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Women and Men in Public Consultations of Road-Building Projects


Levin, Lena, and Charlotta Faith-Ell. 2011. “Women and Men in Public Consultations of Road-Building Projects.” In Women’s Issues in Transportation: Summary of the 4th International Conference, Volume 2: Technical Papers, 236-45. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Authors: Lena Levin, Charlotta Faith-Ell


"This paper discusses results of a research project designed to increase knowledge about women’s and men’s participation and their opportunities to take part in and influence the road planning process. The project was accomplished in an explorative case study, an advertisement study, and an implementation study that used questionnaires, observations, quantitative and qualitative analyses of conversations, content analysis of minutes, and advertisements. A basic principle of public participation argues that it should be inclusive and equitable to ensure that all interests and groups are respected. A literature study found that the subject of gender equality is basically nonexistent in the literature on environmental impact assessment. This project shows that about a quarter of participants at consultation meetings are women, but men talk longer and ask more questions. Those who attend meetings are generally older and have more education than the average person. Men and women bring up environmental and road safety issues during meetings, but men more often discuss economy, technical facts, alternative routings, and landownership. Some participants had more experience taking part in public meetings and talking in front of other people. Participants with less experience seem to need more guid- ance and take a more active part in the meeting when a moderator leads the discussion. It is tempting to say that men are more experienced and women are less experienced, but that would be an oversimplification. The aim of increasing gender equality through an intervention study did not completely succeed" (Levin and Faith-Ell, 236).

Topics: Environment, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Political Participation

Year: 2011

New Roads – New Goals. Positions of Feminist Planning


Huning, Sandra. 2018. "'New Roads - New Goals. Positions of Feminist Planning.' Frei Räume no. 10, Edited by the German FOPA (Feminist Organisation of (Female) Planners and Architects) in 1998." Local Environment 23 (9): 907-11.

Author: Sandra Huning


This Translations contribution presents the 10th issue of the series Frei.Räume (in English: Free spaces), edited by the German Feminist Organisation of (female) Planners and Architects (FOPA) in 1998. The issue was titled “New roads – new goals. Positions of feminist planning” and reflected the contemporary discussions on the state of the art of feminism, gender and planning. While progress was recognized, many authors felt uncomfortable with the ways that feminist concerns had been implemented into planning, and they were looking for ways forward. Among the authors were the most important protagonists of the debates at the time. Looking at the issue today, it becomes clear that many concerns are as up to date as they were in the late 1990s, although circumstances have changed. The paper argues that it is worthwhile to pay attention to these feminist debates in order to develop future strategies for feminism in planning.

Keywords: feminist planners, urban gender studies, feminist urban critique, feminist planning critique, Gender planning

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning

Year: 2018

Addressing the Linkages between Gender and Transport in Low- and Middle-Income Countries


Uteng, Tanu Priya, and Jeff Turner. 2019. "Addressing the Linkages between Gender and Transport in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." Sustainability 11 (17): 4555.

Authors: Tanu Priya Uteng, Jeff Turner


The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) specifies gender equality and sustainable development as their two central priorities. An area of critical importance for sustainable and gender-fair development is mobility and transport, which has so far been neglected and downplayed in research and policy making both at the national and global levels. Rooted in the history of the topic and the emerging ideas on smart, green and integrated transport, this paper presents a literature review of on gender and transport in the low- and middle-income countries. The paper presents a host of cross-cutting topics with a concentrated focus on spatial and transport planning. The paper further identifies existing research gaps and comments on the new conceptualizations on smart cities and smart mobilities in the Global South. Due attention is paid to intersections and synergies that can be created between different development sectors, emerging transport modes, data and modeling exercises, gender equality and sustainability.

Keywords: gender, transport, smart city, smart mobility, low- and middle-income countries, Accessibility

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Year: 2019

Effects of Gender Mainstreaming Efforts on Rural Transport Institutions in Kenya


Nyangueso, Samuel Ouma, Samuel Oyoo Orwa, Margaret Ombai, and Salma Sheba. 2020. “Effects of Gender Mainstreaming Efforts on Rural Transport Institutions in Kenya.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Transport 173 (2): 76-86.

Authors: Samuel Ouma Nyangueso , Samuel Oyoo Orwa, Margaret Ombai, Salma Sheba


This paper reports on an investigation into the effects of gender mainstreaming efforts on the institutions that deliver and support rural transport infrastructure and services in Kenya. It comes at a time when the nation is implementing robust policies, supported by enabling legislative and institutional frameworks for gender mainstreaming as required by the Constitution of Kenya 2010. A multi-level case study was conducted at national and county levels where many institutions were surveyed. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected, covering gender analysis in staffing, decision-making and procurement for a sample of rural transport institutions. Results show that gender mainstreaming efforts have transformed rural transport institutions towards gender-responsive staffing, human resource practices, budgeting, procurement and implementation of transport-related works. However, achieving the constitutional two-thirds affirmative action policy in staffing remains a challenge, more so in technical and decision-making bodies. The study found that the meaning and purpose of gender mainstreaming is not sufficiently understood by the majority of transport sector institutions. Additionally, gender-disaggregated data are neither readily available nor applied to rural transport programming and implementation. A change of strategy and long-term progressive efforts are required to realise gender equity in rural transport institutions in Kenya and beyond.

Keywords: procurement, recruitment, transport, planning

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Constitutions, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2020

Gendered Dimensions of Population Mobility Associated with HIV Across Three Epidemics in Rural Eastern Africa


Camlin, Carol S., Adam Akullian, Torsten B. Neilands, Monica Getahun, Anna Bershteyn, Sarah Ssali, Elvin Geng, Monica Gandhi, Craig R. Cohen, Irene Maeri, Patrick Eyul, Maya L. Petersen, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, and Edwin Charlebois. and Charlebois. 2019. "Gendered Dimensions of Population Mobility Associated with HIV Across Three Epidemics in Rural Eastern Africa." Health & Place 57: 339-51.

Authors: Carol S. Camlin, Adam Akullian, Torsten B. Neilands, Monica Getahun, Anna Bershteyn, Sarah Ssali, Elvin Geng, Monica Gandhi, Craig R. Cohen, Irene Maeri, Patrick Eyul, Maya L. Petersen, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Edwin D. Charlebois


Mobility in sub-Saharan Africa links geographically-separate HIV epidemics, intensifies transmission by enabling higher-risk sexual behavior, and disrupts care. This population-based observational cohort study measured complex dimensions of mobility in rural Uganda and Kenya. Survey data were collected every 6 months beginning in 2016 from a random sample of 2308 adults in 12 communities across three regions, stratified by intervention arm, baseline residential stability and HIV status. Analyses were survey-weighted and stratified by sex, region, and HIV status. In this study, there were large differences in the forms and magnitude of mobility across regions, between men and women, and by HIV status. We found that adult migration varied widely by region, higher proportions of men than women migrated within the past one and five years, and men predominated across all but the most localized scales of migration: a higher proportion of women than men migrated within county of origin. Labor-related mobility was more common among men than women, while women were more likely to travel for non-labor reasons. Labor-related mobility was associated with HIV positive status for both men and women, adjusting for age and region, but the association was especially pronounced in women. The forms, drivers, and correlates of mobility in eastern Africa are complex and highly gendered. An in-depth understanding of mobility may help improve implementation and address gaps in the HIV prevention and care continua.

Keywords: HIV, mobility, migration, gender, Kenya, Uganda, population-based

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Health, HIV/AIDS, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya, Uganda

Year: 2019

Women's Mobility via Bus Rapid Transit: Experiential Patterns and Challenges in Lahore


Malik, Bilal Zia, Zia Ur Rehman, Ammad Hassan Khan, and Waseem Akram. 2020. "Women's Mobility via Bus Rapid Transit: Experiential Patterns and Challenges in Lahore." Journal of Transport & Health 17: 1-18.

Authors: Bilal Zia Malik, Zia Ur Rehman, Ammad Hassan Khan, Waseem Akram


Background: Women in developing countries experience greater restrictions in mass urban mobility. UN’s Sustainability Development Goals for 2030 recommend safe, affordable, accessible, and sustainable public transportation, particularly for the vulnerable groups. Pakistan experiences rapid urbanization trends and considerably low ranking worldwide for gender equality. In addition, socio-cultural norms, higher dependency on public transport, lack of genderresponsive mass transportation, and harassment experiences limit women to explore potential growth opportunities.

Objectives: Since limited evidence exists on the subject, this study aims to investigate typical mobility attributes of women users of Pakistan’s first bus rapid transit (BRT) in Lahore, explore the challenges they face, and recommend measures for improved urban mobility.

Methods: Primary data include face-to-face interview-based questionnaire surveys along the BRT corridor to assess various quantitative and qualitative travel characteristics. Descriptive and cross-comparison statistical techniques were applied to obtain reliable results. Responses related to harassment were documented and evaluated. Graphical trends and pictorial evidences were also presented.

Results: Major segments of the study sample belonged to lower-income, relatively younger and middle age, students, employees and users with no or limited work. More prevalent modes to and from BRT stations were paratransit, including rickshaws and chingchis (motorbikes converted into rickshaws), followed by walking. Majority accessed BRT within 5 km, covered less than 15 km along 27 km BRT corridor, and traveled during daylight. Major challenges were harassment at stations and in buses (younger users being more affected), limited facilities for the elderly, lack of seating/waiting facilities near entrances/exits of BRT stations, limited dedicated space in buses and ticketing booths during rush hours.

Conclusion: The study highlights important typical mobility trends and difficulties of women while using Lahore BRT. Addressing women’s mass urban mobility issues could improve their educational and economic prospects. Findings could be useful for transportation agencies and practitioners to incorporate gender-sensitive measures in future BRT systems, particularly in developing countries. 

Keywords: women's mobility, bus rapid transit, gender equality, developing country

Topics: Economies, Education, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2020

Gendered Mobilities and Immobilities: Women's and Men's Capacities for Agricultural Innovation in Kenya and Nigeria


Bergman Lodin, Johanna, Amare Tegbaru, Renee Bullock, Ann Degrande, Lilian Wopong Nkengla, and Hyeladi Ibrahim Gaya. 2019. "Gendered Mobilities and Immobilities: Women's and Men's Capacities for Agricultural Innovation in Kenya and Nigeria." Gender, Place & Culture 26 (12): 1759-83.

Authors: Johanna Bergman Lodin , Amare Tegbaru, Renee Bullock, Ann Degrande, Lilian Wopong Nkengla, Hyeladi Ibrahim Gaya


Social norms surrounding women’s and men’s mobility in public spaces often differ. Here we discuss how gendered mobilities and immobilities influence women’s and men’s capacities to innovate in agriculture. We analyze four case studies from Western Kenya and Southwestern Nigeria that draw on 28 focus group discussions and 32 individual interviews with a total of 225 rural and peri-urban women, men and youth. Findings show that women in both sites are less mobile than men due to norms that delimit the spaces where they can go, the purpose, length of time and time of day of their travels. Overall, Kenyan women and Nigerian men have better access to agricultural services and farmer groups than their gendered counterparts. In Southwestern Nigeria this is linked to masculine roles of heading and providing for the household and in Western Kenya to the construction of women as the ‘developers’ of their households. Access and group participation may reflect norms and expectations to fulfill gender roles rather than an individual’s agency. This may (re)produce mobility pressures on time constrained gendered subjects. Frameworks to analyze factors that support women’s and men’s agency should be used to understand how gendered mobilities and immobilities are embedded in community contexts and affect engagement in agricultural innovation. This can inform the design of interventions to consider the ways in which norms and agency intersect and influence women’s and men’s mobilities, hence capacity to innovate in agriculture, thus supporting more gender transformative approaches.

Keywords: gender, mobility, agriculture, innovation, Kenya, Nigeria

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Households, Infrastructure Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Kenya, Nigeria

Year: 2019

Gender Disparities in Rural Accessibility and Mobility in Ghana


Adom-Asamoah, Gifty, Clifford Amoako, and Kwasi Kwafo Adarkwa. 2020. "Gender Disparities in Rural Accessibility and Mobility in Ghana." Case Studies on Transport Policy 8 (1): 49-58.

Authors: Gifty Adom-Asamoah , Clifford Amoako, Kwasi Kwafo Adarkwa


Many African governments claim that substantial proportions of development budgets are spent on transport infrastructure. However, physical access and mobility continue to be a challenge for rural dwellers. Several studies have attempted to establish the impact of such investments, using quantitative approaches, which are largely impersonal and have little or no direct personal impacts expressed by households. This paper explores household impacts of rural road investments under the Road Sector Development Project (RSDP) implemented by the Government of Ghana between 2002 and 2008. Based on a quasi-experimental design under the “withand-without” framework together with qualitative and participatory methods, the gendered impacts of the RSDP were assessed in selected communities along both “experimental” and “control” road corridors. The study reveals that transport needs and travel patterns in the selected communities are gendered; because they were differentiated for men and women. The paper also reveals the embedded social and economic benefits rural men and women derive from improved access. For sustained impacts of rural road investments on residents; the issue of gender must be re-negotiated and properly understood.

Keywords: gender, rural development, Ghana, Rural transport, Accessibility

Topics: Development, Gender, Households, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2020

African Democracy and Development: Challenges for Post-Conflict African Nations


Veney, Cassandra Rachel, and Dick W. Simpson, ed. 2013. African Democracy and Development: Challenges for Post-Conflict African Nations. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Authors: Cassandra Veney, Dick Simpson


Various African nations have undergone conflict situations since they gained their independence. This book focuses on particular countries that have faced conflict (civil wars and genocide) and are now in the process of rebuilding their political, economic, social, and educational institutions. The countries that are addressed in the book include: Rwanda, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In addition, there is a chapter that addresses the role of the African Diaspora in conflict and post-conflict countries that include Eritrea, Liberia, and Somalia. The book includes an examination of the various actors who are involved in post-conflict rebuilding and reconstruction that involves internal and external participants. For example, it is clear that the internal actors involve Africans themselves as ordinary citizens, members of local and national governments, and members of non-governmental organizations. This allows the reader to understand the agency and empowerment of Africans in post-conflict reconstruction. Various institutions are addressed within the context of the roles they play in establishing governance organizations such as the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Sierra Leone, the African Union, chiefs in Liberia, and non-governmental organizations. Furthermore, the external actors who are involved in post-conflict reconstruction are examined such as international non-governmental organizations and the African Diaspora. They both have their own constituents and agendas and can and do play a positive and negative role in post-conflict reconstruction. It is obvious that countries that are addressed in the book are in dire need of financial assistant to rebuild much needed infrastructure that was destroyed during the conflict. All of the countries covered in the book need schools, medical facilities, roads, bridges, airports, ports, and the government does not have the money to provide these. This is where the international non-governmental organizations and the African Diaspora play an important role. The chapters that address these issues are cognizant of their importance and at the same time, the authors realize that sovereignty can be undermined if Africans are not in the forefront of policy and decision making that will determine their future. There are chapters that provide a gendered analysis of post-conflict when it is appropriate. For example, it is clear that women, men, boys, and girls experienced conflict in different ways because of their gender. They all participated in the conflict in various ways. Consequently, the efforts at peace building are given a gendered analysis in terms of what has happened to women and girls in the demobilization and rehabilitation period including an excellent analysis of land reform in Rwanda and how that affects women and members of a certain ethnic group that are often overlooked in the examination of the 1994 genocide. In sum, this book provides a very good contribution to the literature on conflict and post-conflict African countries because of its depth and the vast topics it embraces. It provides an analysis of the internal and external actors, the role of gender in post-conflict decision making, and it provides the voices of ordinary Africans who were affected by the conflict, and who are determined to live productive lives. (Summary from Google Books)
Table of Contents:
Introduction / Cassandra R. Veney --
No justice, no peace : the elusive search for justice and reconciliation in Sierra Leone / Sylvia Macauley --
The role of ex-combatants in Mozambique / Jessica Schafer --
Memory controversies in post-genocide Rwanda : implications for peacebuilding / Elisabeth King --
Land reform, social justice, and reconstruction : challenges for post-genocide Rwanda / Helen Hintjens --
Elections as a stress test of democratization in societies : a comparison of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo / John Yoder --
Partners or adversaries? : NGOs and the state in postwar Sierra Leone / Fredline A.O. M'Cormack-Hale --
Chieftancy and reconstruction in Sierra Leone / Arthur Abraham --
The role of African diasporas in reconstruction / Paul Tiyambe Zeleza --
The role of the African Union in reconstruction in Africa / Thomas Kwasi Tieku --
Governance challenges in Sierra Leone / Osman Gbla --
Challenges of governance reform in Liberia / Amos Sawyer --
Achieving development and democracy / Dick Simpson


Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Analysis, Genocide, Governance, Infrastructure, Transportation, International Organizations, Justice, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Liberia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia

Year: 2013

The Use of ICTs in Conflict and Peacebuilding: A Feminist Analysis


Brown, Clare. 2018. “The Use of ICTs in Conflict and Peacebuilding: A Feminist Analysis.” Australian Feminist Law Journal 44 (1): 137–53.

Author: Clare Brown


The past five years have seen a rapid increase in international attention on and donor funding for the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) – including Internet platforms, social media, and mobile phone apps – in responding to conflict. With the notable exception of the role of women on social media during the Arab Spring, very little has been written about the use of and focus on these technologies from a feminist perspective. This article will argue that both the objectives of and strategies employed by conflict-related ICTs must be subjected to feminist analysis so as to mitigate the risk that the rush to support, develop, and implement projects in this field are not ultimately damaging to women. It will discuss three of the main purposes of the use of ICTs in conflict: to shape and send messages; to track, store, and distribute information; and to collect evidence. It will also consider three of their primary objectives: to prevent conflict; to assist civilians and decision makers in responding to conflict; and to increase justice and accountability. It will argue that gendered assumptions underlie both the execution of these methods and the way in which these objectives have been understood. Finally, it will make some general recommendations as to how some of these challenges may be better responded to by academics, actors, and donors in the humanitarian field.

Topics: Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Humanitarian Assistance, Justice, Peacebuilding

Year: 2018


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