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Indigenous Rights

Gender Inequality and Land Rights: The Situation of Indigenous Women in Cameroon

Citation:

Njieassam, Esther Effundem. 2019. “Gender Inequality and Land Rights: The Situation of Indigenous Women in Cameroon”. PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad 22 (1): 1–33.

Author: Esther Effundem Njieassam

Abstract:

Land is an essential resource that serves as a means of subsistence for millions of people in the world and indigenous communities and women in particular. Most indigenous societies' survival is closely tied to land. In Cameroon, indigenous women are the backbone of food production in their communities. That makes access to land important, as it is a significant source of wealth and power for indigenous peoples in general and indigenous women in particular. While women all over the world encounter gender-based discrimination in relation to the control and ownership of land, indigenous women face triple discrimination on the basis of their gender (as women), their ethnicity (as indigenous peoples) and their economic class (economically poor). They are often dehumanised, degraded and subjected to treatment as second-class human beings despite the existence of national legislation that discourages such practices. This paper interrogates the possibility of including indigenous women in government and decision-making processes in Cameroon in the hope that they may be involved in key decision-making processes that affect them, thereby reducing their economic and social vulnerability. It concludes with some thoughtful recommendations on policy reform aimed at ensuring access to land for indigenous women as well as socio-economic justice in its broadest sense. 

Keywords: indigenous women, gendered-based discrimination, land rights, gender inequality, decision-making, participation, Cameroon

Topics: Class, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Indigenous, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon

Year: 2019

The Gender Agenda: NGOs and Capitalist Relations in Highland Cambodia

Citation:

Frewer, Tim. 2017. “The Gender Agenda: NGOs and Capitalist Relations in Highland Cambodia.” Critical Asian Studies 49 (2): 163-86. 

Author: Tim Frewer

Abstract:

Cambodia’s mountainous northeastern province of Ratanakiri, which only twenty years ago was home to mainly indigenous minority groups largely focused on subsistence production, has undergone rapid ecological, social, and economic transformation. Deforestation and land alienation in the context of large-scale plantation agriculture, land speculation, and smallholder cash cropping have led to concerns that indigenous communities are being alienated from their land and not benefitting from economic changes. This has resulted in a significant number of NGO and government programs that attempt to protect and “empower” indigenous people, particularly women. This article examines a one-year research project which explored the relationship between indigenous women and land change in two indigenous villages. It discusses how indigenous women as well as Khmer and landless Cham immigrants have dealt with the commoditization of land and labor. It focuses on the differentiated way capitalist relations have pushed men, women, landless laborers, and increasingly wealthy landowners on increasingly divergent life trajectories. Compelled by donors to focus on gender and indigenous women as an object of governance, the NGO that directed this project struggled to keep up with the realities of capitalist relations on the ground.

Keywords: land use change, critical development, frontiers, NGOs, indigeneity

Topics: Gender, Women, Indigenous, NGOs, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2017

Territorio y el ser decolonial: Pervivencia de las mujeres y los pueblos en tiempos de conflicto, paz y desarrollo

Citation:

Gruner, Sheila. 2018. "Territorio y el ser decolonial: Pervivencia de las mujeres y los pueblos en tiempos de conflicto, paz y desarrollo." In Movimientos indígenas y autonomías en América Latina: Escenarios de disputa y horizontes de posibilidad, edited by Flores Pavel C. López and Guerreiro Luciana García, 259-84. Buenos Aires, Argentina: CLACSO.

Author: Sheila Gruner

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:

La autonomía de los movimientos étnico-territoriales está orientada por conceptualizaciones de territorio y los derechos políticoterritoriales, y las relaciones sociales de producción que se producen y reproducen dentro del mismo territorio. Para entender lo que está en juego para pueblos indígenas y negros tanto como sociedad en general, se requiere abordar temas del desarrollo, conflicto y paz en su conjunto, mirar las tendencias de violencia contra las mujeres, y las mujeres racializadas en específico, desde un marco crítico, global y decolonial, tanto como anti-racista y depatriarcal. En este artículo serán explorados movimientos étnico-territoriales en Colombia y Canadá, examinando aquellos que han avanzado hacia formulaciones ontológicas alternativas al desarrollo, representado en conceptos como el buen vivir, ubuntu, y mino-bimaadiziwin. En este escrito se examinarán de igual forma los esfuerzos de los pueblos indígenas y negros en Colombia en cuanto a la construcción de la paz, la defensa del territorio y su autonomía, y la inclusión del Capítulo Étnico en los Acuerdos de paz de la Habana.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:

The autonomy of ethno-territorial movements is oriented by conceptualizations of territory, political and territorial rights and the social relations of production that are produced and reproduced within this same territory. To understand what is at stake for indigenous and black people, as well as for society in general, issues of development, conflict, and peace must be addressed in relation to each other, examining tendencies of violence against women and racialized women in particular, from within a critical, global and decolonial framework, that is also anti-racist and depatriarchal. Ethno-territorial movements in Colombia and Canada will be explored, examining those that express ontologies alternative to that which underpins dominant development, represented in concepts such as good life, ubuntu and mino-bimaadiiziwin. Efforts of indigenous and afrocolombian communities will also be explored in relation to the construction of peace, the defense of territory, autonomy and will centre on the inclusion of the Ethnic Chapter in the Havana Peace Accords.

Keywords: decolonial, buen vivir, good life, ubuntu, mino-bimaadiiziwin, movimiento etno-territorial, ethnoterritorial movement, territorio ancestral, ancestral territory, Acuerdos de Habana, Havana Accords, Ethnic Chapter, Capitulo Etnico

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Conflict, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Peacebuilding, Race, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, North America, South America Countries: Canada, Colombia

Year: 2018

Understanding Women's Land Rights: Gender Discrimination in Ownership

Citation:

Chowdhry, Prem. 2017. Understanding Women's Land Rights: Gender Discrimination in Ownership. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE.

Author: Prem Chowdhry

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
1. Editor's Introduction, Persisting Gender Discrimination in Land Rights
Prem Chowdhry

2. Land Rights and Land Access to Women in Andhra Pradesh
E. Revathi

3. Engendering Tribal Land Rights for Gendering the Land: A Case Study Among Apatani and Nyishi Communities
Rimi Tadu

4. Gender Issues in Landownership in Chhattisgarh: Existing Land Laws, Policies, and Practices
Ramesh Sharma

5. Women and Land Rights in the Context of Legal Propertied Equality in Goa
Ritu Dewan

6. Women Empowerment Through Landownership Rights: Critical Assessment of Their Status in Gujarat
Itishree Pattnaik

7. Gendering the Landownership Question in Jammu and Kashmir
Abha Chauhan

8. Understanding Women and Land Rights in Jharkhand
M. N. Karna

9. Land, Land Rights, and Women in Maharashtra
Ritu Dewan

10. Women's Access and Ownership of Land: A Case of Mizoram State in India
Saroj Arora

11. Gender and Land Relations in Nagaland: Emerging Issues
Khunenchu Magh

12. Persisting Inequalities: Gender and Land Rights in Rajasthan
Kanchan Mathur

13. Locating Gender in Land Rights Discourse of Sikkim
Sohel Firdos

14. Women's Land Rights in the Context of Neo-liberal Tamil Nadu
Ranjani K. Murthy

15. Gender Justice and Law: A Gender-specific Study of Landownership in Uttarakhand
Indu Pathak

 

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Indigenous, Land Tenure, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Pakistan

Year: 2017

Nosotras somos de la tierra, de la Pachamama.” Estado de Situación Sobre Tierras y Mujeres Indígenas

Citation:

Núñez L., Ana María. 2009. "'Nosotras somos de la tierra, de la Pachamama.' Estado de Situación Sobre Tierras y Mujeres Indígenas." La Paz: UNIFEM Región Andina y Género, Raza y Ethnia en los Programas de Lucha contra la Pobreza. 

Author: Ana María Núñez L.

Annotation:

RESUMEN:
"La relación de las mujeres, especialmente indígenas, con la tierra es una analogía que reviste su particularidad. Desde muy niñas, el hábitat y el medio representan no solamente la provisión de alimentos y condiciones para reproducir su vida sino que, más tarde, se convierte en un medio patrimonial para asegurar la reproducción de su familia. Es en este punto donde las mujeres “resienten” una sociedad discriminadora y poseedora de la patria potestad. Son los varones, hermanos, esposos, quienes tienen más derechos que ellas al heredar la tierra y ostentar la titularidad sobre las mismas. Parece ser que el proceso de saneamiento también es “adverso” y son pocas las mujeres que pueden tener títulos saneados y contar con la titularidad de las tierras. ¿Por qué nos interesa la titularidad? ¿Estamos mercantilizando las relaciones familiares? ¿Estamos cuestionando la paridad y dualidad de la familia indígena? Nada más lejos de nuestra intención; solo retomamos las palabras cotidianas de dirigentas y dirigentes que reconocen que tanto hombres como mujeres, a la par de sus derechos colectivos, también tienen el derecho de ostentar derechos individuales de titularidad. En este sentido,la gestión del territorio, que en algunos casos es parte exclusiva del rol de la mujer, es también eficaz en la medida en que se combina la titularidad y la gestión y participación activa en la producción de recursos y sobre la tierra. Esta investigación así nos lo refleja" (Núñez L. 2009, 5).
 
Tabla de Contenidos:
1. Presentación
2. Introducción General 
3. Objetivo general de la investigación 
4. Situación de las mujeres indígenas
5. Tenencia de tierras
6. Acceso a la tierra por las mujeres indígenas
7. Titulación a nombre de las mujeres
8. Saneamiento
9. Organizaciones de mujeres indígenas
10. Conclusiones
11. Algunas propuestas
12. Bibliografía

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Indigenous, Land Tenure, Rights, Indigenous Rights

Year: 2009

'Territory is Everything': Afro-Colombian Communities, Human Rights and Illegal Land Grabs

Citation:

Bratspies, Rebecca. 2020. “'Territory is Everything': Afro-Colombian Communities, Human Rights and Land Grabs.” HRLR Online 290-323. 

Author: Rebecca Bratspies

Abstract:

In Colombia, the struggle over land rights often pits the cultural and economic interests of indigenous and marginalized peoples against the governments that are supposed to protect their rights under law. Rural Afro-Colombian women seeking to vindicate their land rights find themselves at the mercy of multiple vectors of discrimination: they are black; they are women; and they are rural farmers. Their land rights are under threat—from land occupations from below and State Development plans from above. An unholy mix of gender and racial discrimination compounds their struggle. Nevertheless, Afro-Colombian women are at the vanguard of land rights advocacy in Colombia. This article documents their struggle for vindication. Part I begins by situating Colombia in the broader, global movement for land rights, and then describes Colombia’s Afro-descendant population, their landholdings and the main threats to their land rights. Part II outlines the primary legal and political sources of land dispossession in Colombia, and concludes by proposing a path forward for Colombia to protect, promote and realize the rights of Afro-Colombian women to their territory.

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Indigenous, Land Grabbing, Race, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

Climate Chaos: Ecofeminisms and the Land Question

Citation:

Isla, Ana, ed. 2019. Climate Chaos: Ecofeminisms and the Land Question. Toronto: Inanna Publications & Education Inc. 

Author: Ana Isla

Annotation:

Summary:
Today's social and ecological crises, which threaten the preservation of life on our planet, require our attention to understand the dynamics of patriarchy and capitalism, as well as to unmask "answers" or false solutions that obscure, perpetuate, and even worsen the current situation. Ecofeminists have critically examined several of the underlying assumptions of the capitalist-patriarchal conceptual framework, such as the promotion of the destructive transformation of nature, hierarchical thinking, the encouragement of dualism, the enforcement of the logic of domination over life, even the hatred for life itself, and speciecism. Yet ecofeminism's attempts to call attention to and stop the destruction of the planet have not yet been able to tackle the growing problem of climate change, which is threatening not only life on earth, but the earth and all her "living systems." Climate change and extreme weather are exacerbating existing social inequalities and political conflicts globally. Climate justice is the starting point from which we can begin to build the kind of local and international solidarity that is needed to address climate change and transform the socio-economic hierarchies that caused it. This volume re-examines existing analyses from this new and much broader point of view in theory and practise, and points to the need for a new concept of nature and the earth as a living being, a cosmic being, so that it is the life of the earth herself that today must be protected. (Summary from Amazon)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Climate Chaos: Mother Earth Under Threat
Ana Isla
 
2. Money or Life? What Makes Us Really Rich?
Veronica Bennholdt-Thomsen
 
3. Deconstructing Necrophilia: Eco/feminist Perspectives on the Perversion of Death and Love
Irene Friesen
 
4. The Guardians of Conga Lagoons – Defending Land, Water and Freedom in Peru
Ana Isla
 
5. Ecofeminisms, Commons and Climate Justice
Patricia E. (Ellie) Perkins
 
6. Finite Disappointments or Infinite Hope: Working through Tensions within Transnational Feminist Movements
Dorothy Attakora-Gyan
 
7. Sasipihkeyihtamowin: Niso Nehiyaw iskwewak
Margaret Kress
 
8. Climate Change and Environmental Racism: What Payments for Ecosystem Services Means for Peasants and Indigenous Peoples
Ana Isla
 
9. Biotechnology and Biopiracy: Plant-Based Contraceptives in the Americas and the (Mis)management of Nature 
Rachel O’Donnell
 
10. Building Food Sovereignty through Ecofeminism in Kenta: From Capitalist to Commoners’ Agricultural Value Chains 
Leigh Brownhill, Wahu M. Kaara and Terisa E. Turner
 
11. Monsanto and the Patenting of Life: Primitive Accumulation in the Twenty-First Century
Jennifer Bonato
 
12. “I Know My Own Body…They Lied”: Race, Knowledge, and Environmental Sexism in Institute, wv and Old Bhopal, India
Reena Shadaan
 
13. Water is Worth More than Gold: Ecofeminism and Gold Mining in the Dominican Republic
Klaire Gain
 
14. Indigenous Andoas Uprising: Defending Territorial Integrity and Autonomy in Peru
Ana Isla
 
15. The “Greening” of Costa Rica: A War Against Subsistence
Ana Isla
 
16. Earth Love: Finding our Way Back Home
Ronnie Joy Leah

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Indigenous, Land Grabbing, Land Tenure, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, India, Peru

Year: 2019

Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Guatemala: The Sepur Zarco Sexual Violence and Sexual Slavery Trial

Citation:

Burt, Jo-Marie. 2019. "Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Guatemala: The Sepur Zarco Sexual Violence and Sexual Slavery Trial." Social Science Research Network. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3444514.

Author: Jo-Marie Burt

Abstract:

Guatemala is breaking new ground with a series of high-impact war crimes prosecutions. The 2016 Sepur Zarco trial was one such landmark case: it was the first time that Guatemala prosecuted wartime sexual violence, and the first time that a domestic court prosecuted sexual slavery as a crime against humanity. This case also set important precedents in legal and evidentiary practice. Based on my direct observation of the Sepur Zarco case, this paper examines the legal practices that placed the womensurvivors, not the defendants, at the forefront of the proceedings, and which proved that the state of Guatemala systematically used sexual violence as a weapon of war against women and as a strategy to control the civilian population. It also examines the evidentiary practices in this case, which allowed not only for a conviction more than 30 years after the crimes, but for a broader understanding of the historical context, including land conflict, that led to the atrocities in Sepur Zarco. By piercing the veil of impunity surrounding wartime atrocities and making visible the faces of the victims —indigenous men and women who have historically been relegated to the margins of Guatemalan society— the Sepur Zarco trial is challenging entrenched narratives of denial that have sustained the power of military officials whose influence continues to shape present-day politics in the Central American nation.

Keywords: sexual violence, sexual slavery, Guatemala, human rights, war crimes

Topics: Conflict, Resource Conflict, Gender, Indigenous, International Law, International Criminal Law, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, War Crimes, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Rights, Human Rights, Indigenous Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, SV against Women Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2019

Gendered Impacts of Jackpile Uranium Mining on Laguna Pueblo

Citation:

Lorenzo, June. 2019. "Gendered Impacts of Jackpile Uranium Mining on Laguna Pueblo." International Journal of Human Rights Education 3 (1): 1–27.

Author: June Lorenzo

Abstract:

Building on a human rights framework and culturally-based notions of gender and earth, this article examines the Jackpile uranium mining experiences at Laguna Pueblo with a specific view toward impacts on women at the Pueblo. Community members have raised concerns about the environment and human health for years but employing the language of human rights is only very recent. Thirty years after closure of the mine, we have begun to use a human rights lens to analyze what has happened in our community. As an Indigenous woman, attorney, researcher, and scholar from Laguna, I contend that strategies for the community moving forward can be enhanced with human rights considerations, beginning with self-determination. I assert that any such conversation is incomplete without further consideration of the impacts of mining on Indigenous women and the feminine that exists in the lives of Laguna people.

Keywords: Laguna Pueblo, uranium mining, indigenous women and mining

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Health, Indigenous, Rights, Human Rights, Indigenous Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2019

Financialization, Resistance, and the Question of Women’s Land Rights

Citation:

Collins, Andrea M. 2018. "Financialization, Resistance, and the Question of Women’s Land Rights." International Feminist Journal of Politics 21 (3): 454- 76.

Author: Andrea M. Collins

Abstract:

The financialization of food and agricultural land has been a critical driver of the “land-grabbing” phenomenon in the post 2007–2008 period: the potential for land to be both a productive and financial asset has driven interest in long term land rentals and sales. Scholars and activists have highlighted the negative effects of these trends for rural populations. International institutions have promoted the recognition of land rights as a means to secure land from seizure, ensure equal participation in land acquisitions, and enable low income populations, including women, to access credit. At the same time, activists are promoting collective land rights, customary modes of land tenure and the rights of Indigenous peoples. For activists, land reform models that promote the collective rights of peoples to govern land are critical to resisting individualized land ownership models that encourage the alienation of land. This article reviews these rights-based frameworks using a critical feminist perspective and argues that both the institutionalist and activist approaches require more nuanced understandings of gender and difference in order to effect gender-equitable change. This article concludes by mapping new feminist research directions that consider land and resources within the context of local–global processes, the global economy, intersectionality and global rights-based discourses.

Keywords: land governance, gender, food sovereignty, collective rights, international institutions

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Indigenous, International Organizations, Land Grabbing, Land Tenure, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights

Year: 2018

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