knox and Tara Tabassi

Topics: Development, Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminist Economics, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Justice, Political Economies

Year: 2015

The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global

Citation:

Held, Virginia. 2005. The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author: Virginia Held

Annotation:

Summary:
Virginia Held assesses the ethics of care as a promising alternative to the familiar moral theories that serve so inadequately to guide our lives. The ethics of care is only a few decades old, yet it is by now a distinct moral theory or normative approach to the problems we face. It is relevant to global and political matters as well as to the personal relations that can most clearly exemplify care. This book clarifies just what the ethics of care is what its characteristics are, what it holds, and what it enables us to do. It discusses the feminist roots of this moral approach and why the ethics of care can be a morality with universal appeal. Held examines what we mean by "care," and what a caring person is like. Where other moral theories demand impartiality above all, the ethics of care understands the moral import of our ties to our families and groups. It evaluates such ties, focusing on caring relations rather than simply on the virtues of individuals. The book proposes how such values as justice, equality, and individual rights can "fit together" with such values as care, trust, mutual consideration, and solidarity. In the second part of the book, Held examines the potential of the ethics of care for dealing with social issues. She shows how the ethics of care is more promising than Kantian moral theory and utilitarianism for advice on how expansive, or not, markets should be, and on when other values than market ones should prevail. She connects the ethics of care with the rising interest in civil society and considers the limits appropriate for the language of rights. Finally, she shows the promise of the ethics of care for dealing with global problems and seeing anew the outlines of international civility. (Summary from Oxford University Press)
 
Table of Contents: 
1. The Ethics of Care as Moral Theory
 
2. Care as Practice and Value
 
3. The Caring Person
 
4. Justice, Utility, and Care
 
5. Liberalism and the Ethics of Care
 
6. Caring Relations and Principles of Justice
 
7. Care and the Extension of Markets
 
8. Civil Society, Rights, and the Presumption of Care
 
9. Power, Care, and the Reach of Law
 
10. Care and Justice in the Global Context

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Feminisms, Justice, Political Economies

Year: 2005

The Gendered Dimensions of Resource Extractivism in Argentina’s Soy Boom

Citation:

Leguizamón, Amalia. 2019. "The Gendered Dimensions of Resource Extractivism in Argentina's Soy Boom." Latin American Perspectives 46 (2): 199-216.

Author: Amalia Leguizamón

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Analyzing resource extractivism as a gendered structure is important for understanding the complex social processes that create and perpetuate environmental injustice—both social inequality and environmental degradation—and for visualizing gendered resistances and opportunities for transformation. Applying Risman’s approach to Argentina’s soy model, six causal mechanisms at the institutional, individual, and interactional levels can be identified that serve either to maintain or to challenge the status quo: (1) resource distribution, (2) ideology, (3) identity work, (4) cognitive bias, (5) status expectations, and (6) state paternalism.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Analizar el extractivismo de los recursos como una estructura de género es importante para comprender los complejos procesos sociales que crean y perpetúan la injusticia ambiental—tanto la desigualdad social como la degradación ambiental—y para visualizar las resistencias de género y las oportunidades de transformación. Aplicando el enfoque de Risman al modelo de soja en la Argentina, se pueden identificar seis mecanismos causales a nivel institucional, individual y de interacción que sirven para mantener o desafiar el status quo: (1) distribución de recursos, (2) ideología, (3) trabajo de identidad, (4) per- juicio cognitivo, (5) expectativas de posición social, y (6) paternalismo estatal.

Keywords: Argentina, environmental justice, gender, extractivism, soybeans

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Extractive Industries, Gender, Justice Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Argentina

Year: 2019

Revisiting Transnational Corporations and Extractive Industries: Climate Justice, Feminism, and State Sovereignty

Citation:

Seck, Sara L. 2017. "Revisiting Transnational Corporations and Extractive Industries: Climate Justice, Feminism, and State Sovereignty." Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 26: 383-413.

Author: Sara L. Seck

Annotation:

Summary:
"This Article explicitly examines the relationship between climate justice, gender, and transnational fossil fuel extractive industries by drawing upon feminist theoretical insights. First, I provide an overview of the differential impacts of climate change on women and briefly review insights from select international legal scholars who have considered gender and climate change. Second, I describe the Philippines climate Petition, a novel attempt to seek an investigation into the accountability of transnational fossil fuel companies for climate harms. Third, I examine three sets of issues arising in the Philippines climate Petition and draw explicitly upon Karen Knop’s Re/Statements: Feminism and State Sovereignty in International Law. Here, I consider how feminist approaches to international legal theory might enrich the analysis of legal doctrines fundamental to framing the issues and outcome of the Philippines Petition. Specifically, I consider three different sets of claims that emerge from a critique of the bounded, autonomous, and unified liberal subject that informs implicit understandings of state and sovereignty at international law. In conclusion, I argue that climate justice demands we take up a relational view of the state, dissolve boundaries between public and private sectors, and embrace visions of overlapping sovereignties" (Seck 2017, 385).

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, International Law, Justice

Year: 2017

Relations of Ruling: A Feminist Critique of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and Violence against Women in the Context of Resource Extraction

Citation:

Simons, Penelope, and Melisa Handl. 2019. "Relations of Ruling: A Feminist Critique of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and Violence against Women in the Context of Resource Extraction." Canadian Journal of Women and the Law 31 (1): 113-50.

Authors: Penelope Simons, Melisa Handl

Abstract:

FRENCH ABSTRACT:
L’extraction des ressources a des conséquences directes et indirectes sur les femmes, et la recherche a démontré que ces conséquences ne sont pas les mêmes pour les hommes. La violence à l’égard des femmes semble avoir des conséquences transversales. Pourtant, les États, les organismes intergouvernementaux, les différents intervenants et les groupes de l’industrie n’en ont pas tenu compte lorsqu’ils ont établi des normes pour minimiser l’effet des activités des entreprises extractives sur les droits de la personne. En utilisant les travaux de Dorothy Smith sur l’ethnographie institutionnelle, et surtout la textualité féministe, le présent article propose une analyse approfondie à plusieurs niveaux, d’un point de vue féministe, du Principes directeurs relatifs aux entreprises et aux droits de l’homme (PDNU), qui constitue l’un des textes centraux visant l’impunité des entreprises quant aux effets nuisibles genrés de leurs activités d’exploitation des ressources, et en particulier, de la violence faite aux femmes. Les auteures se demandent dans quelle mesure le texte du PDNU tient compte des femmes et de leurs intérêts. Pour répondre à cette interrogation, elles examinent la place que donne le texte au savoir et au traitement distinct des femmes par rapport aux activités des États et des entreprises et le situent dans le système juridique international genré issu du néolibéralisme. Elles démontrent ainsi que le PDNU est une méthode pour établir une « relation de pouvoir » déterminant le comportement des États et des entreprises envers les femmes. La structure et la nature des normes issues du texte non seulement ne reconnaissent pas les expériences des femmes et ne protègent pas leurs droits dans le domaine de l’extraction des ressources, mais aident également à perpétuer les structures patriarcales et néolibérales qui oppriment les femmes.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Resource extraction has both direct and indirect impacts on women, and research has shown that such impacts are differentiated from those on men. Violence against women appears to be a crosscutting impact. Yet states, intergovernmental organizations, multi-stakeholder initiatives, and industry groups have not taken this into consideration in the formulation of norms meant to address business-related human rights impacts. Drawing on Dorothy Smith’s work on institutional ethnography and, specifically, on feminist textuality, this article provides a close multi-level feminist analysis of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UN Guiding Principles), which are one of the central instruments designed to address corporate impunity for harm caused by business extraction in terms of their ability to address the gendered impacts of resource extraction and, in particular, violence against women. The authors consider the extent to which women and the interests of women are reflected in the text of the UN Guiding Principles, investigate the prioritization of knowledge and the differentiated treatment in the text of women compared to states and business enterprises, and situate the UN Guiding Principles within the neo-liberal gendered international legal system. They argue that UN Guiding Principles are a technology that establishes the “relations of ruling” with respect to state and business behaviour and women, and that the text, structure, and nature of these norms not only fail to acknowledge women’s experiences or to protect women’s rights in the realm of resource extraction but also help to perpetuate the patriarchal and neo-liberal structures that oppress women.

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, International Law, Justice, Impunity, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Violence

Year: 2019

Travel Choice Reframed: “Deep Distribution” and Gender in Urban Transport

Citation:

Levy, Caren. 2013. “Travel Choice Reframed: ‘Deep Distribution’ and Gender in Urban Transport.” Environment and Urbanization 25 (1): 47–63. 

Author: Caren Levy

Abstract:

Transport is a critical system in the city, which, through providing access to essential activities, enables diverse women and men, girls and boys to “appropriate” their right to the city and to realize a fully rounded and substantive urban citizenship. Yet, despite decades of work on gender in urban development and urban planning, mainstream transport planning still remains largely untouched by debates on diversity and difference in cities. The tendency to focus on the economic and now environmental aspects continues to dominate urban transport. In contrast, concerns for the identity of urban residents or “users” are addressed through, and ultimately marginalized to, “the social” and distributional aspects of urban transport planning. This paper argues that the distributional aspects of transport are cross cutting, and go beyond the disaggregation of transport users by social relations such as class, gender, age and ethnicity. The social identities of transport “users” are deeply embedded in social relations and urban practices, the latter ranging from the everyday lives of people to urban policies and planning. Furthermore, in transport, these social relations are played out in public space, with implications for how diverse women and men, girls and boys are able to exercise individual and collective “travel choice” and negotiate access to essential activities in the city. Recognition of these processes, as reflected in the “deep distribution” of the transport system, is essential to reframing the notion of “travel choice” and, ultimately, to urban transport and urban planning that is committed to social justice in cities.

Keywords: gender, deep distribution, right to the city, travel choice, transport

Topics: Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation, Justice, Rights

Year: 2013

Women’s Human Rights in a Changing Climate: Highlighting the Distributive Effects of Climate Policies

Citation:

Bendlin, Lena. 2014. “Women’s Human Rights in a Changing Climate: Highlighting the Distributive Effects of Climate Policies.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 27 (4): 680–98. 

Author: Lena Bendlin

Abstract:

A women’s rights perspective can inform and structure research on climate policy impacts on women. To date, climate policy analysis has mostly considered women as agents of climate protection, that is, objects of mitigation policies, rather than subjects in their own right. However, climate change mitigation involves direct and indirect distributive effects depending on which sectors are involved, which instruments are chosen and how funds are obtained and allocated. Since gender roles impact on individual livelihoods and activities, distributive effects are likely to be gendered. This paper suggests that women’s human rights can be used as a framework for research aiming to fill this gap. They provide a well-developed, tested range of criteria for gender justice. Such assessments would allow for a more systematic and comprehensive understanding of the gendered distributive effects of climate policies, notably with regard to the particularly understudied situation in the industrialized world.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Justice, Livelihoods, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2014

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