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Households

Género, grupos domésticos y derechos de propiedad sobre la tierra

Citation:

Meza, Laura Elena Ruiz. 2006. "Género, grupos domésticos y derechos de propiedad sobre la tierra." El Cotodiano 21 (139): 7-19.

Author: Laura Elena Ruiz Meza

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Las construcciones culturales de masculinidad y feminidad que orientan las pautas culturales en la familia y en la comunidad han jugado un papel significativo en restringir el derecho de las mujeres a la propiedad de la tierra, así como su participación en espacios públicos. Igualmente, la residencia patrilocal tiene implicacio- nes en la condición y posición de las mujeres al colocarlas en una situación de vulnerabilidad. El reducido poder de negociación que suelen tener en esta etapa de su vida, su posición subordinada en el sistema de parentesco y su limitado acceso a los bienes y recursos se expresan en inequidades de género que afectan notablemente su calidad de vida. 

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Households, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2006

Women In The Colombian Land Restitution And Titling Process – A RDS Household Survey Of IDPS

Citation:

Wiig, Henrik, and Jemima García-Godos. 2015. “Women In The Colombian Land Restitution And Titing Process – A RDS Household Survey Of IDPS.” Paper presented at The World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington D.C., March 23-25.

Authors: Henrik Wiig, Jemima García-Godos

Abstract:

The Victims’ Law from 2011 in Colombia initiated a land restitution process that potentially would benefit more than 5 million Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) that lost an estimated 7-8 million hectares of land when they fled their homes in the countryside due to the conflict. The government helps them to reclaim the same piece of land and give support to return. Women are supposed to receive preferential and differentiated treatment in the process and the land is furthermore jointly titled as a gender equality measure. However, the process is slow and even less people is willing to actually return from their current place of residence shows our RDS household survey sample of 499 IDP households. Fear of repeated displacement, psychological trauma related to the place of origin especially among women and loss of agricultural knowledge influences their willingness to return. Both Survey and key informant interviews shows that gender perspective is reasonably successful but women have less intention than men to claim land restitution, return and make use of the land.

Keywords: Colombia, conflict, land restitution, land titling, gender equality

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Conflict, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Trauma, Households, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2015

Rural Women and State Policy: The Latin American Agrarian Reform Experience

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana. 1985. “Rural Women and State Policy: The Latin American Agrarian Reform Experience.” World Development 13 (9), 1037–53.

Author: Carmen Diana Deere

Abstract:

This review of thirteen Latin American agrarian reforms shows that most have directly benefited only men. It is argued that this is largely because of the common designation of "households " as the beneficiaries of an agrarian reform and the subsequent incorporation of only male household heads to the new agrarian reform structures. It is shown that a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for rural women to be benefited on par with men is that they too be designated as beneficiaries. Women as well as men must be given access to land or the opportunity to participate within the agrarian cooperatives or state farms promoted by an agrarian reform. This comparative analysis of the Latin American agrarian reform demonstrates that this has happened only in countries where the incorporation of rural women to the reform is an explicit objective of state policy.
 

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Women, Men, Households, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America

Year: 1985

Energy Poverty and Gender in England: A Spatial Perspective

Citation:

Robinson, Caitlin. 2019. “Energy Poverty and Gender in England: A Spatial Perspective.” Geoforum 104: 222-33.

Author: Caitlin Robinson

Abstract:

A growing research agenda has sought to understand the substantial inequalities that exist in domestic energy provision. One way in which these inequalities are shaped is through socio-spatially contingent gender relations, an area underexplored with regards to energy poverty. This paper aims to uncover the spatialities of gender and energy poverty. It argues that established energy vulnerability frameworks can challenge the assumption that gender inequality is synonymous with energy poverty, but to do so these framings must move beyond a focus upon the household to recognise the vulnerability of individuals. Gendered vulnerabilities likely to enhance energy poverty are delineated for a case study of England, underpinned by socio-spatial analyses of gender-sensitive indicators. Five dimensions of gendered, socio-spatial energy vulnerability are evidenced in this context: exclusion from the economy; time-consuming and unpaid reproductive, caring or domestic roles; exposure to physiological and mental health impacts; a lack of social protection during a life course; and coping and helping others to cope. The findings demonstrate that whilst it is possible to draw initial conclusions about the spatialities of gendered energy vulnerability associated with health and economic activity, this is more complex concerning gendered aspects of energy vulnerability related to infrastructure that tend to be measured at the scale of the household, or those aspects of vulnerability that are relatively private or personal.

Keywords: gender inequality, energy poverty, energy vulnerability, gender-sensitive indicators, spatial analysis

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Mental Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2019

Gender in Electricity Policymaking in India, Nepal and Kenya

Citation:

Govindan, Mini, Debajit Palit, Rashmi Murali, and Deepa Sankar. 2019. “Gender in Electricity Policymaking in India, Nepal and Kenya.” In Energy Justice Across Borders, edited by Gunter Bombaerts, Kirsten Jenkins, Yekeen A. Sanusi, and Wang Guoyu, 111-35. Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Authors: Mini Govindan, Debajit Palit, Rashmi Murali, Deepa Sankar

Abstract:

Electricity is regarded as a basic amenity fundamental to improving human well-being and overall economic development. It also contributes to improving gender parity and social inclusion, especially in situations where women are challenged by harsh living conditions. This chapter examines how gender issues that were considered are addressed in the policies related to electricity in India, Kenya, and Nepal. The analysis reveals that whilst more than half of the reviewed documents were devoid of any explicit mention of gender concerns, an increasing number of electricity policies are now reflecting gender considerations. The predominantly “gender-blind” approach towards the potential benefits of electricity access emanates from a reluctance to explicitly acknowledge gender based differences in needs in creating equitable outcomes. The assumption that electricity access itself is enough for associated benefits to trickle down, that too equitably for men and women, stems from limited awareness. This is aggravated further by the absence of documented evidence on the merit of including gender elements in electrification policies and programmes. Based on the review of existing electricity policies, this chapter provides specific recommendations for incorporating gender in the electricity policies with a view to support and address the broader energy justice concerns. 

Keywords: electricity, gender, women, policies, energy justice, India, Nepal, Kenya

Topics: Development, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Justice Regions: Africa, East Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Kenya, Nepal

Year: 2019

Land Rights and Economic Resilience of Rural Women in the G5-Sahel Countries, West Africa

Citation:

Bizoza, Alfred Runezerwa. 2019. “Land Rights and Economic Resilience of Rural Women in the G5-Sahel Countries, West Africa.” African Journal of Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences 2: 46–59.

Author: Alfred Runezerwa Bizoza

Abstract:

This article discusses different issues pertaining gender and land governance with focus to access and control of land by rural women and how this affects their resilience in G5-Sahel region- Chad, Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Mauritania. Findings show that land remains the property of men, customary chiefs, male members of the family who have the full control of land use; women continue to serve as servants of their husbands in the farming activities. Limited access to production resources such as land, agricultural inputs, small scale irrigation and agricultural mechanization, and lack of post-harvest handling facilities; all restrain women’s economic capacity for their economic resilience to climate change and other natural disasters. There is need, therefore, for innovative models of land tenure regularization systems in the G5-Sahel countries; models that take into account current social, cultural and religious barriers for women’s land access and use for their economic activities.

Keywords: land rights, gender, economic resilience, G5-Sahel, West Africa

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Land Tenure, Households, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, West Africa Countries: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger

Year: 2019

Women Land Rights and Food Security Status of Farming Households in Oyo State, Nigeria

Citation:

Adepoju, Abimbola O., and Rahman A. Adewole. 2020. “Women Land Rights and Food Security Status of Farming Households in Oyo State, Nigeria.” In Developing Sustainable Food Systems, Policies, and Securities, by Abiodun Elijah Obayelu and Oluwakemi Adeola Obayelu. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Authors: Abimbola O. Adepoju, Rahman A. Adewole

Abstract:

The dominance of men in decision-making processes and leadership positions within the communities has made land allocation, land use, and control skewed in favour of men. This study examined the effects of women's land rights on households' food security status using a sample of 300 representative farmers. Descriptive statistics, household food expenditure, logistic regression, and ordered logit models were the analytical tools used. Results revealed that about 35% of the rural women farmers had land use rights while the remaining 65% had land ownership rights. Women with ownership rights were more food secure, with the majority of the women having residual rights, while only a few had sell rights. Secure women land rights are germane to achieving and sustaining household and national food security. Strategies and instruments for protecting women rights should be developed and implemented, while efforts geared towards designing strategies, assessing multiple dimensions of women empowerment for improved food security status, and welfare of the households should be intensified.

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Rights, Land Rights, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

Effects of Women Land Rights on Agricultural Outcomes in Rwanda

Citation:

Kamande, Mercyline W, and Emery Musonerwa Bahati. 2019. “Effects of Women Land Rights on Agricultural Outcomes in Rwanda.” African Journal of Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences 2 (11). 

Authors: Mercyline W. Kamande, Emery Musonerwa Bahati

Abstract:

This study examines the effect of land rights on agricultural outcomes in Rwanda. We characterize the effects of land rights from two perspectives. The first one is land rights indicated by the right to sell and guarantee land and the second one is land titling. The agricultural outcomes include agricultural productivity, food security and nutritional diversity. From the results, land rights are found to have a positive relationship with all the outcome variables. The effect of land rights on agricultural productivity is larger if the household head is male. Joint titling has a negative effect on food security but the effect is not conclusive in the case of agricultural productivity and nutritional diversity. We conclude that land rights are important for the three outcome variables. Women land rights have a positive effect on agricultural productivity although the effect is larger in the case of male land rights.

Keywords: land rights, food security, nutritional diversity, Agricultural productivity

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Households, Rights, Land Rights, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2019

Energy Use and Women’s Work in Agriculture: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Citation:

Nathan, Dev, Manjula M., R. Rengalakshmi, and Govind Kelkar. 2018. “Energy Use and Women’s Work in Agriculture: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Economic and Political Weekly 53 (17): 79-86.

Authors: Dev Nathan, Manjula M., R. Rengalakshmi, Govind Kelkar

Annotation:

Summary:
"Changes in women’s use of energy in agriculture, in the spheres of crop production and social reproduction, can bring about a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Two technological changes—the shift from household cooking with carbon-emitting solid biomass fuels to liquified petroleum gas as a clean cooking fuel; and the shift from methane-emitting flooded rice cultivation to the System of Rice Intensification with electricity-based alternate wetting and drying—have been considered in this regard. The changes in women’s roles and energy use accompanying these technological interventions have been examined" (Nathan, M, Rengalakshmi, and Kelkar 2018, 79).

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Women, Households, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 2018

Recovering Bioenergy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Gender Dimensions, Lessons and Challenges

Citation:

Njenga, Mary, and Ruth Mendum, eds. 2018. Recovering Bioenergy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Gender Dimensions, Lessons and Challenges. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute.

Authors: Mary Njenga, Ruth Mendum

Abstract:

There is a strong link between gender and energy in view of food preparation and the acquisition of fuel, especially in rural areas. This is demonstrated in a range of case studies from East and West Africa, where biochar, human waste and other waste resources have been used to produce briquettes or biogas as additional high-quality fuel sources. The synthesis of the cases concludes that resource recovery and reuse for energy offers an alternative to conventional centralized grid projects which, while attractive to investors and large-scale enterprises, do not necessarily provide job opportunities for marginalized communities. Reusing locally available waste materials for energy production and as soil ameliorant (in the case of biochar) in small enterprises allows women and youth who lack business capital to begin modest, locally viable businesses. The case studies offer concrete examples of small-scale solutions to energy poverty that can make a significant difference to the lives of women and their communities.

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
1. Gender and Energy and the Rationale for Resource Recovery and Reuse (RRR) for Energy

Ruth Mendum and Mary Njenga

2. Human Waste-to-fuel Briquettes as a Sanitation and Energy Solution for Refugee Camps and Informal Urban Settlements
Tyler Karahalios, Catherine Berner and Mary Njenga

3. The Impact of Gendered Roles in the Briquette Production and Supply Chain: Lessons Learned from Green Heat Ltd, Uganda
Gabriel Okello, Vianney Tumwesige, Ronald Angura, Daphne Nasige, Dorothy Kyomugisha and Mary Njenga

4. Adoption and Economic Impact of Briquettes as Cooking Fuel: The Case of Women Fish Smokers in Ghana
Solomie Gebrezgabher, Sena Amewu and Mary Njenga

5. Biogas as a Smart Investment for Women’s Empowerment and Livelihood Enhancement
Judith Libaisi and Mary Njenga

6. An Assessment of the Business Environment for Waste-to-energy Enterprises and How it Affects Women Entrepreneurs in Kenya
Solomie Gebrezgabher, Avinandan Taron, Jack Odero and Mary Njenga

7. Gender and Improvement of Cooking Systems with Biochar-producing Gasifier Stoves
James K. Gitau, Ruth Mendum and Mary Njenga

8. Women in Energy: Perspectives on Engaging Women Across the Energy Value Chain: The Case of wPOWER
Ruchi Soni, Wanjira Mathai, Linda Davis and Mary Njenga

9. Gender as Key in Community Participation
Megan Romania, Mary Njenga and Ruth Mendum

10. Challenges and Solutions for Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Integration in Research and Development
Ruth Mendum, Ana Maria Paez and Mary Njenga

11. Take-home Messages on Gender and Resource Recovery and Reuse (RRR) for Energy
Ruth Mendum and Mary Njenga

Topics: Age, Youth, Displacement & Migration, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Kenya, Uganda

Year: 2018

Pages

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