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Information & Communication Technologies

Gender Differences in Use and Preferences of Agricultural Information Sources in Pakistan

Citation:

Lamontagne-Godwin, J., F. E. Williams, N. Aslam, S. Cardey, P. Dorward, and M. Almas. 2018. “Gender Differences in Use and Preferences of Agricultural Information Sources in Pakistan.” The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 24 (5): 419-34.

Authors: J. Lamontagne-Godwin, F.E. Williams, N. Aslam, S. Cardey, P. Dorward, M. Almas

Abstract:

Purpose: Rural advisory services ensure agricultural information is disseminated to rural populations, yet they are less accessible to women. This research provides insight on gender differences in information access by investigating frequency of use and preference of agricultural information sources by gender in a rural setting, differentiated according to literacy and age. 
Design/Methodology/approach: This study interviewed 401 male/female individuals in farm households in Jhang and Bahawalpur district of Punjab, Pakistan in 2016. 
Findings: Men and women farmers’ use and preferences in accessing information sources are extremely different. Women hardly use sources for agricultural information, and value interpersonal communication from informal sources. In contrast, men use and value official agencies more. Radio, surprisingly, was very rarely used, contradicting previous findings of research elsewhere. Age and literacy affect differences between women more than it does between men, particularly for convenient locations to access information.
Practical implications: The study identified and refined major gender differences regarding use and preference for agricultural information in relation to age and literacy, and helps to articulate options to improve gender equality of access to agricultural information in Pakistan. 
Theoretical implications: The focus and outcomes regarding gender intersecting with age and literacy in agricultural information access imply the need for more refined socioeconomic models, discerning and interrelating gender and other social dimensions beyond the standard of male-headed households. 
Originality/value: This paper adds to the growing body of evidence on information access according to gender, highlighting the need to investigate deeper socio-cultural issues around age and literacy.

Keywords: age, literacy, socio-cultural norms, agricultural information access, gender, rural advisory services, Pakistan

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2018

Gender-Responsive Rural Climate Services: A Review of the Literature

Citation:

Gumucio, Tatiana, James Hansen, Sophia Huyer, and Tiff van Huysen. 2019. “Gender-Responsive Rural Climate Services: A Review of the Literature.” Climate and Development, May 22. https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2019.1613216

Authors: Tatiana Gumucio, James Hansen, Sophia Huyer, Tiff van Huysen

Abstract:

The review assesses the empirical knowledge base on gender-based differences in access, use and benefits from rural climate services to analyse gender equality challenges and identify pathways for making climate services more responsive to the needs of rural women and men. While existing research is limited, the review identifies key gender-related factors and processes that influence inequalities in access and use. Differential access to group processes and to Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) can significantly limit women’s access to weather and climate information. Moreover, socio-cultural norms that define women’s and men’s labour roles can also influence the resources and decisions under women’s and men’s control, affecting their differing climate information needs and demand. Ways forward suggested by the literature concern inclusion of women’s groups and networks in communication channels and development of ICTs that respond to women’s preferences. Furthermore, meeting women’s climate information needs and pursuing cross-sectoral collaboration will be important to enhance action on climate information. Research opportunities include analyses of the potential for women’s and mixed-gender groups to enhance women’s access to climate information; evaluation of the communication processes that improve women’s understanding of climate information; and further connection with the body of knowledge on intra-household decision-making processes.

Keywords: climate services, gender, agriculture, empowerment, climate risk

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Livelihoods

Year: 2019

Privacy and Gender: Reviewing Women’s Attitudes Toward Privacy in the Context of Intelligent Transportation Systems and Location-Based Services

Citation:

Cottrill, Caitlin D., and Piyushimita (Vonu) Thakuriah. 2011. “Privacy and Gender: Reviewing Women’s Attitudes Toward Privacy in the Context of Intelligent Transportation Systems and Location-Based Services.” In Women’s Issues in Transportation: Summary of the 4th International Conference, Vol. 2: Technical Papers, 117-26. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.

Authors: Caitlin D. Cottrill , Piyushimita (Vonu) Thakuriah

Abstract:

Limited previous research has shown that women value online privacy more than men, potentially influencing their online behavior or willingness to reveal personal data online. New generations of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and location-based services (LBS) technologies depend on the input of personalized and localized information to give, potentially, information that may uniquely address women’s complex travel patterns, but which may raise locational privacy concerns for women and cause them to hesitate to share the needed information. This paper examines gender differences in the propensity to reveal the potentially sensitive information necessary to make ITS and LBS highly personalized to individual travelers. The authors develop privacy indicators based on refusals to answer sociodemographic and location questions in a household travel survey to evaluate whether women have a significantly different attitude toward willingness to share data related to position and personal identifiers compared with men. The results show that gender differences regarding privacy preferences are not statistically significant. However, this result is inconclusive because the survey overall achieved low response rates and participating households may already be self-selected into being open about divulging sensitive travel and locational information.

Topics: Gender, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Transportation, Security

Year: 2011

Reducing Gender-Based Violence in Public Transportation: Strategy Design for Mexico City, Mexico

Citation:

Rivadeneyra, Aldo Tudela, Abel Lopez Dodero, Shomik Raj Mehndiratta, Bianca Bianchi Alves, and Elizabeth Deakin. 2015. “Reducing Gender-Based Violence in Public Transportation: Strategy Design for Mexico City, Mexico” Transportation Research Record 2531 (1): 187–94.

Authors: Aldo Tudela Rivadeneyra, Abel Lopez Dodero, Shomik Raj Mehndiratta, Bianca Bianchi Alves, Elizabeth Deakin

Abstract:

Gender-based violence on public transportation in Mexico City, Mexico, is a growing concern. Current efforts to counteract the violence have focused on transit vehicles for exclusive use by women and children and campaigns to promote the report of offenses. To characterize the problem, this study conducted a transit user survey, workshops with transit users, interviews with operators, and interviews with experts in the field. The study found that, even though transit users believed that the gender-exclusive transport service reduced problematic encounters, they did not view the service as a solution to the problem of gender-based violence. Transit users would prefer to see the problem addressed through a combination of interventions including social marketing, mobile phone reporting systems, and transit service upgrades. Government agencies acknowledged that gender segregation and current reporting systems were only partially successful, and nongovernmental organizations and private operators agreed. Those agencies added that they were ready to contribute to the effort to find solutions to the problem. Study recommendations included (a) a communication campaign to foster better social behavior by passengers; (b) the use of technology, such as cell phone applications, to enable users to report offenses; and (c) the further investigation of the potential for new technology-based niche transportation services to address particular markets that were unsafe.

Topics: Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Transportation, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2015

Pacific Regional Perspectives on Women and the Media: Making the Connection with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (Women, Peace, and Security) and Section J of the Beijing Platform for Action

Citation:

Bhagwan-Rolls, Sharon. 2011. "Pacific Regional Perspectives on Women and the Media: Making the Connection with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (Women, Peace, and Security) and Section J of the Beijing Platform for Action." Signs 36 (3): 570-77.

Author: Sharon Bhagwan-Rolls

Abstract:

If empowerment means challenging social norms, equalizing power relations, and enabling individuals and groups to actively claim their rights, then what does it mean for women in rural communities in the Pacific Island region, where the basic necessities of life remain unfulfilled? Where is the peace if there is poverty of information and communication? What does it mean for small Pacific Island states where national budgets for gender equality rely on bilateral support rather than real investment and equity in the allocation of national budgets? What does all this mean for women working to transform information and communication systems to ensure that women in our rural communities are not just informed but are also able to inform and influence both the security-sector-governance and truth-and-reconciliation processes as well as to articulate our economic security priorities, which are linked to our political security? These questions are critical when trying to decipher the implications of Section J of the Beijing Platform for Action for women of the Pacific region, which includes a diverse media environment ranging from a major global news hub in Australia to our mobile women’s radio station in Fiji. They are equally critical in our work of coordinating a regional women’s media network dedicated to advancing the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325. (The University of Chicago Press Journals)

 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace and Security, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Justice, TRCs, Peacebuilding, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Oceania

Year: 2011

'SMART’ Photovoice Agricultural Consultation: Increasing Rwandan Women Farmers’ Active Participation in Development.

Citation:

Gervais, Myriam, and Lysanne Rivard. 2013. “‘SMART’ Photovoice Agricultural Consultation: Increasing Rwandan Women Farmers’ Active Participation in Development.” Development in Practice 23 (4): 496–510. 

Authors: Myriam Gervais, Lysanne Rivard

Abstract:

Through two case studies, this paper evaluates the value of the feminist visual methodology Photovoice as an interactive consultation tool with rural Rwandan women working in agriculture. This exploratory study suggests that it is possible, through an adapted Photovoice process, to engage and empower women in the production of information about what is most relevant to them, and reach and engage practitioners and officials through an exhibition of participants' photographs and captions. This confirmation of Photovoice's applicability with rural women in the generation of information that captures the attention of stakeholders demonstrates its potential for reproducibility in other development contexts. 

Keywords: Gender and Diversity, technology, environment, agriculture, Sub-Saharan Africa, methods

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2013

Stuck in the Middle: Women and the Struggle for Survival in the Oil-Degraded Niger Delta

Citation:

Anugwom, Edlyne. 2007. “Stuck in the Middle: Women and the Struggle for Survival in the Oil-Degraded Niger Delta.” Agenda: Empowering Women For Gender Equity, Biopolitics: New Technologies Trilogy, 1 (1): 58–68.

Author: Edlyne Anugwom

Abstract:

This focus examines the relevance of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) as economic and empowering mechanisms for women in the oil degraded Niger Delta region of Nigeria. While ICTs have become increasingly popular in the region and have provided economic niches for women, influence of ICTs has differed significantly between urban and rural women. Therefore, while urban women are now heavily engaged in various ICT businesses, like call centres and cyber cafés, the economic degeneration and underdevelopment of the rural enclaves have limited the commercial viability of ICTs for women. In spite of this, ICTs are important in both rural and urban areas in the region in terms of improving the knowledge base of women and enabling them to articulate their positions. Generally, the effective usage of ICTs, whether for leisure or commercial purposes, has been limited by structural constraints ranging from dearth of electricity to impoverished economic situations of women. However, the different impact of ICTs on women in urban and rural areas calls for a policy orientation that is conversant with the peculiar needs of women in both areas and the improvement of the general socio-economic situation of the rural enclaves.

Topics: Development, Economies, Education, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2007

Gender and (Un)Sustainability - Can Communication Solve a Conflict of Norms?

Citation:

Franz-Balsen, Angela. 2014. “Gender and (Un)Sustainability - Can Communication Solve a Conflict of Norms?” Sustainability 6: 1973-91. 

Author: Angela Franz-Balsen

Abstract:

In theory, and even more in the practice of sustainability communications, the gender dimension of sustainability has been neglected relative to other fields of the science. The aim of this paper is to show the relevance of gender as an analytical category for research and the importance of gender competence as an indispensable skill for professional sustainability communicators. Understanding how gender norms have contributed to inhibiting sustainable development is key to well-targeted means to communicate visions of sustainable ways of life. Traditional norms of masculinity are clearly in tension with the ethical, ecological and social implications of Sustainable Development, whereas the norms of femininity work against empowerment and participation of women. Current changes in gender relations and gender identities in the western world do not automatically solve this conflict of norms. Therefore, sustainability communication must and can contribute to shaping the social construction of gender towards new “sustainable” norms and ideals for the various gender identities in western societies. In order to achieve this, gender mainstreaming (GM) needs to be implemented in the field of sustainability communication, from capacity building for communicators to project design and research. Gender and diversity competence is to become a professional requirement, assuring that traditional “doing gender” is avoided, cultural diversity respected and structural inequalities are made visible. Visions of sustainable societies should include changes in gender relations. The argument is based on sociological studies, gender theories, gender policies, and environmental and sustainability communication studies, empirically supported by biographical studies and media analyses over the last twenty years in Western Europe, mainly Germany.

Topics: Environment, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Energy, Information & Communication Technologies Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 2014

Feminist Media Coverage of Women in War: 'You Are Our Eyes and Ears to the World'

Citation:

Thompson, Margaret E, María Suárez Toro, and Katerina Anfossi Gómez. 2007. “Feminist Media Coverage of Women in War: ‘You Are Our Eyes and Ears to the World.’” Gender & Development 15 (3): 435–50.

Authors: Margaret E. Thompson, María Suárez Toro, Katerina Anfossi Gómez

Abstract:

Mainstream media coverage of war often distorts or ignores women's perspectives and experiences in armed conflict, and also their efforts to build peace. This article focuses on the work of FIRE (Feminist International Radio Endeavour/Radio Internacional Feminista), a women's international Internet radio initiative produced by Latin American and Caribbean women in Costa Rica, which "uses technologies, voices, and actions" to amplify the voices of women worldwide as they recount their experiences and perspectives of armed conflict. In doing so, FIRE helps promote an alternative vision of human existence that is based on social justice and human rights, and which serves to strengthen women's and other social and political movements that are based on these values.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, International Organizations, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Costa Rica

Year: 2007

The Soldier and the Terrorist: Sexy Nationalism, Queer Violence

Citation:

Kuntsman, Adi. 2008. “The Soldier and the Terrorist: Sexy Nationalism, Queer Violence.” Sexualities 11 (1-2): 142–70. doi:10.1177/1363460707085468.

Author: Adi Kuntsman

Abstract:

An Israeli soldier, praised for killing terrorists in their homes, and adored as a gay prince charming; a Palestinian gay man called either a lying terrorist or a cute Arab boy with an almond ass; an Abu-Ghraib prisoner, whose naked body, pornographically mediated and distributed by the media generates a homosexual rape fantasy of all Arabs in-the-name-of- Israeli-security. These images were collected during my ethnography of a Russian-Israeli GLBT community, in the community’s website. My analysis of the website’s publications and discussions focuses on the ways violence, sexuality and nationhood intertwine in immigrants’ sense of belonging to the country that is officially defined by the state policy – and indeed perceived by many immigrants themselves – as their home. I examine how masculinities become synecdoches of nation, and how homosexual fantasies work to create attachment to one’s national home and hatred towards those defined as its enemies.

Keywords: immigration, masculinities, nationalism, queer studies, violence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism, Sexual Violence, Sexuality, Terrorism, Torture, Sexual Torture, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Russian Federation

Year: 2008

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