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Human Trafficking

How Formerly Abducted Women in Post-Conflict Situations Are Reasserting Their Humanity in a Hostile Environment: Photovoice Evidence from Northern Uganda

Citation:

Acan, Grace, Evelyn Amony, John Harris, and Maria del Guadalupe Davidson. 2019. "How Formerly Abducted Women in Post-Conflict Situations Are Reasserting Their Humanity in a Hostile Environment: Photovoice Evidence from Northern Uganda." Gender & Development 27 (2): 273-94.

Authors: Grace Acan, Evelyn Amony, John Harris, Maria del Guadalupe Davidson

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Northern Uganda received significant international attention during and immediately after the conflict between the Government of Uganda and the Lord’s Resistance Army, in which over 20,000 women and children were abducted and trafficked. However, globally there has been little investigation into the long-term impacts on formerly abducted women in post-conflict reconstruction, or on their own efforts to improve their conditions. This article presents original photovoice evidence from 13 co-researchers; all members of the Women’s Advocacy Network, a grassroots organisation seeking to improve life in northern Uganda for women. All the co-researchers are from the Acholi ethnic group and were formerly abducted by the Lord’s Resistance Army. They are all engaged in rebuilding their lives in Gulu, northern Uganda. The article seeks to present the work of the co-researchers and explores the long-term needs they identify for formerly abducted women in conflict zones. It also explores how their own experiences with abduction continues to erode the recognition of their humanity, both in terms of how they are perceived by their communities and how they view themselves, and how they are individually and collectively working to reassert their place in the moral universe.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Le nord de l’Ouganda a fait l’objet d’une attention internationale considérable durant et juste après le conflit entre le gouvernement de l’Ouganda et l’Armée de résistance du Seigneur, conflit durant lequel plus de 20 000 femmes et enfants ont été enlevés et ont été victimes de traite. Cependant, à l’échelle mondiale, il n’y a guère eu d’études sur les impacts à long terme sur les femmes rescapées dans les contextes de reconstruction post-conflit, ou sur leurs propres efforts en vue d’améliorer leurs conditions de vie. Cet article présente des données originales recueillies grâce à la méthode Photovoice par 13 co-chercheuses, toutes membres du Women’s Advocacy Network, une organisation de la base populaire qui cherche à améliorer la vie des femmes dans le nord de l’Ouganda. Toutes les co-chercheuses sont issues du groupe ethnique des Acholis et sont des rescapées de l’Armée de résistance du Seigneur. Elles tentent toutes de reconstruire leur vie à Gulu, dans le nord de l’Ouganda. Cet article entend présenter le travail des co-chercheuses et examine les besoins à long terme qu’elles identifient pour les femmes rescapées dans les zones en conflit. Il examine par ailleurs la manière dont leurs propres expériences de l’enlèvement continuent d’éroder la reconnaissance de leur humanité, tant sur le plan de la manière dont elles sont perçues par leurs communautés respectives que sur celui de la manière dont elles se voient elles-mêmes, et comment elles s’efforcent, individuellement et collectivement, de réaffirmer leur place dans l’univers moral.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El norte de Uganda fue objeto de una importante atención internacional durante e inmediatamente después del conflicto entre el gobierno de Uganda y el Ejército de Resistencia del Señor, en el que más de 20 000 mujeres y niños fueron secuestrados y traficados. A pesar de ello, en la reconstrucción posterior al conflicto las investigaciones sobre los impactos experimentados a largo plazo por mujeres que fueron secuestradas o sobre los esfuerzos que realizan para mejorar sus condiciones son escasas a nivel mundial. El presente artículo aporta evidencia inédita, obtenida mediante la aplicación de la metodología de fotovoz; la misma es proporcionada por 13 coinvestigadoras, todas ellas miembros de la Women’s Advocacy Network [Red de Incidencia de las Mujeres], una organización de base cuyo objetivo es mejorar la vida de las mujeres en el norte de Uganda. Todas las coinvestigadoras pertenecen al grupo étnico acholi y fueron secuestradas por el Ejército de Resistencia del Señor. Asimismo, todas están implicadas en la reconstrucción de sus vidas en Gulu, al norte de Uganda. El artículo expone el trabajo que efectúan y examina las necesidades a largo plazo identificadas por ellas como mujeres anteriormente secuestradas en zonas de conflicto. Además, analiza cómo sus vivencias durante el secuestro siguen erosionando el reconocimiento de su humanidad, en términos de cómo son percibidas por sus comunidades, cómo se ven a sí mismas, y cómo están trabajando individual y colectivamente para reafirmar su lugar en un universo moral.

Keywords: post-conflict, human trafficking, photovoice, Uganda, women's groups, Lord's resistance army

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Post-Conflict, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2019

Invisible Lives: Gender, Dispossession, and Precarity amongst Syrian Refugee Women in the Middle East

Citation:

Canefe, Nergis. 2018. "Invisible Lives: Gender, Dispossesion, and Precarity amongst Syrian Refugee Women in the Middle East." Refuge 34 (1): 39-49. 

Author: Nergis Canefe

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article attends to the connections between neo-liberal and neo-developmentalist labour regimes, asylum and immigration management, and the exploitation of undocumented, refugee, and migrant women, based on the experiences of Syrian refugee women in Turkey. The concept of precarity is explored as a selectively applied strategy by states to people who lack “status” or who are unable to benefit from “membership rights.” Forced migrants, illegal migrants, and asylum seekers are directly implicated in highly precarious work experiences at the bottom end of labour markets across the Global South, becoming trapped in forced labour and human trafficking arrangements. The article establishes a link between extreme forms of migrant labour exploitation in precarious life worlds and gender-based  profiling of life chances.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Cet article concerne les connexions entre les régimes de travail néo-libéraux et néo-développementistes, la gestion de l’asile et de l’immigration, et l’exploitation de femmes migrantes, réfugiées, sans papiers, à partir du vécu de réfugiées syriennes en Turquie. Le concept de précarité est exploré en tant que stratégie appliquée de manière sélective par les états aux personnes qui n’ont « pas de statut » ou ne peuvent pas bénéficier de « droits d’appartenance ». Les migrants forcés, les migrants illégaux et les demandeurs d’asile sont directement concernés par des expériences de travail fortement précaire au plus bas des marchés du travail sur l’ensemble des pays du Sud, et deviennent alors prisonnier du travail forcé et du trafic d’êtres humains. L’article établit un lien entre des formes extrêmes d’exploitation des migrants au travail dans des contextes de vie précaires et un profilage des opportunités de vie en fonction du genre.

 

Keywords: political economy of crisis, precarity, forced migration, gender and migration, gender and precarity, Middle Eastern States

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Political Economies, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Syria, Turkey

Year: 2018

Legacies of Violence and the Unfinished Past: Women in Post-Demobilization Colombia and Guatemala

Citation:

Tarnaala, Elisa. 2019. “Legacies of Violence and the Unfinished Past: Women in Post-Demobilization Colombia and Guatemala.” Peacebuilding 7 (1): 103–17.

Author: Elisa Tarnaala

Abstract:

This article examines the historically grounded social acceptance of impunity and the role of unwanted actors in peace and transitional processes. The article argues from a post-demobilization violence perspective that counter-democratic developments, which have historical and global roots, condition peacebuilding and impose important limits on the deepening of inclusion. In Colombia and Guatemala, internationally backed peacebuilding activities occurred in the same regions where the local authorities continued their partnership with criminal and authoritarian actors. Thus, parallel to the shift towards greater political and economic stability at the national level, attacks against human rights activists and environmental activists, intra-community violence, violence against women, prostitution and the trafficking of girls continued at the local level and in some areas increased.

Keywords: Colombia, Guatemala, demobilization, women, violence, historical legacies

Topics: DDR, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Impunity, Transitional Justice, Peacebuilding, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Colombia, Guatemala

Year: 2019

ECOWAS and Free Movement of Persons: African Women as Cross-Border Victims

Citation:

Aduloju, Ayodeji Anthony. 2017. "ECOWAS and Free Movement of Persons: African Women as Cross-Border Victims." Journal of International Women's Studies 18 (4): 89-105.

Author: Ayodeji Anthony Aduloju

Abstract:

Existing literature has investigated the challenges of interstate border dispute, border conflict and their security and developmental implications for the West African sub-region. ECOWAS Free Movement Protocol of Persons was instituted to enhance economic development of West Africa’s citizens. However, studies have shown that the protocol has relatively aided transborder trafficking in persons, drugs, Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW). However, vulnerability of trans-border women traders in the sub-region have received little attention. This study utilized both primary and secondary sources of data gathering in order to interrogate the provisions of ECOWAS Protocol on Free Movement of Persons vis-à-vis its operationalization and incapacity to increase women’s economic opportunity and empowerment in West Africa. Through field survey, twenty (20) interviews were conducted at the Nigeria-Benin border. The interviews targeted 14 purposively selected women traders at the border, two officials each of the Nigerian Immigration Service, Nigerian Customs Service and the Nigeria Police Force. Moreover, observation method was employed to substantiate the interviews conducted. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive analysis. Consequently, this study discovered that women constituted more of trans-border traders on Nigeria-Benin border, and precisely in West Africa. In addition, they are vulnerable to extortion, intimidation and sexual harassment by border officials, which has impinged on their rights contained in the ECOWAS Protocol on Free Movement of Persons. The study showed that the protocol does not fully protect women (mostly the ones with low economic characteristics who constitute larger population of women at the border) and thereby having implications for their livelihood and survival. The study then concluded that while the problem faced by women on the Nigeria-Benin border persists, it has a huge impact on the credibility of ECOWAS to properly integrate the sub-region for development and for the benefit of its significant population of women.

Keywords: ECOWAS Free Movement Protocol, gender, Trans-Border Women Traders, West Africa, sub-regional integration

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Trafficking, Arms Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Weapons /Arms Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Benin, Nigeria

Year: 2017

Peacekeeping, Human Trafficking, and Sexual Abuse and Exploitation

Citation:

Vandenberg, Martina. 2018.  "Peacekeeping, Human Trafficking, and Sexual Abuse and Exploitation." In The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict, edited by Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Naomi Cahn, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Nahla Valji. Oxford University Press. 

Author: Martina Vandenberg

Abstract:

This chapter provides an overview of human trafficking and other forms of sexual abuse committed by peacekeepers and civilians employed in peacekeeping missions. It opens with a historical review of violations committed by peacekeepers and the current international response to the issue. The chapter introduces relevant international legal instruments, including the UN Protocol to Suppress, Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons, and examines the United Nations’ response to various instances of misconduct. Focusing on Bosnia and Herzegovina and the MINUSCA mission in the Central African Republic, the chapter details the consistent failure of national courts to prosecute offenders and the inability of the UN to take action beyond repatriating the offenders. The chapter closes with recommendations for the UN to move beyond prevention work to improve enforcement of peacekeeper conduct policies.

Keywords: human trafficking, sexual abuse, peacekeepers, peacekeeping mission, UN Protocol to Suppress, Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Central African Republic, MINUSCA

Topics: International Law, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, Central Africa, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Central African Republic

Year: 2018

Women Smuggling and the Men who Help Them: Gender, Corruption and Illicit Networks in Senegal

Citation:

Howson, Cynthia. 2012. “Women Smuggling and the Men who Help Them: Gender, Corruption and Illicit Networks in Senegal.” Journal of Modern African Studies 50 (3): 421-45.

Author: Cynthia Howson

Abstract:

This paper investigates gendered patterns of corruption and access to illicit networks among female cross-border traders near the Senegambian border. Despite a discourse of generosity and solidarity, access to corrupt networks is mediated by class and gender, furthering social differentiation, especially insofar as it depends on geographic and socio-economic affinity with customs officers, state representatives and well-connected transporters. Issues of organisational culture, occupational identity and interpersonal negotiations of power represent important sources of corruption that require an understanding of the actual dynamics of public administration. While smuggling depends on contesting legal and social boundaries, the most successful traders (and transporters) strive to fulfil ideal gender roles as closely as possible. Ironically, trading on poverty and feminine vulnerability only works for relatively affluent women.

Topics: Corruption, Economies, Informal Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Senegal

Year: 2012

Trafficking in Human Beings as a Consequence of Vulnerabilities in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations: The Case of Austria

Citation:

Probst, Evelyn, and Isabella Chen. 2020. “Trafficking in Human Beings as a Consequence of Vulnerabilities in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations: The Case of Austria.” In Women in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations: An Anthology of Cases from Iraq, Iran, Syria and Other Countries, edited by S. Behnaz Hosseini, 159-78. Vienna: LIT Verlag.

Authors: Evelyn Probst, Isabella Chen

Abstract:

This paper discusses the link between vulnerabilities enhanced by conflict and post-conflict situations and human trafficking from a gender perspective. By applying a feminist view, we will explore the vulnerability paradigm and the implications on anti-trafficking measures. Moreover, this paper will offer case studies from the working experience of the Austrian recognizing victims protection facility LEFO - Intervention Centre for Trafficked Women and Girls to outline women’s experiences and specific situations, drawn from practice. Lastly, as this paper shows, the focus should be on human and women’s rights when talking about how to combat human trafficking effectively. The goal of this paper is to show the complexity of vulnerability. It is important to note that recognizing vulnerabilities does not mean to deny a person’s agency. Furthermore, we explore the danger and implications of (re)producing stereotypes by illustrating vulnerabilities as inherent to a person.

Topics: Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Girls, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: Austria

Year: 2020

Movement of Women: Trafficking in the Interwar Era

Citation:

Leppänen, Katarina. 2007. “Movement of Women: Trafficking in the Interwar Era.” Women’s Studies International Forum 30 (6): 523–33. 

Author: Katarina Leppänen

Abstract:

This article fills a gap in the histories describing the struggle to end trafficking and prostitution. The two main focal points of previous research are most often the movements against state regulated prostitution dated to the late 19th century and the fight against so called “white slavery”, on the one hand, and the modern trafficking and prostitution that emerged due to the concentration of large troops of armed forces during the Vietnam War in the 1960s, on the other hand. The period in between is seldom recognised as a time of great women's/feminist activity on the issue of prostitution and traffic in women.

The aim of the article is to show how the transition of the issue of prostitution developed from being mainly of national (even nationalistic) interest to becoming a matter of international concern. A shift in terminology opened for an internationalisation of the fight against trafficking.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Trafficking, Human Trafficking

Year: 2007

The Cinderella Syndrome: Economic Expectations, False Hopes and the Exploitation of Trafficked Ukrainian Women

Citation:

Vijeyarasa, Ramona. 2012. “The Cinderella Syndrome: Economic Expectations, False Hopes and the Exploitation of Trafficked Ukrainian Women.” Women’s Studies International Forum 35 (1): 53–62. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2011.09.004.

Author: Ramona Vijeyarasa

Abstract:

Human trafficking is a multi-causal and multi-dimensional issue. The case of Ukraine evidences this complexity, with relevant factors spanning Ukraine's political history, its relations with the EU and the current state of socio-economic development. This paper focuses on the role of barriers to full and equal participation in the labour market for Ukrainian women as a driver of human trafficking. The purpose is to use qualitative data and secondary sources to assess the extent to which a causal relationship can be identified between labour market barriers and vulnerability to trafficking and trafficking-like conditions that result from the search for economic betterment abroad by irregular or undocumented means. Attention is also paid to the pull factor of images of migrant success abroad, an element which is often neglected in trafficking discussions. Consequently, labour market barriers are intimately connected to the lure of migration success in destination countries, whether true, exaggerated or entirely false.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Violence Regions: Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Ukraine

Year: 2012

Policy Responses to Human Trafficking in Southern Africa: Domesticating International Norms

Citation:

Britton, Hannah E., and Laura A. Dean. 2014. “Policy Responses to Human Trafficking in Southern Africa: Domesticating International Norms.” Human Rights Review 15 (3): 305–28.

Authors: Hannah E. Britton, Laura A. Dean

Abstract:

Human trafficking is increasingly recognized as an outcome of economic insecurity, gender inequality, and conflict, all significant factors in the region of southern Africa. This paper examines policy responses to human trafficking in southern Africa and finds that there has been a diffusion of international norms to the regional and domestic levels. This paper finds that policy change is most notable in the strategies and approaches that differ at each level: international and regional agreements emphasize prevention measures and survivor assistance, but national policies emphasize prosecution measures. Leaders across the region have adapted these policy norms to fit regionally specific conditions, including HIV/AIDS, conflict, traditional leaders, and prostitution. Yet, national policies often fail to incorporate preventative solutions to address gender inequality, human rights, and economic development. Until appropriate funding and preventative measures are introduced, the underlying issues that foster human trafficking will continue.

Keywords: norms diffusion, human trafficking, Southern African development, community, prostitution, child trafficking

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2014

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