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IDPs

Displaced Women in Northern Ghana: Indigenous Knowledge about Ethnic Conflict

Citation:

McGadney-Douglass, Brenda Faye, and William K. Ahadzie. 2008. “Displaced Women in Northern Ghana: Indigenous Knowledge about Ethnic Conflict.” Affilia 23 (4): 324–37.

Authors: Brenda Faye McGadney-Douglass, William K. Ahadzie

Abstract:

This article presents the findings of field research in Ghana in 2002 about internal displacement stemming from multiethnic violence in northern Ghana in 1994, known as the “Guinea Fowl War.” Indigenous, gender-specific knowledge from displaced Ghanaian women is presented in the context of feminist perspectives on the consequences of regional wars on noncombatants. The research generated indigenous material for social work education about interethnic peace building and conflict resolution. The discussion includes first-person responses about warning signs, origins of conflict, immediate and long-term responses, social consequences, and an integration of findings with feminist perspectives on conflict resolution and policies that are designed to aid internally displaced women.

Keywords: Africa, ethnic conflict, feminist social work, internally displaced women, social work education

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Peacebuilding Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2008

After the War: Displaced Women, Ordinary Ethics, and Grassroots Reconstruction in Colombia

Citation:

Lemaitre, Julieta. 2016. “After the War: Displaced Women, Ordinary Ethics, and Grassroots Reconstruction in Colombia.” Social & Legal Studies 25 (5): 545–65.

Author: Julieta Lemaitre

Abstract:

This article examines internally displaced women’s narratives of rebuilding their life after displacement, focusing on questions of moral agency and community governance. The data come from a 3-year research project (2010–2013) with internally displaced women in Colombia, during the emergence of a new transitional justice regime. The article finds in internally displaced women’s narratives of the injuries of war, of their own resistance and overcoming, and of their aspirations for the future, concerns that go beyond poverty alleviation and redistribution in peace-building efforts. Internally displaced women’s narratives also engage with questions of ordinary ethics and community governance, describing the loss of moral agency in civil war and its painstaking recovery. This article questions the limitations of transitional justice regimes and peace-building efforts that ignore concerns with the loss of moral agency and community during civil war as well as the role of ordinary ethics in peace building at the grassroots.

Keywords: community governance, internal displacement, internally displaced women, moral agency, ordinary ethics, peace building, transitional justice, Colombia

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Justice, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Tierras, mujeres y niñez. Familia y conflicto armado

Citation:

Zorio, Sandra. 2015. “Tierras, mujeres y niñez. Familia y conflicto armado.” Revista Derecho del Estado 35: 295-315.

Author: Sandra Zorio

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Este artículo pretende realizar un análisis socio-jurídico sobre la situación de las mujeres, los niños, niñas y adolescentes y su derecho a la tierra, específicamente, en la aplicación de la Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras. Se pretende demostrar que a pesar de existir un conjunto de normativas amplias y garantistas en favor de estas poblaciones, las instituciones del Estado encargadas de los temas de tierras no logran recoger en sus procedimientos de política pública la realidad sociológica de las familias desplazadas, y por consiguiente, las mujeres, los niños, niñas y adolescentes quedan excluidos de los mecanismos de acceso al goce efectivo de sus derechos. Todo esto, porque en el Estado habita una noción de familia anacrónica y poco coincidente con la realidad campesina, modelo que supone a la familia como un grupo jerárquico en el que el hombre es el líder y las mujeres y sus hijos e hijas, una especie de auxiliares. 

Keywords: tierras, Mujeres, niños, niñas y adolescentes, Conflicto Armado, familia

Topics: Age, Youth, Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Rights, Land Rights

Year: 2015

Women In The Colombian Land Restitution And Titling Process – A RDS Household Survey Of IDPS

Citation:

Wiig, Henrik, and Jemima García-Godos. 2015. “Women In The Colombian Land Restitution And Titing Process – A RDS Household Survey Of IDPS.” Paper presented at The World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington D.C., March 23-25.

Authors: Henrik Wiig, Jemima García-Godos

Abstract:

The Victims’ Law from 2011 in Colombia initiated a land restitution process that potentially would benefit more than 5 million Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) that lost an estimated 7-8 million hectares of land when they fled their homes in the countryside due to the conflict. The government helps them to reclaim the same piece of land and give support to return. Women are supposed to receive preferential and differentiated treatment in the process and the land is furthermore jointly titled as a gender equality measure. However, the process is slow and even less people is willing to actually return from their current place of residence shows our RDS household survey sample of 499 IDP households. Fear of repeated displacement, psychological trauma related to the place of origin especially among women and loss of agricultural knowledge influences their willingness to return. Both Survey and key informant interviews shows that gender perspective is reasonably successful but women have less intention than men to claim land restitution, return and make use of the land.

Keywords: Colombia, conflict, land restitution, land titling, gender equality

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Conflict, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Trauma, Households, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2015

Desarraigo, género y desplazamiento interno en Colombia

Citation:

Escobar, Nora Segura, and Donny Meertens. 1997. “Desarraigo, género y desplazamiento interno en Colombia.” Nueva Sociedad 148: 30–43.

Authors: Nora Segura Escobar, Donny Meertens

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
There are facets of violent displacement in Colombia that until now have not had visibility or recognition. When distinguishing between displaced men and women, adults and minors, there are ties and sources of tension not perceptible with other perspectives of analysis. There is a web of conflicts and pressures that dismantle the ways of life and forms of organization of displaced households and accelerates the breakdown of sexual stereotypes, traditional relationships between the sexes and generations, erodes the material and symbolic supports of the male pre-eminence, and generates crisis in identities and in affective and social relationships.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Hay facetas del desplazamiento violento en Colombia que hasta hoy no han tenido visibilidad ni reconocimiento. Al distinguir entre los desplazados a hombres y a mujeres, adultos y menores de edad, surgen lazos y fuentes de tensión no perceptibles con otras perspectivas de análisis. Hay una trama de conflictos y presiones que desarticula los modos de vida y formas de organización de los hogares desplazados y acelera la descomposición de los estereotipos sexuales, las relaciones tradicionales entre los sexos y las generaciones, erosiona los soportes materiales y simbólicos de la preeminencia masculina y genera crisis en las identidades y en las relaciones afectivas y sociales.

Keywords: violencia, gênero, desplazamiento, Colombia, violence, gender, displacement

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 1997

The Colombian Land Restitution Programme: Process, Results and Challenges, with Special Emphasis on Women

Citation:

García Godos, Jemima, and Henrik Wiig. 2014. The Colombian Land Restitution Programme: Process, Results and Challenges, with Special Emphasis on Women. Oslo: Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research.

Authors: Jemima García Godos, Henrik Wiig

Annotation:

Summary:
Since 2011, Colombia is embarked in an ambitious program of land and property restitution for the more than 5 million internally displaced people who fled their homes and lands due to the internal armed conflict. The restitution process involves the return of IDPs as well as the formalization of property rights. In spite of great initial optimism, by mid-2014 only 20.000 HA of land have been restituted. This report gives a detailed description of the process itself, discussing the many challenges that have risen, including the consideration to innocent third parties farming the land today and the hesitancy among IDPs to return to their land. Furthermore, the report discusses some alternatives that might ease the restitution process and the implications of restitution in a prospective scenario of land reform, given the ongoing peace negotiations between the government and the guerrilla.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Post-Conflict, Peace Processes, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2014

The Contribution of Mental Health and Gender Attitudes to Intimate Partner Violence in the Context of War and Displacement: Evidence from a Multi-Informant Couple Survey in Iraq

Citation:

Goessmann, Katharina, Hawkar Ibrahim, Laura Bebra Saupe, Azad Ali Ismail, and Frank Neuner. 2019. "The Contribution of Mental Health and Gender Attitudes to Intimate Partner Violence in the Context of War and Displacement: Evidence from a Multi-Informant Couple Survey in Iraq." Social Science & Medicine 237.

Authors: Katharina Goessmann, Hawkar Ibrahim, Laura Bebra Saupe, Azad Ali Ismail, Frank Neuner

Abstract:

Rationale: Intimate partner violence is a prevalent issue in refugee and internally displaced populations in postwar and migration settings including camps in the Middle East. In this context, partner violence has been associated with war-related trauma, camp factors, individual characteristics, and gender attitudes. 
 
Objective: With a dual-informant survey among a sample of Iraqi couples residing in a camp for displaced people in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (N = 92) this study investigated the relationship between war-related psychopathology, attitudes towards women, and male-perpetrated partner violence. 
 
Method: Moderated regression analysis was applied using information from both partners to predict partner violence reported by wives. 
 
Results: Over 58% of the women in this sample reported past-year exposure to partner violence. Further analyses revealed significant main effects of men's self-reported psychopathology (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression) and their own gender attitudes on partner violence. In a multivariate regression, moderating effects were found, as higher psychopathology levels and inequitable gender attitudes in men interacted in the prediction of male-perpetrated partner violence. 
 
Conclusions: This study highlights the high prevalence of partner violence among Iraqi displaced women. In addition, the results show an interplay of several violence-impelling factors in war-affected men. This emphasizes the importance of addressing both mental health issues and gender attitudes in the efforts to reduce or end violence against women in post-war settings.

Keywords: Iraq, Intimate partner violence, forced displacement, traumatic, experiences, mental health, gender attitudes, moderated regression analysis

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Domestic Violence, Gender, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Post-Conflict Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2019

Resettlement Post Conflict: Risk and Protective Factors and Resilience among Women in Northern Uganda

Citation:

Corbin, Joanne N., and J. Camille Hall. 2019. "Resettlement Post Conflict: Risk and Protective Factors and Resilience among Women in Northern Uganda." International Social Work 62 (2): 918-32.

Authors: Joanne N. Corbin, J. Camille Hall

Abstract:

Approximately 1.8 million people were displaced in northern Uganda as a result of the LRA conflict. This paper explores risk and protective factors as well as examples of resilience among women in northern Uganda resettling after armed conflict and internal displacement. The risk and resilience ecological framework is used to identify and understand these factors along the multiple levels of the ecological social system. Risk factors included poor health, loss of instrumental and emotional support networks, and land vulnerability. Protective factors included engagement in livelihood and sociocultural activities with others. Resilience was located in the women’s coping and maintenance of family and social relationships.

Keywords: Africa, ecological framework, economic activities, internal displacement, land vulnerability, qualitative methods

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Health, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2019

Microfinance as a Means for Women Empowerment in the Colombian Post Conflict Scenario: Transformational Development or a Tool for Better Managing Poverty?

Citation:

Duarte Reyes, Laura Andrea, and Giulia Fattori. 2019. "Microfinance as a Means for Women Empowerment in the Colombian Post Conflict Scenario: Transformational Development or a Tool for Better Managing Poverty?" Peace Human Rights Governance 3 (1): 127-61.

Authors: Laura Andrea Duarte Reyes, Giulia Fattori

Abstract:

Gender financial inclusion initiatives, such as facilitating access to financial resources or business opportunities, have recently been promoted as a key strategy to advance women empowerment in post conflict scenarios, especially regarding refugee and internally displaced women. Drawing on literature review, this paper attempts to provide an analysis of the potential role of microfinance as a means for empowerment of internally displaced women in Colombia. It argues that without challenging the structural conditions that create poverty and discrimination against women, usually deepened during transition processes, these initiatives will be tackling the symptoms rather than the underlying causes of gender inequalities, thus missing out their transformative potential and simply providing tools for women to better manage their poverty. Instead, engaging other members of the household and the community (men and children), the recognition of the socio-cultural dynamics in which women live and the acknowledgment of women’s agency, may strengthen any effort of empowering women through financial inclusion during the post-conflict phase. As a result of this analysis a set of recommendations will be provided with the purpose of promoting virtuous cycles of female economic empowerment in the Colombian post-conflict scenario through transforming microfinance initiatives.

Keywords: financial inclusion, Colombia, post-conflict, women empowerment, bottom-up approach, microfinance

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2019

Women, Internal Displacement and the Boko Haram Conflict: Broadening the Debate

Citation:

Ajayi, Titilope F. 2020. "Women, Internal Displacement and the Boko Haram Conflict: Broadening the Debate." African Security 13 (2): 171-94.

Author: Titilope F. Ajayi

Abstract:

Women and children make up 79 per cent of the population displaced by the conflict between the Nigerian government and the armed movement informally known as Boko Haram. Their lived experiences expose the considerable protection and humanitarian risks of being female in violent contexts and the complexities of addressing them. In addition to open conflict and inconsistent policy and humanitarian responses, women’s displacement is being protracted by disjunctures between women’s roles and their construction as victims in policy and humanitarian frameworks. Construed as lacking agency, displaced women are resisting the hardship of displacement by returning to Boko Haram. This article argues for a rethinking of the importance of context, autonomy and agency as a prerequisite to reconciling false narratives about women’s experiences of conflict and displacement and their lived realities. It speaks to broader debates about women and conflict and the utility of current approaches and frameworks for addressing the roles and needs of women in these contexts.

Keywords: Nigeria, gender and security, IDPs, UNSCR 1325, women, peace and security in Africa

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance, Peace and Security, Terrorism, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

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