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Intersectionality

Negotiating Contextually Contingent Agency: Situated Feminist Peacebuilding Strategies in Kenya

Citation:

Collier, Mary Jane, Brandi Lawless, and Karambu Ringera. 2016. “Negotiating Contextually Contingent Agency: Situated Feminist Peacebuilding Strategies in Kenya.” Women’s Studies in Communication 39 (4): 399–421.

Authors: Mary Jane Collier, Brandi Lawless, Karambu Ringera

Abstract:

This study identifies an emergent framework for situated feminist peacebuilding based on interviews with representatives of community-based organizations in Kenya. We offer situated examples and firsthand accounts of how these women navigate different challenging spaces, wrestle with the relationships between macro-, meso-, and microcontextual factors, and negotiate agency- and systems-level change within patriarchal and politically changing contexts. We also demonstrate the necessity for international collaborators to apply critical reflexivity throughout all phases of research praxis. Our analysis has important implications for studying feminist peacebuilding situated in Kenya in particular, as well as for analyzing agency, structural and systemic change, patriarchy, the navigation of intersectional cultural differences, and intercultural relations more generally.
 

Keywords: agency, Kenya, peacebuilding, situated feminism

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Intersectionality, Peacebuilding Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2016

Decolonising Gender and Peacebuilding: Feminist Frontiers and Border Thinking in Africa

Citation:

Hudson, Heidi. 2016. “Decolonising Gender and Peacebuilding: Feminist Frontiers and Border Thinking in Africa.” Peacebuilding 4 (2): 194–209.

Author: Heidi Hudson

Abstract:

The article seeks to theorise an integrated decolonised feminist frame for peacebuilding in an African context. Arguing that a decolonial-feminist lens has the potential to change the way we look at peacebuilding practices, I propose the notion of ‘feminist frontiers’ – an engaged yet stabilising heuristic tool for analysing racialised and gendered relations post-conflict. The argument is structured around three pillars, namely: metageographies as metaphoric mental-space constructions of a colonial peace; masks that constrain the introduction of complicated and intersected human subjecthoods; and mundane matter that elicits ambivalent engagements between human and post-human subjectivities in the areas of everyday political economies and infrastructural rule of peacebuilding. I conclude that such feminist frontiers represent intermediate and mediated spaces or epistemological borderlands from where the undertheorised and empirically understudied discursive and material dimensions of peacebuilding from a gender perspective can be investigated.

Keywords: decoloniality, gender, peacebuilding, Africa, intersectionality, feminist

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Infrastructure, Intersectionality, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Race Regions: Africa

Year: 2016

Gendering Peace in Northern Ireland: The Role of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security

Citation:

Pierson, Claire. 2019. "Gendering Peace in Northern Ireland: The Role of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security." Capital & Class 43 (1): 57-71.

Author: Claire Pierson

Abstract:

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on ‘women, peace and security’ was passed in 2000 to recognise and enhance women’s participation in peacebuilding. The Resolution has growing global significance in conflicted societies yet there is limited analysis of its implementation in specific social contexts. Utilising feminist theory on gender in conflicted societies and original empirical evidence from key grassroots community activists in Northern Ireland, I will consider the potential of the 1325 framework as a tool for conceptualising and achieving gender security and equality. This article contributes to an understanding of the importance of deep contextual interpretation for implementation of the women, peace and security agenda and argues for a feminist intersectional interpretation of the Resolution to enable its transformative potential for both peace-building and gender equality.

Keywords: equality, gender, Northern Ireland, peace, security, women

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Intersectionality, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2019

The Colombian Transitional Process: Comparative Perspectives on Violence against Indigenous Women

Citation:

Acosta, Monica, Angela Castaneda, Daniela Garcia, Fallon Hernandez, Dunen Muelas, and Angela Santamaria. 2018. "The Colombian Transitional Process: Comparative Perspectives on Violence against Indigenous Women." International Journal of Transitional Justice 12 (1): 108-25.

Authors: Monica Acosta, Angela Castaneda, Daniela Garcia, Fallon Hernandez, Dunen Muelas, Angela Santamaria

Abstract:

Colombia has a comprehensive system of truth, justice and reparation stemming from its history with the justice and peace process and its most recent peace agreement. Although indigenous women are the most affected before, during and after conflict, their participation is marginalized within this political context. This article discusses how Colombian transitional justice can be reconfigured when indigenous women's practices and knowledge travel 'from the margins' to the center. We seek to demonstrate how these practices legitimize gender and other types of violence in the name of tradition and also how indigenous women's experiences go beyond the gendered perspective of violence as a 'weapon of war.' Working within the context of the peace process, we gathered data through learning and teaching techniques with indigenous women in three indigenous contexts (Sierra, Pan-Amazon region and Chocó). Our focus is on the interaction between local transitional justice practices and the violence against indigenous women, their resistance practices and the peacebuilding agendas used to implement transitional justice in Colombia.

 

Keywords: Colombia, indigenous women, intersectionality, transitional justice 'from below'

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Intersectionality, Justice, Reparations, Transitional Justice, Peace Processes, Peacebuilding, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Gender and Reparations: Seeking Transformative Justice

Citation:

Jones, Emily. 2020. "Gender and Reparations: Seeking Transformative Justice." In Reparations for Victims of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity, edited by Carla Ferstman and Mariana Goetz, 86-118. Leiden: Brill Nijhoff.

Author: Emily Jones

Annotation:

Summary: 
"In response to concerns around often returning people to situations of inequality through the way reparations are currently applied, there have been multiple calls for and attempts to implement more transformative forms of reparations, i.e. reparations which seek to address and subvert pre-existing unequal and discriminatory structures. Section two of this chapter outlines some of these responses, focusing on transformative reparations both as an essential framing of reparations from a gender perspective as well as an area in which further gender analysis could be pursued to great gain. However, since transformative reparations are largely undefined, how and whether such reparations have been taken up, or not, depends on one's perspective on what transformative reparations exactly entail. Section three therefore draws on feminist work as a way through which to provide an analysis of what transformative reparations could and have included. I then go on, in section four, to analyse some specific examples of reparations that have been used to challenge pre-existing structural inequalities, focusing on the Cotton Fields judgment at the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR), and outlining the gender literature on reparations programmes. I argue that further and more radical transformative reparations are needed. Such reparations, it is posed, are possibly best implemented through guarantees of non-repetition.
 
Drawing on the examples given in sections three and four, section five outlines some possible ways in which gender-just transformative reparations can be developed further. One way that transformative reparations could be and to some extent have been applied is through communal reparations such as education, training and housing programmes seeking to challenge and change oppressive structures in society. I argue that there is a need for reparations in these forms to be applied more often and their reach to be extended both in terms of what they offer and who is included. The need for a greater recognition of the currently often marginalised framework of economic and social rights is also noted, arguing for the further integration of these rights into reparatios frameworks. I then go on to note the need for intersectional analyses within the field of transformative reparations. Such analyses are required to ensure that transformative reparations can properly understand and take full account of the various harms many people face due to discrimination, structural inequality and oppression.
 
The final section of this chapter analyses the limited of the field of gender and transformative reparations by drawing on other critical approaches to international law which have been little applied to this area, including post-colonial feminist analyses. Noting that reparations are a secondarily applied right granted in response to a primary rights violation, the limits of the human rights framework in being able to provide transformative justice is questioned. I conclude by arguing that further critical engagement is essential both in order to frame reparations in truly transformative ways as well as to understand the limits of the transformative project and, subsequently, of human rights law, in being able to provide transformation." (Jones 2020, 86-7)

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Education, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Law, International Human Rights, Intersectionality, Justice, Reparations, Rights, Human Rights

Year: 2020

The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military

Citation:

Woodward, Rachel, and Claire Duncanson, eds. 2017. The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Rachel Woodward, Claire Duncanson

Annotation:

Summary:
The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military provides a comprehensive overview of the multiple ways in which gender and militaries connect.  International and multi-disciplinary in scope, this edited volume provides authoritative accounts of the many intersections through which militaries issues and military forces are shaped by gender.  The chapters provide detailed accounts of key issues, informed by examples from original research in a wealth of different national contexts.  This Handbook includes coverage of conceptual approaches to the study of gender and militaries, gender and the organisation of state military forces, gender as it pertains to military forces in action, transitions and transgressions within militaries, gender and non-state military forces, and gender in representations of military personnel and practices.  With contributions from a range of both established and early career scholars, The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military is an essential guide to current debates on gender and contemporary military issues. (Summary from Springer)
 
Table of Contents 
1. An Introduction to Gender and the Military
Rachel Woodward and Claire Duncanson
 
2. Liberal Feminists, Militaries and War 
Caroline Kennedy-Pipe
 
3. Anti-Militarist Feminist Approaches to Researching Gender and the Military 
Claire Duncanson
 
4. Critical Military Studies as Method: An Approach to Studying Gender and the Military 
Victoria M. Basham and Sarah Bulmer
 
5. Quantitative Approaches to Researching Gender and Militaries 
Lana Obradovic
 
6. Qualitative Approaches to Researching Gender and the Military 
Lauren Greenwood
 
7. Gendered Organizational Dynamics in Military Contexts 
Helena Carreiras
 
8. Ethnicity and Gender in Militaries: An Intersectional Analysis 
Orna Sasson-Levy
 
9. Theorizing Military Masculinities and National Identities: The Norwegian Experience 
Nina Rones and Kari Fasting
 
10. Sexualities in State Militaries 
Sarah Bulmer
 
11. Transgender Military Service: A Snapshot in Time 
M. Sheridan Embser-Herbert
 
12. The Civilian Wives of Military Personnel: Mobile Subjects or Agents of Militarisation? 
Alexandra Hyde
 
13. Military Families: Life, Social Organization and Remote Basing Experiences for Brazilian Military Families 
Cristina Rodrigues da Silva
 
14. Domestic Abuse and the Reproduction of the Idealised ‘Military Wife’ 
Harriet Gray
 
15. Violence in the Military and Relations Among Men: Military Masculinities and ‘Rape Prone Cultures’ 
Ben Wadham
 
16. Female Military Veterans with Disabilities 
Rachel Dekel and Miriam Goldberg
 
17. Gender, Mental Health and the Military 
Hilary Cornish
 
18. Gendered Military Identities: Army Deserters in Exile 
Godfrey Maringira
 
19. Gender and Close Combat Roles 
Anthony King
 
20. Gender and Counterinsurgency 
Synne L. Dyvik
 
21. Gender, Humanitarianism and the Military 
Ryerson Christie
 
22. Transitions and Transformation in Gender Relations in the South African Military: From Support in Warfare to Valued Peacekeepers 
Lindy Heinecken
 
23. Military Markets, Masculinities and the Global Political Economy of the Everyday: Understanding Military Outsourcing as Gendered and Racialised 
Amanda Chisholm and Saskia Stachowitsch
 
24. Gender, Militaries and Security Sector Reform 
Megan Bastick
 
25. Gender Mainstreaming and Integration in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 
Matthew Hurley
 
26. Gender and Terrorist Movements 
Katherine E. Brown
 
27. Gender Dynamics in Rebel Groups 
Zoe Marks
 
28. Women in Non-State Armed Groups after War: The (Non)Evolution of Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration 
Christopher Hills and Megan MacKenzie
 
29. Gender and Visual Representations of Women Combatants 
Chava Brownfield-Stein
 
30. Military Women in Cinema: War Stories and Future Worlds 
Yvonne Tasker
 
31. (Re)Producing an (Anti)Military Masculinity: Popular Culture Representations of Gender and Military Dissent in the Figure of Ron Kovic 
Joanna Tidy
 
32. Gender and Military Memoirs 
Rachel Woodward, Claire Duncanson and K. Neil Jenkings
 
33. Gendered Representations of Soldier Deaths 
Katharine M. Millar

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, DDR, Domestic Violence, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Health, Mental Health, International Organizations, Intersectionality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism, Militarization, Non-State Armed Groups, Political Economies, Race, Peacekeeping, Security Sector Reform, Sexuality, Sexual Violence, Rape

Year: 2017

Gender Perspective in UN Framework for Peace Processes and Transitional Justice: The Need for a Clearer and More Inclusive Notion of Gender

Citation:

Lemay Langlois, Léa. 2018. "Gender Perspective in UN Framework for Peace Processes and Transitional Justice: The Need for a Clearer and More Inclusive Notion of Gender." International Journal of Transitional Justice 12 (1): 146-67.

Author: Léa Lemay Langlois

Abstract:

Gender influences the experiences of war and periods of large-scale abuses, and as such it needs to inform peace processes and transitional justice mechanisms. In the past 15 years, the UN Security Council has provided a framework for the inclusion of a gender perspective in peace processes, which includes attention to conflict-related genderbased violence (GBV) through the establishment of the Women Peace and Security (WPS) agenda. This article analyzes how gender is framed and understood in this context and how it impacts the practice of peace processes. It is suggested that in order to effectively tackle the root causes of conflict-related GBV, the WPS architecture should allow for an expansive understanding of gender, avoiding the reproduction of gender stereotypes. This should include the recognition of intersectional experiences of women with violence during conflict, violence based on sexual orientation and gender identity, and gendered violence committed against men.

Keywords: gender, gender stereotypes, gender-based violence, peace process, Colombia

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Intersectionality, Justice, Transitional Justice, Peace Processes, Sexuality, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS

Year: 2018

Three Waves of Gender Integration: The Causes, Consequences, and Implications for the South African Armed Forces

Citation:

Heinecken, Lindy. 2019. "Three Waves of Gender Integration: The Causes, Consequences, and Implications for the South African Armed Forces." In Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison, edited by Robert Egnell and Mayesha Alam, 207-24. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Author: Lindy Heinecken

Annotation:

Summary:
“South Africa has a long history of women’s involvement in war. Although many of the South African debates resonate with those of other countries in terms of gender integration, few countries have adopted such an assertive process of gender reform. Not only do women now serve in combat roles, but they represent more than a quarter of the fulltime forces. Added to this is the intersectionality of race, culture, and politics that plays out alongside and influences attitudes toward gender integration. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the systemic conditions that have facilitated women’s exclusion and inclusion during the three waves of gender integration and the tensions this has created over the past fifty years. To place the discussion in context, a brief outline of the unique security, political, and social contexts is provided for each wave of gender reforms. Hereafter how gender-equality and gender-mainstreaming initiatives have been implemented is described and reflected on. The last section evaluates what tensions gender integration has evoked and whether women’s increased numbers have shifted gender binaries” (Heinecken 2019, 207-9).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Intersectionality, Race, Security Sector Reform Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2019

Intersections of Gender, Mobility and Violence in Urban Pakistan

Citation:

Anwar, Nausheen H., Sarwat Viqar, and Daanish Mustafa. 2018. “Intersections of Gender, Mobility and Violence in Urban Pakistan.” In Social Theories of Urban Violence in the Global South: Towards Safe and Inclusive Cities, edited by Jennifer Erin Salahub, Markus Gottsbacher, and John de Boer, 15-31. Routledge Studies in Cities and Development. Abingdon; New York: Routledge.

Authors: Nausheen H Anwar, Sarwat Viqar, Daanish Mustafa

Annotation:

Summary:
This chapter explores the intersections of gender, mobility, and violence by analysing gender as a key mediator of mobility in two urban areas of Pakistan: Karachi and the twin cities of Rawalpindi-Islamabad. Karachi is the commercial hub of the country, Islamabad is the federal capital, and Rawalpindi is the headquarters of the all-powerful Pakistani military. Much journalistic, and some academic, attention has been paid to the various kinds of violence in Karachi: terrorist activity, ethnic violence, and extrajudicial killings by law-enforcement agencies. As women and men move through public spaces-streets, neighbourhoods, and the larger city-they indicate different aspects of mobility. The chapter suggests that certain mobilities, mostly masculine, impact the immobility of other genders; and that these gendered mobilities are inextricably bound with social norms, class, ethnicity, and violence. The larger context of dominant masculinity inhibits women's mobility, as do its claims about the appropriate and "natural" behaviours of men and women in public and private spaces. (Summary from Taylor & Francis Group)

Topics: Class, Ethnicity, Gender, Gender Analysis, Masculinity/ies, Intersectionality, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2018

Boarding Mumbai Trains: The Mutual Shaping of Intersectionality and Mobility

Citation:

Kusters, Annelies. 2019. “Boarding Mumbai Trains: The Mutual Shaping of Intersectionality and Mobility.” Mobilities 14 (6): 841–58.

Author: Annelies Kusters

Abstract:

This article analyses how intersectionality and mobility shape each other in the case of deaf women who board the Mumbai suburban trains, which have separate compartments reserved for women and for people with disabilities. These compartments being adjacent, deaf women often make last-minute decisions where to board, and even happen to switch compartments at a further station. Here, intersectionality shapes mobility in that it entails a complex and changeable, context-dependent set of strategies and decisions. Mobility shapes intersectionality in that by being mobile, people assert or develop different aspects of their lived experiences, preferences and aspirations.

Keywords: crowding, commuting, women, gender, deaf, ladies compartments

Topics: Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Transportation, Intersectionality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

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