Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

IDPs

Engendering Protection: An Analysis of the 2009 Kampala Convention and Its Provisions for Internally Displaced Women

Citation:

Groth, Lauren. 2011. “Engendering Protection: An Analysis of the 2009 Kampala Convention and Its Provisions for Internally Displaced Women.” International Journal of Refugee Law 23 (2): 221-51.

Author: Lauren Groth

Abstract:

On 23 October 2009, the African Union officially adopted the Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention). The product of over two years of deliberation and consultation with AU member states and partners, the Kampala Convention represents an important step in the development of legally binding instruments of protection for internally displaced persons (IDPs). Such an accomplishment, while commendable, comes at a time of increasing insecurity and violence for IDPs, especially internally displaced women, who are disproportionately represented within this population. This article considers the legal protections encompassed within the Kampala Convention from a gendered perspective, analyzing the extent to which the Convention adequately acknowledges and addresses the unique vulnerabilities of internally displaced women. Specifically, the article considers the ways in which the Kampala Convention includes women in the drafting process, expands conceptions of gender-based violence, encourages protections of economic, social, and cultural rights, and extends obligations to non-state actors. In sum, the article argues that, while the progressive legal developments of the African Union deserve much praise, there remain continued limitations in conferring adequate protection to the most prevalent victims of internal conflict: internally displaced women.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women Regions: Africa

Year: 2011

Gender-Based Violence Among Refugee and Internally Displaced Women in Africa

Citation:

Lewis, Amy G. 2005. “Gender-Based Violence Among Refugee and Internally Displaced Women in Africa.” Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 20: 269.

Author: Amy G. Lewis

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, International Organizations Regions: Africa

Year: 2005

Parallel Lives, Uneven Justice: An Analysis of Rights, Protection and Redress for Refugee and Internally Displaced Women

Citation:

Schmiechen, Malinda M. 2004. “Parallel Lives, Uneven Justice: An Analysis of Rights, Protection and Redress for Refugee and Internally Displaced Women in Camps.” Saint Louis University Public Law Review 22 (2): 473-520.

Author: Malinda M. Schmiechen

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Justice, Rights

Year: 2004

Protecting Two Million Internally Displaced: The Successes and Shortcomings of the African Union in Darfur

Citation:

O'Neill, William G., and Violette Cassis. 2005. Protecting Two Million Internally Displaced: The Successes and Shortcomings of the African Union in Darfur. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

Authors: William G. O'Neill, Violette Cassis

Abstract:

Although armed conflict in Darfur continues to leave millions of people homeless, vulnerable to violence, and susceptible to potentially life-threatening diseases, African Union (AU) peacekeeping troops, contrary to popular belief, have made a difference in the region. Their presence has deterred the rape of women, reduced the recruitment of children into armed forces, protected humanitarian corridors and aid convoys, reduced the looting of animals belonging to Arab nomads, and helped displaced persons who returned to their homes. However, the report also finds many shortcomings and offers detailed recommendations to deal with the deteriorating situation in Darfur, including an increase in AU troop strength to at least 20,000.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Humanitarian Assistance, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Security, Human Security, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2005

Basic Health, Women's Health, and Mental Health Among Internally Displaced Persons in Nyala Province, South Darfur, Sudan

Citation:

Kim, Glen, Rabih Torbay, and Lynn Lawry. 2007. “Basic Health, Women’s Health, and Mental Health Among Internally Displaced Persons in Nyala Province, South Darfur, Sudan.” American Journal of Public Health 97 (2): 353–61.

Authors: Glen Kim, Rabih Torbay, Lynn Lawry

Abstract:

Objectives. We assessed basic health, women’s health, and mental health among Sudanese internally displaced persons in South Darfur.

Methods. In January 2005, we surveyed 6 registered internally displaced persons camps in Nyala District. Using systematic random sampling, we surveyed 1293 households, interviewing 1 adult female per household (N=1274); respondents’ households totaled 8643 members. We inquired about respondents’ mental health, opinions on women’s rights, and the health status of household members.

Results. A majority of respondents had access to rations, shelter, and water. Sixty-eight percent (861 of 1266) used no birth control, and 53% (614 of 1147) reported at least 1 unattended birth. Thirty percent (374 of 1238) shared spousal decisions on timing and spacing of children, and 49% (503 of 1027) reported the right to refuse sex. Eighty-four percent (1043 of 1240) were circumcised. The prevalence of major depression was 31% (390 of 1253). Women also expressed limited rights regarding marriage, movement, and access to health care. Eighty-eight percent (991 of 1121) supported equal educational opportunities for women.

Conclusions. Humanitarian aid has relieved a significant burden of this displaced population’s basic needs. However, mental and women’s health needs remain largely unmet. The findings indicate a limitation of sexual and reproductive rights that may negatively affect health.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2007

Sexual Violence and Firewood Collection in Darfur

Citation:

Patrick, Erin. 2007. “Sexual Violence and Firewood Collection in Darfur.” Forced Migration Review 27: 40–1.

Author: Erin Patrick

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, International Organizations, NGOs, Security, Human Security, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2007

Disasters and Displacement: Gaps in Protection

Citation:

Cohen, Roberta, and Megan Bradley. 2010. “Disasters and Displacement: Gaps in Protection.” Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies 1 (1): 95-142.

Authors: Roberta Cohen, Megan Bradley

Abstract:

Natural disasters, particularly those related to climate change, are fast becoming a leading cause of forced displacement although conceptual, normative and institutional frameworks to provide human rights protection to the environmentally displaced are not yet in place. This article discusses the human rights and protection dimensions of disaster-induced displacement, identifies the major challenges to protecting disaster victims, and proposes ways forward. The authors argue that while most environmentally displaced persons are expected to remain within their own countries, there is a lack of clarity about the status and protection needs of those uprooted by environmental degradation and other ‘slow-onset’ disasters as opposed to those displaced by 'sudden-onset' disasters. By far the biggest protection gap exists for those who cross borders. These individuals do not generally qualify as refugees under the 1951 Refugee Convention, there is no normative framework to address their specific needs and vulnerabilities and States have not been willing to commit to more than temporary protection on an ad hoc basis. The need is now critical for new approaches to be developed for the environmentally displaced, including expanded normative and institutional frameworks, comprehensive national policies, national and international monitoring, rights training, and more effective ways of dealing with governments that fail to protect their populations.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Rights, Human Rights

Year: 2010

The National Implementation of SCR 1325 in Latin America: Key Areas of Concern

Citation:

Luciak, Ilja. 2009. “The National Implementation of SCR 1325 in Latin America: Key Areas of Concern.” Paper presented at the Annual ISA-ABRI Joint International Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, July 22-24.

Author: Ilja Luciak

Abstract:

It is the premise of this paper that sustainable peace and development require the full implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325. The paper calls attention to the importance of implementing SCR 1325 by highlighting key areas of concern with a primary focus on a small sample of Latin American countries, including Colombia, Guatemala, El Salvador, Haiti, and Nicaragua. The paper discusses several recent and current peace processes in the region. It emphasizes that peace negotiations constitute a crucial entry point for considerations of gender justice. Thus it is essential that the process be inclusive. Yet women'€™s participation in formal peace processes continues to be limited and their contributions to informal peace processes are only starting to be recognized. Peace accords and subsequent constitution-building present important opportunities for countries emerging from conflict to transform their political systems toward greater gender equality. Several Latin American countries have advanced in the political reconstruction of their respective societies by instituting constitutional and electoral reforms in the wake of conflict. On the other hand, a discussion of disarmament and demobilization processes in the region and highlights the current lack of attention to gender considerations. Similarly, the gendered needs of refugees and internally displaced populations also require attention. Further, in addition to dealing with violent acts committed during war, governments need to address the security environment that emerges in the wake of conflict. Post-war violence, whether committed in the public or private sphere, plagues many countries in the region.

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Constitutions, Elections, Post-conflict Governance, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America

Year: 2009

Country Profiles from Latin America: Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua

Citation:

Leonard, Melinda. 2002. “Country Profiles from Latin America: Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua.” In If Not Now, When? Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Refugee, Internally Displaced, and Post-Conflict Settings, 104–23. New York: Reproductive Health for Refugees Consortium.

Author: Melinda Leonard

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Reproductive Health, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua

Year: 2002

Prevalence of War-Related Sexual Violence and Other Human Rights Abuses Among Internally Displaced Persons in Sierra Leone

Citation:

Amowitz, Lynn L., Chen Reis, Kristina Hare Lyons, Beth Vann, Binta Mansaray, Adyinka Akinsulure-Smith, Louise Taylor, and Vincent Iacopino. 2002. “Prevalence of War-Related Sexual Violence and Other Human Rights Abuses Among Internally Displaced Persons in Sierra Leone.” JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 287 (4): 513-21.

Authors: Lynn L. Amowitz, Chen Reis, Kristina Hare Lyons, Beth Vann, Binta Mansaray, Adyinka Akinsulure-Smith, Louise Taylor, Vincent Iacopino

Abstract:

Context: Sierra Leone's decade-long conflict has cost tens of thousands of lives and all parties to the conflict have committed abuses.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and impact of war-related sexual violence and other human rights abuses among internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Sierra Leone.

Design and Setting: A cross-sectional, randomized survey, using structured interviews and questionnaires, of internally displaced Sierra Leone women who were living in 3 IDP camps and 1 town, which were conducted over a 4-week period in 2001.

Participants: A total of 991 women provided information on 9166 household members. The mean (SE) age of the respondents was 34 (0.48) years (range, 14-80 years). The majority of the women sampled were poorly educated (mean [SE], 1.9 [0.11] years of formal education); 814 were Muslim (82%), and 622 were married (63%).

Main Outcome Measures: Accounts of war-related sexual assault and other human rights abuses.

Results: Overall, 13% (1157) of household members reported incidents of war-related human rights abuses in the last 10 years, including abductions, beatings, killings, sexual assaults and other abuses. Ninety-four (9%) of 991 respondents and 396 (8%) of 5001 female household members reported war-related sexual assaults. The lifetime prevalence of non–war-related sexual assault committed by family members, friends, or civilians among these respondents was also 9%, which increased to 17% with the addition of war-related sexual assaults (excluding 1% of participants who reported both war-related and non–war-related sexual assault). Eighty-seven percent of women believed that there should be legal protection for women's human rights. More than 60% of respondents believed that a man has a right to beat his wife if she disobeys, and that it is a wife's duty/obligation to have sex with her husband even if she does not want to.

Conclusions: Sexual violence committed by combatants in Sierra Leone was widespread and was perpetrated in the context of a high level of human rights abuses against the civilian population.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Male Combatants, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2002

Pages

© 2020 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - IDPs