Human Security

Sub-Saharan Migrants’ Masculinities: An Intersectional Analysis of Media Representations during the Libyan War 2011

Citation:

DeVargas, Maria, and Stefania Donzelli. 2014. “Sub-Saharan Migrants’ Masculinities: An Intersectional Analysis of Media Representations during the Libyan War 2011.” In Migration, Gender and Social Justice, edited by Thanh-Dam Truong, Des Gasper, Jeff Handmaker, and Sylvia I. Bergh, 241–63. New York: Springer.

Authors: Maria DeVargas , Stefania Donzelli

Abstract:

Studies of the role of the media in conflict situations have brought to the fore the significance of representa- tions as an important part of the process of knowledge production about wars and the actors involved. The media can influence interpretations and framing of conflicts, moulding specific understandings of their causes and modalities of intervention. The Libyan war in 2011 is an interesting case to reflect on the United Nations (UN) principle of Responsibility to Protect (RtoP), and how conflict affects those populations who occupy a subordinate position in multiple stratification systems (gender, race, and class), whether they are locked in con- flict zones or are trying to join the flow of people fleeing across borders. In the context of humanitarian inter- vention, specific understandings of the migrants as social subjects become strongly correlated with correspond- ing support mechanisms. This chapter conducts an intersectional analysis to provide a perspective on the politics of the media representation of ‘migrants’ in Libya, discerning the key links between the constructions of their masculinities and the practices of protection for ‘people on the move’. We show how, being situated at the bottom of the social hierarchy in Libya, sub-Saharan black Africans were inappropriately presented in media coverage during the initial phase of the conflict as subjects of adequate protection. Their invisibilization and subordination by the media have been largely framed within international political and economic interests, which have also reinforced the idea of the international community as the legitimate protector of civilians. We argue that these representations reproduce migrants’ vulnerability and, by placing them in a situation of triple jeopardy (structural, political, and representational), undermine the possibility of conceiving and understanding security beyond their ‘naturalized’ victimization and subordination.

Keywords: masculinities, intersectionality, sub-Saharan migrants, Libya, human security, media representations

Topics: Class, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Media, Humanitarian Assistance, International Organizations, Political Economies, Race, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa Countries: Libya

Year: 2014

Feminism, Peace, Human Rights and Human Security

Citation:

Bunch, Charlotte. 2003. "Feminism, Peace, Human Rights and Human Security." Canadian Woman Studies 22 (2): 6-11.

Author: Charlotte Bunch

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Rights, Human Rights, Security, Human Security

Year: 2003

Gender, Local Justice, and Ownership: Confronting Masculinities and Femininities in Northern Uganda

Citation:

Anderson, Jessica L. 2009. “Gender, Local Justice, and Ownership: Confronting Masculinities and Femininities in Northern Uganda.” Peace Research 41 (2): 59–83.

Author: Jessica L. Anderson

Abstract:

This article describes the livelihood structures of internally displaced men and women during Uganda's civil war, how these livelihood structures affect femininities and masculinities, and how they inform mens and women's opinions on transitional justice. It argues that insecurity and deprivation in northern Uganda's displacement camps during the country's twenty-four years of conflict have had a significant impact on the construction of masculinities and femininities in the region. Both men and women crave agency in their daily lives following this prolonged period of displacement and disempowerment. This sense of ownership refers to different forms of communal and individual reparation and the local practice of mato oput, a restorative justice process that has been criticized as gender insensitive. Acholi men's and women's support for the practice of mato oput points to the need to adopt a more thoughtful perspective on gender justice that balances international values with the ideas and desires of war survivors. Acholi men and women request control and ownership over justice mechanisms as an integral part of their conception of justice. Through examining such requests, this article analyses the ways in which Acholi men and women desire ownership and how a transitional justice process can extend and bolster this ownership.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Domestic Violence, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Health, Trauma, Households, Justice, Transitional Justice, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2009

Some Humans Are More Human than Others: Troubling the ‘Human’ in Human Security from a Critical Feminist Perspective

Citation:

Marhia, N. 2013. "Some Humans Are More Human than Others: Troubling the 'Human' in Human Security from a Critical Feminist Perspective." Security Dialogue 44 (1): 19--35. doi: 10.1177/0967010612470293.

Author: Natasha Marhia

Abstract:

This article develops critical feminist engagement with human security by interrogating the taken-for-granted category of the 'human' therein. Failure to reflectively deconstruct this category has contributed to human security's reproduction of dominant norms and the emptiness of its apparent radical promise. The article shows how the 'human' has historically been constructed as an exclusionary - and fundamentally gendered - category, and examines its construction in human security discourse and the capabilities approach in which the latter is rooted, as well as its discursive effects. The article troubles the model of the autonomous, rational human subject who is the bearer of capabilities, which human security inherits from the liberal humanist tradition of thought, and which obscures the matrices of power through which individuals become socially differentiated. It then considers the implication of human security in demarcating differences as 'morally relevant', including its instrumentalization in the 'war on terror'.

Keywords: Gender, human security, feminist theory, capabilities, Subjectivity, critical theory

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Security, Human Security

Year: 2013

Like Oil and Water, with a Match: Militarized Commerce, Armed Conflict and Human Security in Sudan

Citation:

Macklin, Audrey. 2004. “Like Oil and Water, with a Match: Militarized Commerce, Armed Conflict and Human Security in Sudan.” In Sites of Violence: Gender and Conflict Zones, edited by Wenona Mary Giles and Jennifer Hyndman, 75-107. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Author: Audrey Macklin

Abstract:

This article examines the gendered reverberations of global capital investment in a conflict zone, from the north with armed conflict in the south. Specifically, the article examines the author’s experience as a member of an independent assessment mission to Sudan appointed by the Canadian government. The team’s mandate was to investigate the link between oil development and human rights violations with particular reference to the Canadian oil company Talisman. In 1998 Talisman acquired a 25% share in the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC). North and South Sudan had been embroiled in an armed civil conflict almost continuously since 1956 and the oil fields were located on contested territory. This article contrasts the idea of human security (advanced as part of Canada’s foreign policy agenda at the time), with traditional conceptions of military and corporate security, using the experience of Sudanese women affected by the conflict as a way of illustrating the incongruities between competing understandings of security. It concludes that the presence of Talisman in Sudan encouraged the prioritization of corporate and military security over human security, exacerbating the human rights violations and perpetuating the struggle of women. Finally, this article evaluates strategies used by different stakeholders to encourage the Canadian company to take responsibility for its role in human rights violations.

(Abstract from Social Science Research Network)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Militarization, Political Economies, Rights, Human Rights, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2004

From State Security to Human Security and Gender Justice

Citation:

Taylor, Viviene. 2004. “From State Security to Human Security and Gender Justice.” Agenda 18 (59): 65–70.

Author: Viviene Taylor

Abstract:

This briefing is based on a paper presented at a conference, 'Human Security: Women's Security? No sustainable Security without a Gender Perspective' which took place in Berlin, October 2003. The author writes that when it comes to security and human security in particular, feminists need to rethink the fundamental relationships of knowledge and power, and how these shape individual and community experiences. The briefing explores the significance of human security for women and for feminist discourse.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Security, Human Security

Year: 2004

Keeping the Peace is not Enough: Human Security and Gender-based Violence during the Transitional Period of Timor-Leste

Citation:

Groves, Gabrielle Eva Carol, Bernadette P. Resurrección, and Philippe Doneys. 2009. “Keeping the Peace is not Enough: Human Security and Gender-based Violence during the Transitional Period of Timor-Leste.” Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 24 (2): 186-210.

Authors: Gabrielle Eva Carol Groves, Bernadette P. Resurrección, Philippe Doneys

Abstract:

Human security has been defined as people-centred and inextricably linked to development. This concept challenges the traditional security paradigm with its exclusive focus on the protection of the state and its sovereignty from conflict and immanent threats. By focusing on incidences of gender-based violence, this paper attempts to demonstrate the shortcomings of the UN peace-keeping mission and interim government in Timor-Leste in recognizing and redressing forms of violence and conflict other than those that threatened the new nation-state during the transitional period. Through the prism of gender-based violence, the paper argues that indigenous normatives and adjudication on gendered violence co-exist with the liberal principles of state-centric and are mutually reinforcing. As a result, this has generated new forms of insecurity, stoking the uneasy peace that continues to haunt the new nation-in-the-making.

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Indigenous, Peacekeeping, Security, Human Security Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2009

Gender and Human Security Issues: Building a Programme of Action-Research

Citation:

Boyd, Rosalind. 2005. “Gender and Human Security Issues: Building a Programme of Action-Research.” Development in Practice 15 (1):115-121.

Author: Rosalind Boyd

Topics: Development, Gender, Security, Human Security

Year: 2005

Encampment of Communities in War-Affected Areas and Its Effect on Their Livelihood Security and Reproductive Health: The Case of Northern Uganda

Citation:

Mulumba, Deborah. 2011. “Encampment of Communities in War-Affected Areas and Its Effect on Their Livelihood Security and Reproductive Health: The Case Of Northern Uganda.” Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review 27 (1): 107-29.

Author: Deborah Mulumba

Abstract:

The paper sought to assess the effect of encampment on the livelihood security and reproductive health needs of IDPs in war affected areas of northern Uganda. The research design was exploratory and descriptive in nature and was largely qualitative, although a small amount of quantitative data are included. Primary and secondary data were collected from a representative sample of 125 women and 66 men. Results show the prevalence of negative effects on their reproductive health, while the effect on their livelihood security in camps is ambivalent. Food rations were supplied by the World Food Programme (WFP). The study found that women and youth fared better than men as they could find income-generating activities to do in the camps. However, camp congestion and idleness resulted in heavy alcohol consumption trends that generated poor attitudes towards work and was characterized by gender-based violence.

Keywords: armed conflict, internally displaced persons, livelihood security, reproductive health, sexual and gender-based violence

Topics: Age, Youth, Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2011

Gender and Climate Change-Induced Conflict in Pastoral Communities: Case Study of Turkana in Northwestern Kenya

Citation:

Omolo, Nancy A. 2010. “Gender and Climate Change-Induced Conflict in Pastoral Communities: Case Study of Turkana in Northwestern Kenya.” African Journal on Conflict Resolution 10 (2): 81-102.

Author: Nancy A. Omolo

Abstract:

Climate change-induced conflict is a major global threat to human security and the environment. It has been projected that there is going to be an increase in climate changes resulting in increased droughts and floods in northern Kenya. Climate change impacts will be differently distributed among different regions, ages, income groups, occupations and gender. People living in poverty are more vulnerable to environmental changes. In relation to these concerns, this article discusses the following issues: climate change, pastoralism and conflicts, gender issues in Turkana, and the future of pastoralism in relation to changing climate conditions. Specifically, the first section looks at the impacts of climate change on pastoralism and the livelihoods of pastoralists, and at the types of climate change-induced conflicts in Turkana. The next section focuses on the impact of climate change-induced conflict on women and men’s livelihoods, including discussion of the roles and participation in decision making. Finally, the future of pastoralism in relation to changing climate is discussed. The focus will be on scenarios of the past and future projections of rainfall patterns in Turkana, the future of pastoralism and the possibility of climate-induced conflicts in the future.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2010

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