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Infrastructure

Gender Mainstreaming in Transportation: Impact of Management Control

Citation:

Wittbom, Eva. 2011. “Gender Mainstreaming in Transportation: Impact of Management Control.” In Women’s Issues in Transportation: Summary of the 4th International Conference, Vol. 2: Technical Papers, 264-75. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.

Author: Eva Wittbom

Abstract:

In international surveys, Sweden is considered to be the locus classicus for gender mainstreaming. At a macro level, the picture is clear, as government directives include specific goals for gender equality and the expectation that public agencies will mainstream gender into their core business. At a micro level, the situation is more complex. Formal governance meets with gendered norms and cultures that are equally strong, but informal, driving forces among civil servants. The question raised here is how the management control system functions under the pressure of mainstreaming gender. With an interpretive approach, research has been conducted to disclose constructions that tend to enable or to hamper gender equality in the practice of management control at a micro level. The evidence stems from a case study of the Swedish Road Administration and the Swedish National Rail Administration. Interviews, observations of meetings, and close reading of documents furnish this paper with data covering the years 2002–2007 with regard to a policy goal of a gender-equal transport system. Applying a gender perspective together with a sociological institutional perspective makes gendered rules, norms, and culture visible. The results show how management control is involved in integration of gender by assimilation and by decoupling, obstructing transformative gender mainstreaming. The administration is busy keeping up the appearance of fulfilling the goal, legitimizing its activities by reporting relative fulfillment in accordance with the rules of the control system, regardless of the relevance connected to the norms of gender equality. The management control system perpetuates a culture in which reliability lies in measurability; therefore, the goal of gender equality results in a quantitative perspective on women and men instead of a qualitative gender perspective on the transport system.

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Sweden

Year: 2011

What Is the Role of Mothers in Transit-Oriented Development? The Case of Osaka–Kyoto–Kobe, Japan

Citation:

Waygood, E. Owen D. 2011. “What Is the Role of Mothers in Transit-Oriented Development? The Case of Osaka–Kyoto–Kobe, Japan.” In Women’s Issues in Transportation: Summary of the 4th International Conference, Vol. 2: Technical Papers, 163-78. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.

Author: E. Owen D. Waygood

Abstract:

The majority of mothers in Japan are not employed outside the home, but their role in chauffeuring and accompanying children on their trips is much less than in Western societies. Cultural expectations and the built environment in the Osaka region of Japan contribute to children as young as 10 and 11 traveling without adult accompaniment for the majority of trips. This independent travel in turn reduces the chauffeuring burden on parents. The chauffeuring of children in the United States and other Western countries is conducted mostly by mothers, but the role of mothers in the travel context of their children’s travel has not been investigated for Japan. Children ages 10 and 11, from nine different schools in varying neighborhoods, were surveyed about their travel by using a child-friendly diary. The survey results show that parents accompanied children for less than 15% of their trips on weekdays, whereas data from the United States indicate that children are accompanied by a parent on more than 65% of weekday trips they make. The average daily travel time was 40 min for children in Japan versus 72 min for their American counterparts, despite a similar number of trips per day. The paper further examines children’s trips with the accompaniment of parents, by sex of parent, by time of day and mode, and by destination. The influence of various built environment measurements and car ownership on accompaniment and the accumulated time burden on parents is also examined. This research contributes to land use planning through examining the built environment and mobility management through discussion on cultural values.

Topics: Gender, Households, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 2011

Young Women’s Transportation and Labor Market Experiences

Citation:

Thakuriah, Piyushimita (Vonu), Lei Tang, and Shashi Menchu. 2011. “Young Women’s Transportation and Labor Market Experiences.” In Women’s Issues in Transportation: Summary of the 4th International Conference, Vol. 2: Technical Papers, 276-88. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.

Authors: Piyushimita (Vonu) Thakuriah, Lei Tang, Shashi Menchu

Abstract:

This paper examines the transportation and labor market experiences of women at a stage of life that has been called “emerging adulthood,” “young adulthood,” and even “older youth.” Although young children and older individuals have been the focus of transportation policy research, research on mobility and transportation issues facing young adults is much more limited. The main research questions addressed by this paper are (a) how do the transportation and labor market experiences of young women compare with those of young men and (b) what factors are likely to contribute to the transportation experiences of young women? The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which is a panel data set of a large sample of respondents since 1979 and continuing until the present, was used. Gender differences were examined in several labor market indicators, including the age at entry into the labor force, the number of jobs, the number of weeks worked per year, and average earnings. The transportation indicators analyzed are perceptions of young women with regard to difficulties associated with transportation, job search distance, and the duration of time they remain carless after entering the labor force. Compared with men, a higher proportion of young women perceived difficulties with their travel and transportation conditions, were likely to restrict their job search geographically to a smaller area, and acquired a vehicle earlier through their husbands or later if single. More research is needed to better understand gender-based mobility policies that apply to a large cross section of young women.
 

Topics: Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods

Year: 2011

Privacy and Gender: Reviewing Women’s Attitudes Toward Privacy in the Context of Intelligent Transportation Systems and Location-Based Services

Citation:

Cottrill, Caitlin D., and Piyushimita (Vonu) Thakuriah. 2011. “Privacy and Gender: Reviewing Women’s Attitudes Toward Privacy in the Context of Intelligent Transportation Systems and Location-Based Services.” In Women’s Issues in Transportation: Summary of the 4th International Conference, Vol. 2: Technical Papers, 117-26. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.

Authors: Caitlin D. Cottrill , Piyushimita (Vonu) Thakuriah

Abstract:

Limited previous research has shown that women value online privacy more than men, potentially influencing their online behavior or willingness to reveal personal data online. New generations of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and location-based services (LBS) technologies depend on the input of personalized and localized information to give, potentially, information that may uniquely address women’s complex travel patterns, but which may raise locational privacy concerns for women and cause them to hesitate to share the needed information. This paper examines gender differences in the propensity to reveal the potentially sensitive information necessary to make ITS and LBS highly personalized to individual travelers. The authors develop privacy indicators based on refusals to answer sociodemographic and location questions in a household travel survey to evaluate whether women have a significantly different attitude toward willingness to share data related to position and personal identifiers compared with men. The results show that gender differences regarding privacy preferences are not statistically significant. However, this result is inconclusive because the survey overall achieved low response rates and participating households may already be self-selected into being open about divulging sensitive travel and locational information.

Topics: Gender, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Transportation, Security

Year: 2011

From Women in Transport to Gender in Transport: Challenging Conceptual Frameworks for Improved Policymaking

Citation:

de Madariaga, Inés Sánchez. 2013. “From Women in Transport to Gender in Transport: Challenging Conceptual Frameworks for Improved Policymaking.” Journal of International Affairs 67 (1): 43–65.

Author: Inés Sánchez de Madariaga

Abstract:

Gender analysis provides a conceptual and methodological basis for developing new insights in research and policymaking in any field dealing with human interaction. The disciplines of the built environment are fields where gender-specific insight can significantly contribute to improved policymaking and professional practices, better incorporating the realities of all individuals. Recent developments in European science policy since 1999 have led to the integration of gender into the upcoming EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, known as Horizon 2020. Transport, energy, and climate change are societal challenges that are specifically targeted for research funding in Horizon 2020. These policy developments in science policy can provide the knowledge base for further integration of gender dimensions in specific policy fields, such as transport. While pioneering work in the transport field has already focused on women in transport, I argue for a full integration of gender in all dimensions of transport research. This article presents some conceptual innovations and critical analysis of ideas that have been taken for granted in the field of metropolitan transport. It argues for a full acknowledgment of the idea of a "mobility of care," and for a reevaluation of current overarching uses of notions such as "compulsory mobility." This would contribute to a needed rebalancing of the topics of care and employment as being equally important for transport policy.

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Infrastructure, Transportation, International Organizations, Livelihoods

Year: 2013

Gender Dimensions of Transport in Developing Countries: Lessons from World Bank Projects

Citation:

Riverson, John, Mika Kunieda, Peter Roberts, Negede Lewi, and Wendy M. Walker. 2006. “Gender Dimensions of Transport in Developing Countries: Lessons from World Bank Projects.” Transportation Research Record 1956 (1): 149-56.

Authors: John Riverson, Mika Kunieda, Peter Roberts, Negede Lewi, Wendy M. Walker

Abstract:

Women in most developing countries have limited access to transport services and technology. This lack of transport imposes severe constraints on their access to health, education, and other social facilities and services, making them and their children more vulnerable to serious injury or death as a result of childbirth or another medical emergency. Understanding and responding to women's transport needs are essential for reducing poverty, as reflected in the United Nations statement of the Millennium Development Goals. Many governments and development agencies have learned much from extensive field research and case studies about women's and men's substantially different patterns of mobility needs. In recent years, the World Bank has integrated these gender concerns and needs into its policies and has encouraged borrowing countries to address the concerns of women in their national, regional, and local projects and programs. The World Bank has developed corresponding guidance for the transport sector and encourages its application as appropriate in all the transport investments that it supports. This paper summarizes examples of good practice and illustrates its application in Ethiopia. However, the World Bank's Transport Sector is concerned that the outcomes for women of the interventions that it supports often continue to fall short of expectations. This paper describes the steps that are being taken to improve the effective meeting of gender needs. The paper also highlights the value of participating in a broad network of development specialist groups to share experience of effective good practices and to strengthen the scope for matching specific cultural and institutional conditions.

Topics: Development, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation, International Financial Institutions Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2006

Gender and Transport: Experiences of Marketplace Workers in Davao City, Philippines

Citation:

Rivera, Roselle Leah K. 2010. “Gender and Transport: Experiences of Marketplace Workers in Davao City, Philippines.” Environment and Urbanization ASIA 1 (2): 171–86. 

Author: Roselle Leah K. Rivera

Abstract:

What are the strategies which men and women in poor communities utilize to meet their daily mobility needs? This is a key question which captures the emerging policy discussion on transport deprivation in developing countries. As transport deprivation means how people in poor communities, mostly women, experience greatest access problems. The article revisits a neglected dimension of urban poor housing discourse. More often than not, communities are seen as homogenous without recognizing that women and men, from diverse backgrounds, in poor communities have widely varying mobility and accessibility needs. This article initially begins a discussion on the transport experiences, the gendered differences of mobility and travel patterns of the men and women in poor communities, their transport conditions, and the related conditions experienced by poor men and women in three marketplaces. Methods for primary data gathering include (1) a random sample survey of 120 men and women from 3 major marketplaces of the three districts of the city (2) focus group discussions with representatives from four sectors (i.e., transportation leaders, public sector, private sector and NGOs, feminist leaders) and (3) key informant interviews of local and national officials. Secondary data such as official documents of the city were also utilized. While the costs of journey to work vary in the three districts, the time spent traveling for the short distance to work raises time poverty concerns. The article shows that men and women are predominantly pedestrians in a city whose official transport policy and practice is very biased towards high cost projects praised for technological efficiency and management.

Keywords: transport deprivation, mobility, gender and transport, Davao City

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2010

Transport Systems and Their Impact con Gender Equity

Citation:

Lecompte, María Carolina, and Juan Pablo Bocarejo S. 2017. "Transport Systems and their Impact con Gender Equity". Transportation Research Procedia 25: 4245-57.

Authors: María Carolina Lecompte, Juan Pablo Bocarejo S.

Abstract:

This paper summarizes recent research on unequal access to transport systems. It focuses on how gender and socioeconomic inequalities may be aggravated by differences in transport accessibility. The investigation evaluated three hypothesis; first, transport accessibility is different between men and women with similar socioeconomic background; second due to these differences, women have less transport accessibility to jobs; and third, that these differences are stronger in lower income socioeconomic areas. Four zones in Bogotá were studied in more detail. The data used consisted of Bogota's 2005 mobility survey, and two stated and revealed preference surveys developed by the University of the Andes to study socioeconomic and gender accessibility. This data helped establish differences in daily practices of men and women from different socioeconomic strata, as well as the access characteristics to different transport systems. The data was also used to estimate the real accessibility of the four zones, and this was gender disaggregated. In conclusion, it was found that women generally travel less than men and they spend more than men in transport, even though their trips may be shorter. This did result in lower transport accessibility to job locations. Also, it was found that gender differences were stronger in lower socioeconomic areas. With these results, the investigation states the differences and several possible policies that could be considered to diminish the inequity.

Keywords: transport accessibility, gender, Inequalities

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2017

Suffering for Water, Suffering from Water: Emotional Geographies of Resource Access, Control and Conflict

Citation:

Sultana, Farhana. 2011. "Suffering for Water, Suffering from Water: Emotional Geographies of Resource Access, Control and Conflict." Geoforum 42 (2): 163-72. 

Author: Farhana Sultana

Abstract:

This article argues that resource access, use, control, ownership and conflict are not only mediated through social relations of power, but also through emotional geographies where gendered subjectivities and embodied emotions constitute how nature–society relations are lived and experienced on a daily basis. By engaging the insights from feminist political ecology literatures and emotional geographies literatures, the article demonstrates that resource struggles and conflicts are not just material challenges but emotional ones, which are mediated through bodies, spaces and emotions. Such a focus fleshes out the complexities, entanglements and messy relations that constitute political ecologies of resources management, where practices and processes are negotiated through constructions of gender, embodiments, and emotions. Abstractions of ‘resource struggles’ and ‘resource conflicts’ are thereby grounded in embodied emotional geographies of places, peoples, and resources, enabling us to better understand the ways resources and emotions come to matter in everyday survival struggles. This framing can enrich feminist political ecology theorizations and texture our understandings of commonly used terms such as access, use, control, conflict and struggles vis-à-vis natural resources in any context. In other words, we are better able to conceptualize and explain how and why people access, use, and struggle over resources the ways they do. A case study of drinking water contamination from Bangladesh is used to develop the theoretical arguments in contributing to existing debates in (feminist) political ecologies.

Keywords: political ecology, emotional geography, resource access, conflict, gender, water, Bangladesh

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, conflict, Gendered Discourses, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2011

Negotiating Mobility in Gendered Spaces: Case of Pakistani Women Doctors

Citation:

Masood, Ayesha. 2018. “Negotiating Mobility in Gendered Spaces: Case of Pakistani Women Doctors.” Gender, Place & Culture 25 (2): 188–206.

Author: Ayesha Masood

Abstract:

Through their gendered spatial practices, women in Pakistan re-negotiate and contest the multiple social and material restrictions in their daily mobility to reclaim the urban transit spaces, specifically, roads. Ethnographic research on the automobile use and driving with the women doctors in Lahore, Pakistan reveal the relationship between these strategic practices and the educational and occupational choices of women. These spatially embedded, intentional practices of women doctors, contingent on their social and economic positions, are directly linked to the emerging gendered identities and changing social and material gendered boundaries in Pakistani society. Moreover, these changing spaces are part of on-going flux of shifting power relations between traditional patriarchy and capitalism.

Keywords: driving, mobility, transport, public geography, women doctors, Pakistan

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2018

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