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Information & Communication Technologies

From Cyborg Feminism to Drone Feminism: Remembering Women’s Anti-Nuclear Activisms

Citation:

Feigenbaum, Anna. 2015. “From Cyborg Feminism to Drone Feminism: Remembering Women’s Anti-Nuclear Activisms.” Feminist Theory 16 (3): 265–88.

Author: Anna Feigenbaum

Abstract:

By the 1990s the dynamic array of creative direct action tactics used against militarised technologies that emerged from women’s anti-nuclear protest camps in the 1980s became largely eclipsed by cyberfeminism’s focus on digital and online technologies. Yet recently, as robots and algorithms are put forward as the vanguards of new drone execution regimes, some are wondering if now is the time for another Greenham Common. In this article I return to cyborg feminism and anti-nuclear activisms of the 1980s to explore what drone feminism might look like today. I examine how antinuclear protesters infused affect and techne´, creating innovative images of, and tactics for, material resistance. I argue that Greenham women’s cyborg feminisms arose from their material entanglements with the military base. In their efforts to reveal and undermine the national and imperial myths upon which warfare is based, protesters re-imagined technological possibilities based upon a global accountability for ‘earthly survival.'
 

Keywords: militarism, cyborg feminism, drones, Donna Haraway, feminist activism

Topics: Feminisms, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Militarization, Weapons /Arms, Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2015

Gender Gaps in Urban Mobility

Citation:

Gauvin, Laetitia, Michele Tizzoni, Simone Piaggesi, Andrew Young, Natalia Adler, Stefaan Verhulst, Leo Ferres, and Ciro Cattuto. 2020. “Gender Gaps in Urban Mobility.” Palgrave Communications 7 (1): 1-13.

Authors: Laetitia Gauvin, Michele Tizzoni, Simone Piaggesi, Andrew Young, Natalia Adler, Stefaan Verhulst, Leo Ferres, Ciro Cattuto

Abstract:

Mobile phone data have been extensively used to study urban mobility. However, studies based on gender-disaggregated large-scale data are still lacking, limiting our understanding of gendered aspects of urban mobility and our ability to design policies for gender equality. Here we study urban mobility from a gendered perspective, combining commercial and open datasets for the city of Santiago, Chile. We analyze call detail records for a large cohort of anonymized mobile phone users and reveal a gender gap in mobility: women visit fewer unique locations than men, and distribute their time less equally among such locations. Mapping this mobility gap over administrative divisions, we observe that a wider gap is associated with lower income and lack of public and private transportation options. Our results uncover a complex interplay between gendered mobility patterns, socio-economic factors and urban affordances, calling for further research and providing insights for policymakers and urban planners.

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Transportation, Urban Planning Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Chile

Year: 2020

Género y arrebato de tierras: El caso del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de Ciudad de México

Citation:

García, Verónica Vázquez. 2018. “Género y arrebato de tierras: El caso del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de Ciudad de México.” Región y Sociedad 73.

Author: Verónica Vázquez García

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
En este artículo se explora la dinámica de género del arrebato de tierras en el municipio de Atenco, Estado de México, para la construcción del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de la Ciudad de México. A partir de datos obtenidos mediante la sistematización de expedientes ejidales, la observación participante y las entrevistas a profundidad, se analiza la discriminación de género en la venta de tierras y las estrategias de las mujeres para enfrentarla. El artículo contribuye a estudiar la infraestructura de comunicaciones, un sector poco teorizado; a utilizar información documental, principalmente testimonial, y a visibilizar los efectos de género y el papel de las mujeres en la resistencia. Se muestra que los agentes del arrebato de tierras son el Estado, el capital y las estructuras comunitarias que reproducen la inequidad de género, para concentrar la riqueza y los privilegios políticos en manos predominantemente masculinas.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This paper explores the gender dynamics of land grabbing in the municipality of Atenco, State of Mexico, for the construction of the New Mexico City International Airport. Drawing on data obtained through three research tools (ejidal file systematization; participant observation; in-depth interviews), the paper examines gender discrimination in land sales and women’s strategies to fight it. The article makes three contributions: analyzing a poorly theorized sector (communication infrastructure); relying on both documental and grass-root testimonies in order to do so; highlighting gender impacts and women’s roles in resistance movements. The paper shows that land grabbing involves not only State and capital, but also community structures that reproduce gender inequality and contribute to the concentration of wealth and political privilege in few, masculine hands.

Keywords: gênero, desigualdad, acaparamiento de tierras, derecho de propiedad, mercados de tierra, desamortización, gender, inequality, land grabbing, property right, land markets, disentailment

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Land Grabbing, Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2018

Gender and Climate Risk Management: Evidence of Climate Information Use in Ghana

Citation:

Partey, Samuel T., Angela D. Dakorah, Robert B Zougmoré, Mathieu Ouédraogo, Mary Nyasimi, Gordon K. Nikoi, and Sophia Huyer. 2020. "Gender and Climate Risk Management: Evidence of Climate Information Use in Ghana." Climate Change 158: 61-75.

Authors: Samuel T. Partey, Angela D. Dakorah, Robert B. Zougmoré, Mathieu Ouédraogo, Mary Nyasimi, Gordon K. Nikoi, Sophia Huyer

Abstract:

The gender perspective of climate information use is not well studied although necessary for developing gender-responsive climate information services (CIS). This study determined how CIS use by men and women farmers may be influenced by their perceptions about climate change (CC), farm activities, and demography. The study was carried out at the Lawra-Jirapa Districts of the Upper West Region of Ghana where downscaled seasonal forecast information through mobile phone technologies (Esoko platform) had been disseminated to farmers since 2011. Data was collected from semi-structured questionnaire interviews involving 900 farmers (50.2% women and 49.8% men) and four 20-member focus group discussions. The study confirmed 85.2% (representing 767) farmers were aware of climate change and its implications for their agriculture and other livelihood activities. Men and women had similar perceptions about climate change, perceived by the majority as increased strong winds, higher temperatures, increased frequency of drought, increased rainfall variability and increased flooding. Among other factors, it was evident that use of CIS may be influenced by gender. Men were found to be particularly responsive in adopting CIS use for climate risk mitigation. This was attributed to their ability to easily access and use telephone devices compared with women. The study revealed that unlike women, men were able to access more financial resources and had control of household income which allowed them to purchase mobile phones. Women generally accessed their husbands’ mobile phones. Despite differences in access to CIS, the study showed both men and women found it beneficial for strategic farm decision-making such as when to begin land preparation, when to plant, and which crop to select. In addition, both men and women were found to face similar constrains (such as poor network connectivity and limited of training), to accessing and using CIS through the Esoko platform. The study recommends the need to explore different CIS dissemination channels and design CIS that meet gender-specific needs.

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2020

The Use of ICTs in Conflict and Peacebuilding: A Feminist Analysis

Citation:

Brown, Clare. 2018. “The Use of ICTs in Conflict and Peacebuilding: A Feminist Analysis.” Australian Feminist Law Journal 44 (1): 137–53.

Author: Clare Brown

Abstract:

The past five years have seen a rapid increase in international attention on and donor funding for the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) – including Internet platforms, social media, and mobile phone apps – in responding to conflict. With the notable exception of the role of women on social media during the Arab Spring, very little has been written about the use of and focus on these technologies from a feminist perspective. This article will argue that both the objectives of and strategies employed by conflict-related ICTs must be subjected to feminist analysis so as to mitigate the risk that the rush to support, develop, and implement projects in this field are not ultimately damaging to women. It will discuss three of the main purposes of the use of ICTs in conflict: to shape and send messages; to track, store, and distribute information; and to collect evidence. It will also consider three of their primary objectives: to prevent conflict; to assist civilians and decision makers in responding to conflict; and to increase justice and accountability. It will argue that gendered assumptions underlie both the execution of these methods and the way in which these objectives have been understood. Finally, it will make some general recommendations as to how some of these challenges may be better responded to by academics, actors, and donors in the humanitarian field.

Topics: Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Humanitarian Assistance, Justice, Peacebuilding

Year: 2018

Navigating Gender Using Transportation: Theme and Variations in Urban India

Citation:

Campbell, Morgan Frances. 2018. “Navigating Gender Using Transportation: Theme and Variations in Urban India.” PhD Diss., New Jersey: School of Graduate Studies, Rutgers University.

Author: Morgan Frances Campbell

Abstract:

Starting with the knowledge of overt patriarchal structures and gender norms that affect when, where, and why women in urban India travel in public, this dissertation is an inquiry into how different groups of working women literally navigate gender and class positions while using various transportation modes. The geographies of Bengaluru and Delhi were chosen for the significant physical and social transformations that reflect realities of globalization, conflicting political ideologies, internal migration, and rapid urbanization. These changes are embedded within slick metro systems, the millions of new car owners, company provided transportation for employees of multinationals, and failing public bus systems. They are transcribed onto the bodies of urban women in which a tension between mobility in a literal sense and immobility with respect to gender norms and socio-economic hierarchies constantly plays out. The project investigates the daily mobility practices of four populations of working women: women in Bengaluru’s IT sector, young, unmarried women staying in Delhi’s working women’s hostels, women working in Delhi’s retail sector, and women bus conductors in Bengaluru. A mixed methods approach of surveying, interviewing, and participant observation is utilized in order to understand what modes these women use for commuting in the city and why these modes are chosen. The primary aim is to locate the influence gender and class has on these commuting decisions. Rooted in Right to the City activism, social exclusion research, and feminist epistemologies, this project is motivated by the reality that transportation decisions for women are inherently gendered, especially in respect to concern for personal security. At the same time, transportation mobility cannot be reduced to gender alone. Urban women do not constitute a cohesive user category and policies that improve the mobility of one group can exacerbate socio-economic inequalities of others. To illustrate this, a comparative analysis is used. However, by focusing on qualitative evidence, the project locates individual agency within these women, the various ways in which women navigate through and around physical and social structures that restrict women’s mobility. To conclude, this dissertation argues that the act of commuting in the city is one salient and important way in which a renegotiation of gender norms and class positions can be achieved.

Annotation:

Topics: Class, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Transportation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2018

Boarding Mumbai Trains: The Mutual Shaping of Intersectionality and Mobility

Citation:

Kusters, Annelies. 2019. “Boarding Mumbai Trains: The Mutual Shaping of Intersectionality and Mobility.” Mobilities 14 (6): 841–58.

Author: Annelies Kusters

Abstract:

This article analyses how intersectionality and mobility shape each other in the case of deaf women who board the Mumbai suburban trains, which have separate compartments reserved for women and for people with disabilities. These compartments being adjacent, deaf women often make last-minute decisions where to board, and even happen to switch compartments at a further station. Here, intersectionality shapes mobility in that it entails a complex and changeable, context-dependent set of strategies and decisions. Mobility shapes intersectionality in that by being mobile, people assert or develop different aspects of their lived experiences, preferences and aspirations.

Keywords: crowding, commuting, women, gender, deaf, ladies compartments

Topics: Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Transportation, Intersectionality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

A Gender Perspective on the Impact of Flood on the Food Security of Households in Rural Communities of Anambra State, Nigeria

Citation:

Ajaero, Chukwuedozie K. 2017. “A Gender Perspective on the Impact of Flood on the Food Security of Households in Rural Communities of Anambra State, Nigeria.” Food Security 9 (4): 685–95.

Author: Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero

Abstract:

This research examined gender perspectives of the implications of the severe 2012 flood on household food security in rural Anambra state, Nigeria. Two hundred and forty flood-affected migrant households, made up of 120 maleheaded households (MHHs) and 120 female-headed households (FHHs) in four rural local government areas (LGAs) were interviewed using a questionnaire. In addition, 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in the LGAs. Data analysis was by descriptive statistics, use of a food security index, and binary logistic regression. Before the flood, 89% of FHHs and 84% of MHHs reported they had been food secure, but after the flood only 34% of MHHs and 22% of FHHs remained food secure. The regression results identified higher incomes, marital status, and larger household sizes as significant predictors of food security for both MHHs and FHHs after the flood. Engagement in other occupations apart from farming and severity of damage from the flood prior to migration were the most important factors that predicted the food security status of MHHs after the flood, while an increase in the age of household head and higher levels of education were significant predictors of food security among FHHs after the flood. These results show that the diversification of income away from a reliance on agriculture, early warning systems for disasters, and improvement in the educational status of women could help households to remain food secure after future floods in Nigeria.

Keywords: gender, 2012 flood, food security, Nigeria, migration, rural communities

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2017

African Indigenous Food Security Strategies and Climate Change Adaptation in South Africa

Citation:

Tlhompho, Gaoshebe. 2014. “African Indigenous Food Security Strategies and Climate Change Adaptation in South Africa.” Journal of Human Ecology 48 (1): 83-96.

Author: Gaoshebe Tlhompho

Abstract:

The paper used a participatory and case study research approach to investigate the role of African Indigenous Food Security Strategies for climate change adaptation in Ganyesa Village, South Africa. The study revealed that local people, especially women, have over the years developed local food security strategies for climate change adaptation. These included knowledge of behaviours of living organisms, wind directions, position of stars as early warning indicators of changing weather conditions, selection of appropriate seeds and animal species, mixed cropping, and water harvesting technologies and food preservation techniques such as fermentation and sun drying for food security. These knowledge systems tend to be marginalized in the search for sustainable solutions for food security and climate change. The study recommends their documentation to inform policy, incorporation into educational curriculum. This will also assist in identifying gaps to be improved through interface with other knowledge systems.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge systems, climate change, women, food preservation, early-warning systems, educational curriculum

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2014

Gender Differences in Use and Preferences of Agricultural Information Sources in Pakistan

Citation:

Lamontagne-Godwin, J., F. E. Williams, N. Aslam, S. Cardey, P. Dorward, and M. Almas. 2018. “Gender Differences in Use and Preferences of Agricultural Information Sources in Pakistan.” The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 24 (5): 419-34.

Authors: J. Lamontagne-Godwin, F.E. Williams, N. Aslam, S. Cardey, P. Dorward, M. Almas

Abstract:

Purpose: Rural advisory services ensure agricultural information is disseminated to rural populations, yet they are less accessible to women. This research provides insight on gender differences in information access by investigating frequency of use and preference of agricultural information sources by gender in a rural setting, differentiated according to literacy and age. 
Design/Methodology/approach: This study interviewed 401 male/female individuals in farm households in Jhang and Bahawalpur district of Punjab, Pakistan in 2016. 
Findings: Men and women farmers’ use and preferences in accessing information sources are extremely different. Women hardly use sources for agricultural information, and value interpersonal communication from informal sources. In contrast, men use and value official agencies more. Radio, surprisingly, was very rarely used, contradicting previous findings of research elsewhere. Age and literacy affect differences between women more than it does between men, particularly for convenient locations to access information.
Practical implications: The study identified and refined major gender differences regarding use and preference for agricultural information in relation to age and literacy, and helps to articulate options to improve gender equality of access to agricultural information in Pakistan. 
Theoretical implications: The focus and outcomes regarding gender intersecting with age and literacy in agricultural information access imply the need for more refined socioeconomic models, discerning and interrelating gender and other social dimensions beyond the standard of male-headed households. 
Originality/value: This paper adds to the growing body of evidence on information access according to gender, highlighting the need to investigate deeper socio-cultural issues around age and literacy.

Keywords: age, literacy, socio-cultural norms, agricultural information access, gender, rural advisory services, Pakistan

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2018

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