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Ethnic Fragmentation, Conflict, Displaced Persons and Human Trafficking: An Empirical Analysis


Akee, Randall K. Q., Arnab K. Basu, Nancy H. Chau, and Melanie Khamis. 2010. "Chapter 28: Ethnic Fragmentation, Conflict, Displaced Persons and Human Trafficking: An Empirical Analysis." In Migration and Culture (Frontiers of Economics and Globalization, Volume 8), edited by Gil S. Epstien and Ira N. Gang, 691-716. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Authors: Randall K. Q. Akee, Arnab K. Basu, Nancy H. Chau, Melanie Khamis


Ethnic conflicts and their links to international human trafficking have recently received a surge in international attention. It appears that ethnic conflicts exacerbate the internal displacement of individuals from networks of family and community, and their access to economic and social safety nets. These same individuals are then vulnerable to being trafficked by the hopes of better economic prospects elsewhere. In this chapter, we empirically examine this link between ethnic fragmentation, conflicts, internally displaced persons, refugees, and international trafficking, making use of a novel dataset of international trafficking. We conduct a direct estimation, which highlights the ultimate impact of ethnic fragmentation and conflict on international trafficking through internal and international displacements.

Keywords: internally displaced people, ethnic conflict, human trafficking, economics, ethnic fragmentation, refugees

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Economies, Ethnicity, Gender, Trafficking, Human Trafficking

Year: 2010

Gender, Conflict and Displacement: Contesting 'Infantilisation' of Forced Migrant Women


Manchanda, Rita. 2004. "Gender, Conflict and Displacement: Contesting 'Infantilisation' of Forced Migrant Women." Economic and Political Weekly 39 (37): 4179-4186.

Author: Rita Manchanda


The experience of the refugee or the internally displaced person is one that is fundamentally disenfranchising. While women and children make up a majority of the forcibly displaced, international humanitarian discourses confer on them a presumed passivity that is naturalised in practice. Systems of care and protection even in UNHCR camps remain largely gender insensitive especially in south Asia where national laws reinforce gender discrimination. This paper uses a gender sensitive perspective, analysing the way a woman as a refugee subject is configured as a non-person so as to gain fresh insights on the 'infantilisation' and 'de-maturation' of the refugee experience. Moreover, it raises questions on the secondary status women occupy as citizens in south Asian polities.

Keywords: conflict, female refugees, migrant

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Economies, Gender, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2004

Jobs After War: A Critical Challenge in the Peace and Reconstruction Puzzle


Date-Bah, Eugenia. 2003. Jobs After War: A Critical Challenge in the Peace and Reconstruction Puzzle. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Author: Eugenia Date-Bah


While jobs are central to reintegrating conflict-affected groups, reconstruction, peace building and tackling the serious human security threats unleashed by armed conflicts, the issue continues to receive inadequate coverage in post-conflict debate and action. This book examines the complex decent work deficits after armed conflicts and proposes an integrated strategy for addressing them.

The contributions of several ILO staff and external consultants offer, together, a comprehensive picture of the key issues that require serious consideration as well as effective practical approaches that can be adopted. They cover, for example, the nature of the labour market and other features of the post-conflict situation; the heterogeneity of the crisis-affected groups and their specific concerns, such as youth, women, refugees, internally displaced people and ex-combatants. It also considers other elements of the integrated strategy, including skills training, local economic development, micro-finance, labour-intensive infrastructure rebuilding, social protection; and the roles of the private sector, cooperatives, workers and employers’ associations, labour administration and international organizations. In addition, this volume also includes a number of vivid country case studies which provide valuable lessons. Reflection and debate on the critical issues of jobs in post-conflict situations is also offered making this book a practical tool to aid post-conflict policy planners and implementers at the different levels and to strengthen future action.

Keywords: economic development, private sector, microfinance, labour market

Topics: Combatants, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Economies, Gender, Livelihoods, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security, Human Security

Year: 2003

Refugee and Internally Displaced Women: A Development Perspective


Cohen, Roberta. 1995. Refugee and Internally Displaced Women: A Development Perspective. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Author: Roberta Cohen


This paper examines the actual experience of refugee and displaced women in light of the need for their greater integration into development-oriented programs for refugees, displaced persons and returnees. It looks at women’s access to basic services, their role in planning and delivering emergency assistance, their opportunities for economic self-reliance, and their role in reconstructing their home countries after they repatriate. It identifies the obstacles impeding their full integration into economic and social programs and recommends steps to overcome these barriers. It recommends the greater involvement of development agencies and multilateral development banks in programs for refugees and displaced persons, and in particular in efforts to make refugee and displaced women self-sustaining.

Keywords: female refugees, humanitarian aid, reconstruction, resettlement



“Providing development-based assistance to internally displaced persons caught up in conflict situations is an even more difficult challenge...much more could be done to assist the internally displaced to become self-reliant...UNIFEM has developed several low-budget projects for war-torn countries that include the provision of seeds and tools and income-earning activities for refugee and displaced women.” (5)

“The ability of refugee and displaced women to sustain themselves in [reintegration] largely depends on the extent to which they are included in reconstruction and development programs and have been trained sufficiently to participate in them; and whether sufficient international relief and development assistance is made available.” (27)

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Economies, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Year: 1995

Adjustment to Trauma Exposure in Refugee, Displaced, and Non-Displaced Bosnian Women


Schmidt, Martina, Nera Kravic, and Ulrike Ehlert. 2008. "Adjustment to Trauma Exposure in Refugee, Displaced, and Non-Displaced Bosnian Women." Archives of Women's Mental Health 11 (4): 269-76.

Authors: Martina Schmidt, Nera Kravic, Ulrike Ehlert


The war in Bosnia resulted in the displacement of millions of civilians, most of them women. Ten years after the civil war, many of them are still living as refugees in their country of origin or abroad. Research on different refugee groups has continuously reported persistent levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental-health problems in this population. The present study compared PTSD and self-concept in Bosnian refugee women ( n = 29) with women who were internally displaced (IDP; n = 26) and non-displaced women ( n = 32). Data were collected using the Bosnian Trauma Questionnaire and four scales assessing self-esteem, perceived incompetence, externality of control attribution, and persistence. IDPs scored significantly higher on PTSD symptoms, externality of control attribution and perceived incompetence, and lower on self-esteem than both refugee and non-displaced women. The level of education most strongly predicted PTSD symptom severity, followed by the type of displacement, and exposure to violence during the war. Associations of self-concept with displacement and psychopathology were inconsistent, with type of displacement predicting control attributions but not other aspects of self-concept and PTSD symptoms being partly related to perceived incompetence and self-esteem. These results support previous findings stating that, in the long run, refugees show better mental health than IDPs, and that witnessing violence is a traumatic experience strongly linked to the development of PTSD symptoms. Results further indicate that education plays an important role in the development of PTSD symptoms. Associations of control attributions and type of displacement were found; these results have not been previously documented in literature.

Keywords: trauma, female refugees, internally displaced people, mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder, female civilians

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Gender, Women, Health, PTSD Regions: Europe, Balkans Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina

Year: 2008

The Darfur Crisis: Associated Mental Health Problems among Internally Displaced Women


Musa, Saif A., and Abdalla A.R.M. Hamid. 2010. "The Darfur Crisis: Associated Mental Health Problems among Internally Displaced Women." Journal of Muslim Mental Health 5 (1): 120-30.

Authors: Saif A. Musa, Abdalla A.R.M. Hamid


This study aimed at investigating the effects of the Darfur crisis on the mental health of internally displaced women; in particular, the traumatic events and resulting living conditions inside camps for internally displaced persons. It was hypothesized that a high prevalence of nonpsychotic psychiatric symptoms would be found. Participants were 212 internally displaced women in Darfur between 15 and 80 years old. Participants were interviewed using two measures: the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and another questionnaire specially designed to assess living conditions and relief services. Results showed that 72% of the participants were classified as nonpsychotic psychiatric cases. Findings also imply that living conditions inside camps need to be improved and security should be provided or enforced. 

Keywords: mental health, internally displaced people, trauma

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Trauma Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2010

Refugees, Forced Displacement, and War


Bennett, Trude, Linda Barlett, Oluwasayo Adewumi Olatunde, and Lynn Amowitz. 2004. “Refugees, Forced Displacement, and War.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 10 (11): 2034-35.

Authors: Trude Bennett, Linda Barlett, Oluwasayo Adewumi Olatunde, Lynn Amowitz


Women make up high proportions of refugee and internally displaced populations, and they suffer unique consequences of war and conflict because of gender-based violence, discrimination, and caretaking roles.  Refugee women are especially vulnerable to infectious disease, as well as threats to their mental health and physical safety.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Mental Health, Sexual Violence, SV against women

Year: 2004


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