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Indigenous

Globalization as Racialized, Sexualized Violence

Citation:

Kuokkanen, Rauna. 2008. “Globalization as Racialized, Sexualized Violence.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 10 (2): 216-233.

Author: Rauna Kuokkanen

Abstract:

In my article, I suggest that indigenous women are among the hardest hit by economic globalization - the expansion of markets, trade liberalization and cheapening of labour - and that globalization represents a multifaceted violence against indigenous women. I consider this with the help of two examples. First, I discuss the largely ignored case of missing and murdered Aboriginal women in Canada and how the interlocking systems of oppression (colonization, patriarchy and capitalism) are further intensified by globalization. Second, I examine the death of a Hopi woman, Private Piestewa, in the context of militarization, history of colonization and globalization. I analyse these examples in an intersectional framework that reveals the links between colonization, patriarchy and capitalism all of which inform the current processes of globalization.

Keywords: global capitalism, indigenous women, US military, violence against women, war on iraq

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Globalization, Indigenous, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Race, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada, United States of America

Year: 2008

Indigenous Feminisms: Disturbing Colonialism in Environmental Science Partnerships

Citation:

Dhillon, Carla M. 2020. “Indigenous Feminisms: Disturbing Colonialism in Environmental Science Partnerships.” Sociology of Race and Ethnicity 6 (4): 483–500.

Author: Carla M. Dhillon

Abstract:

Efforts have been under way by Indigenous peoples to reanimate governance that includes people of all ages and genders. Simultaneous initiatives to decolonize science within environmental fields must confront how settler colonial systems can continue to operate under the guise of partnership. Indigenous feminist theories aid understanding of ongoing colonialism alongside heteropatriarchy and racism with attempts to dismantle oppression in everyday practice. The author examines governance in a North American environmental science partnership consisting of Indigenous and non-Indigenous climate scientists. Using a mixed-methods social network approach, the author evaluates central actors in the national-scale climate science organization on the basis of intersectional identities, relational ties, and structural leadership roles. Findings indicate that Indigenous women and youth were not among core governance dominated by elder Indigenous men and White women. However, Indigenous women consistently bridged distant members back into the group and provided less visible labor to support the organization. These did not translate to decision-making roles. The author argues that Indigenous values of relational reciprocity and self-determination need to supersede the rhetoric of diversity in environmental fields. The case demonstrates the importance of inclusive Indigenous governance to decolonize environmental partnerships and the potential lack of legitimacy should unexamined notions of tradition be used to obscure settler colonial dominance.

Keywords: Native Americans, climate change, social networks, inclusive governance, racism, patriarchy

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Indigenous Regions: Americas, North America

Year: 2020

Tracing the Ecological Footprints of our Foremothers: Towards an African Feminist Approach to Women’s Connectedness with Nature

Citation:

Siwila, Lilian Cheelo. 2014. “Tracing the Ecological Footprints of our Foremothers: Towards an African Feminist Approach to Women’s Connectedness with Nature.” Studie Historiae Ecclesiasticae 40 (2): 131-147.

 

Author: Lilian Cheelo Siwila

Abstract:

Throughout church history, the subject of ecology has assumed prominence in church circles with resolutions constantly being reached on how the church can and has responded to the ecological crisis. For example, the early church fathers' experiences of connectedness to nature created another approach to the Christian concept of ecology of that time. A feminist approach to ecology shows that there has been a good amount of research on the subject matter, especially from an interventional perspective. Despite this positive response, this article argues that if ecofeminism is to be effective in responding to issues of ecology, discourses around African women's embedded ecological spiritualties need to be retrieved and transformed for the liberation of both women and nature. The article uses ecomatemalistic theory to argue for a need to promote the conceptualisation of the interconnectedness between women and nature. The article concludes by showing that discussions on ecofeminism can take different forms in different contexts. Thus in some African contexts this dualistic approach between women and nature also carries positive aspects that need to be identified as a tool for dialogue on African ecofeminism.

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Religion Regions: Africa

Year: 2014

Working Wives: Gender, Labour and Land Commercialization in Ratanakiri, Cambodia

Citation:

Joshi, Saba. 2020. “Working Wives: Gender, Labour and Land Commercialization in Ratanakiri, Cambodia.” Globalizations 17 (1): 1–15.

Author: Saba Joshi

Abstract:

In Ratanakiri province, home to a large share of Cambodia's indigenous minorities, land commercialization involving large-scale land transfers and in-migration has led to shrinking access to land for indigenous households. Drawing on qualitative interviews and a household survey conducted in Ratanakiri, this paper explores the links between social reproduction and agrarian production in the current phase of agrarian transition through the lens of everyday gendered experiences. It argues that while wage labour is becoming an essential component of agrarian livelihoods for land-poor indigenous households, gendered hierarchies mediate access to local wage labour opportunities due to the incompatibilities between care work and paid labour. This paper contributes to the literature by exposing locally-specific processes through which gender- differentiated impacts are produced under multiple modes of dispossession. It also illuminates the links between dispossession and social reproduction and the tensions between capitalist accumulation and care activities in agrarian trajectories following land commercialization.

 

Keywords: Cambodia, land grabs, care labour, wage labour, indigenous peoples, gender

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Households, Indigenous, Land Grabbing, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2020

Standing up for Forest: A Case Study on Baiga Women’s Mobilization in Community Governed Forests in Central India

Citation:

Tyagi, Niharika, and Smriti Das. 2020. “Standing up for Forest: A Case Study on Baiga Women’s Mobilization in Community Governed Forests in Central India.” Ecological Economics 178 (November). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106812.

Authors: Niharika Tyagi, Smriti Das

Abstract:

The forest history in India is fraught with struggles between the forest dwelling communities and the state. While the state usurped power over forests, excluding the communities and privileging commercial interests; the alienation of communities from their own land and homes resulted in mobilization across different sites. The movement for protection of forest commons assumed significance through the decade of 1970s that saw the famous Chipko movement in Uttarakhand and other forms of resistance across the country. The demand upon the forests that had intensified with subsistence, commercial and urbanization pressures, further enhanced with pressures of globalization. The consequent environmental degradation and dispossession of the communities of their resources resulted in varieties of environmentalism. In the arena of environmental conflict, Central India has been a hotbed of contest with forcible evictions, increasing base of extractive industries and steady militarization. The tribal communities in Central India faced serious threat from a monolithic state as it prioritized ‘national development’ goals over social equity and environmental justice. Rooted in this inequity was widespread discontent and social mobilization across the forested landscape. The local mobilization in Baiga Chak area of Central India clearly marked recognition of their socio-cultural embeddedness in their natural setting, particularly forest. What was unique in this movement was the uprising of Baiga women to assert their rights over the forest contrary to their traditionally defined role. It gradually led to collectivization of demand for recognition of Baiga communities’ historical relationship and claims over forest resource. Using the framework of Feminist Political Ecology, this paper examines Baiga women’s movement against Forest Department’s unlawful practices in Baiga Chak region of Central India. Using a case-based approach, the paper addresses the following questions: What factors led to the feminized grassroots environmental movement? How have women’s bargaining power and gender relations evolved at the local level consequently? What effect does women’s resistance have on community governed forest systems? In response to state usurpation that threatened the livelihood and household well-being, Baiga women collectively struggled to regain control over local forest resources. The analysis of this gendered environmental movement establishes an intersection between local structural, economic and ecological concerns and signals possibility of several gendered social movements in contested resource geographies.

Keywords: women's movements, feminist political ecology, gender roles and relations, forest commons

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Indigenous, Land Grabbing, Livelihoods, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2020

The Effects of Resource Extraction on Inuit Women and Their Families: Evidence from Canada

Citation:

Nightingale, Elana, Karina Czyzewski, Frank Tester, and Nadia Aaruaq. 2017. “The Effects of Resource Extraction on Inuit Women and Their Families: Evidence from Canada.” Gender & Development 25 (3): 367–85. 

Authors: Elana Nightingale, Karina Czyzewski, Frank Tester, Nadia Aaruaq

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article presents the findings from research conducted by Pauktuutit, an Inuit women’s organisation, and the University of British Colombia into the gendered social impacts of resource extraction in Qamani’tuaq, Nunavut Territory, Canada. The research used a range of different methods and contributes to a growing body of global evidence on the social impacts of resource extraction on indigenous women and families. It reveals the complex effects of resource extraction on Inuit women’s lives, at the individual, family, and community levels. This kind of research is urgently required to ensure that policies on natural resource extraction are developed that support the interests and needs of the women, men, and children most affected by mining.

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El presente artículo da cuenta de los resultados surgidos de estudios sobre los impactos sociales que la extracción de recursos en Qamani’tuaq, territorio de Nunavut, Canadá, provocan a nivel de género. Dichos estudios fueron realizados por Pauktuuit, una organización de mujeres inuit, y la Universidad de Columbia Británica. La investigación utilizó varios métodos diferentes, pretendiendo contribuir al conjunto de pruebas existentes a nivel mundial sobre los impactos sociales producidos por la extracción de recursos en las mujeres y las familias indígenas. Asimismo, da cuenta de los complejos efectos que la extracción de recursos tiene en la vida de las mujeres, tanto a nivel individual como familiar y comunitario. Por esta razón resulta urgente impulsar este tipo de investigaciones a fin de garantizar que las políticas vinculadas a la extracción de recursos naturales sean diseñadas para apoyar los intereses y las necesidades de las mujeres, los hombres y los niños más afectados por la actividad minera.

FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Cet article présente les conclusions de recherches menées par Pauktuuit, une organisation de femmes inuites, et de l’Université de la Colombie-Britannique, sur les impacts sociaux sexo-spécifiques de l’extraction des ressources à Qamani’tuaq, dans le territoire canadien Nunavut. Ce projet de recherche a eu recours à une variété de méthodes et il contribue à un ensemble croissant de données factuelles mondiales sur les impacts sociaux de l’extraction des ressources sur la vie des femmes inuites, aux niveaux individuel, familial et communautaire. D’autres travaux de recherche de ce type sont requis de toute urgence pour veiller à l’élaboration de politiques relatives à l’extraction des ressources qui soutiennent les intérêts et les besoins des femmes, des hommes et des enfants les plus gravement touchés par les activités minières.

Keywords: Inuit, indigenous, mining, resource extraction, gender, women, Arctic, Canada

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Indigenous Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2017

Indigenous Women’s Struggles to Oppose State-Sponsored Deforestation in Chhattisgarh, India

Citation:

Nandi, Sulakshana, and Samir Garg. 2017. “Indigenous Women’s Struggles to Oppose State-Sponsored Deforestation in Chhattisgarh, India.” Gender & Development 25 (3): 387–403. 

Authors: Sulakshana Nandi, Samir Garg

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
In Chhattisgarh state, nearly half the land area is covered with forests that are essential to the livelihoods and culture of the indigenous communities there. Tree felling has escalated in the past decades, with natural forests replaced by teak plantations. The article narrates the struggles of AAS, an organisation of indigenous women, for restoration of land and forest rights to the indigenous communities. It shows the importance of people’s organisations and their struggles for natural resource justice. Women have challenged the state, using a range of strategies.

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
En el estado de Chhattisgarh, casi la mitad del territorio se encuentra cubierta por bosques que resultan esenciales para proporcionar los medios de vida de las comunidades indígenas que ahí habitan y además se encuentran estrechamente ligados a su cultura. En las últimas décadas, ha repuntado la tala de árboles; ello ha dado lugar a la transformación de los bosques naturales en plantaciones de teca. El presente artículo narra las luchas de AAS, una organización de mujeres indígenas que busca restaurar el derecho a la tierra y los bosques de las comunidades indígenas. Además, da cuenta de la importancia que reviste la organización popular y sus luchas para obtener justicia en cuestiones vinculadas a los recursos naturales. Mediante varias estrategias, las mujeres han desafiado al Estado.

FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Dans l’État de Chhattisgarh, presque la moitié de la superficie terrestre est couverte de forêts qui sont essentielles pour les moyens de subsistance et la culture des communautés autochtones qui s’y trouvent. L’abattage d’arbres s’est intensifié au cours des quelques dernières décennies, et les forêts naturelles ont été remplacées par des plantations de teck. Cet article relate les luttes menées par AAS, une organisation de femmes autochtones, pour rétablir les droits fonciers et forestiers des communautés autochtones. Il montre l’importance des organisations de la population et des luttes qu’elles mènent pour obtenir la justice en matière de ressources naturelles. Les femmes ont remis l’État en cause en utilisant une variété de stratégies.

Keywords: deforestation, community health workers, social determinants of health, forest rights, indigenous rights

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Health, Indigenous, Livelihoods, Rights, Indigenous Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2017

Indigenous Women’s Anti-Mining Activism: A Gendered Analysis of the El Estor Struggle in Guatemala

Citation:

Deonandan, Kalowatie, Rebecca Tatham, and Brennan Field. 2017. “Indigenous Women’s Anti-Mining Activism: A Gendered Analysis of the El Estor Struggle in Guatemala.” Gender & Development 25 (3): 405–19. 

 

Authors: Kalowatie Deonandan, Rebecca Tatham, Brennan Field

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Focusing on the struggle against the Fenix mine in El Estor Guatemala, this article argues that women are disproportionately affected by resource development; and that women’s activism against mining is also gendered, in the sense that they are often distinct from men’s strategies and are rooted in women’s experiences as women, and as indigenous women within a particular socioeconomic and historical context. We draw on original data gathered from interviews with indigenous women activists in the El Estor communities in Guatemala.

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Centrándose en la lucha contra la mina Fénix en El Estor, Guatemala, el presente artículo sostiene que las mujeres son afectadas de manera desproporcionada por la explotación de recursos naturales. Asimismo, en el activismo de las mujeres contra las mineras pueden identificarse elementos vinculados al género en el sentido de que muchas veces las actividades que promueven se diferencian de las estrategias impulsadas por los hombres y se encuentran arraigadas en las vivencias de las mujeres en tanto mujeres y en tanto mujeres indígenas en un contexto socioeconómico e histórico particular. Las autoras del artículo basan sus conclusiones en datos de primera mano recabados de entrevistas realizadas con mujeres indígenas activistas habitantes de comunidades de El Estor en Guatemala.

FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Cet article porte sur la lutte contre la mine Fenix à El Estor, au Guatemala, et soutient que les femmes sont touchées de manière disproportionnée par le développement de l’exploitation des ressources et que l’activisme des femmes contre l’exploitation minière est aussi sexo-spécifique, dans la mesure où il est souvent distinct des stratégies des hommes et ancré dans les expériences des femmes en tant que femmes, mais aussi en tant que femmes autochtones dans un contexte socio-économique et historique particulier. Nous nous basons sur des données originales recueillies dans le cadre d’entretiens menés avec des femmes activistes autochtones dans les communautés d’El Estor au Guatemala.

Keywords: women, gender, mining, effects, activism, Guatemala

Topics: Conflict, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Indigenous Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2017

Land Resources Management in Southeast Asia: Redefining the Role of Women as Land Managers

Citation:

Pradipta, Lengga. 2020. “Land Resources Management in Southeast Asia: Redefining the Role of Women as Land Managers.” Komunitas: International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture 12 (2): 206-16.

Author: Lengga Pradipta

Abstract:

The global trend to transform land management responsibility from the state to ‘communities’ or local user groups has neglected the implications of intra-community power differences for the effectiveness and equity of land management. Despite the rhetoric about gender equality that has mushroomed in recent years, a review of evidence from several countries in Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam, has shown that female participation is very minimal in land management. One basic reason for this is the formal and informal institutional exclusion of women. Moreover, the bargaining power of women within households and communities is categorized as ‘lip-service’ because patriarchy is seen as bonded to culture or tradition. Further detailed and comparative research is required to identify and analyze the major factors that affect women’s access and control over land resources, especially regarding how culture and local wisdom can accommodate this issue and ensure the participation of women in the management of resources.

Keywords: land resources management, patriarchy, women

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Women, Gender Equality/Inequality, Patriarchy, Governance, Indigenous, Land Tenure, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam

Year: 2020

Negotiating Belonging and Place: An Exploration of Mestiza Women’s Everyday Resistance in Cajamarca, Peru

Citation:

Boudewijn, Inge A. M. 2020. “Negotiating Belonging and Place: An Exploration of Mestiza Women’s Everyday Resistance in Cajamarca, Peru.” Human Geography 13 (1): 40–48. 

Author: Inge A. M. Boudewijn

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Desde 1993, la región de Cajamarca en Perú ha sido el hogar de la mina de oro Yanacocha, asociada con la degradación ambiental, los impactos negativos en la salud y las consecuencias socioeconómicas. Loayza (2012), estallaron protestas a gran escala en toda la región por la propuesta de la nueva mina Conga. Cada vez más, la investigación académica se dedica a reconocer las luchas socioambientales fuera de la movilización masiva y las protestas públicas; a nivel local, doméstico y cotidiano, a menudo realizado en escalas de tiempo mucho más largas. En este contexto, exploro críticamente la resistencia cotidiana de las mujeres que se identifican como mestizas en la ciudad de Cajamarca. A través de una discusión sobre cómo su resistencia en curso construye críticamente quién / qué pertenece en el lugar y quién / qué es ‘otro’ / ‘extraño’, analizo cómo movilizan los valores y conocimientos locales de género para continuar oponiéndose a la minería a gran escala en las secuelas del conflicto de la Conga.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Since 1993, the Cajamarca region of Peru has been home to the Yanacocha gold mine, associated with environmental degradation, negative health impacts, and socio-economic consequences. In 2012, large-scale protests broke out across the region over the newly proposed Conga mine. Increasingly, scholarship is devoted to recognizing socio-environmental struggles outside of mass-mobilization and public protests, at the local, household and everyday level, often performed over much longer timescales. In this context, I critically explore the everyday resistance of mestiza-identifying women in Cajamarca city. Through a discussion of how their on-going resistance critically constructs who/what belongs in place and who/what is ‘other’/‘stranger’, I analyse how they mobilize gendered local values and knowledge to continue opposing large-scale mining in the aftermath of the Conga conflict.

Keywords: women, extractive industries, Andes, everyday resistance, industrias extractivas, resistencia cotidiana, minería, mining, Mujeres

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Health, Indigenous Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2020

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