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Households

Migration as a Driver of Changing Household Structures: Implications for Local Livelihoods and Adaptation

Citation:

Singh, Chandni. 2019. “Migration as a Driver of Changing Household Structures: Implications for Local Livelihoods and Adaptation.” Migration and Development, March 15. https://doi.org/10.1080/21632324.2019.1589073.

Author: Chandni Singh

Abstract:

Rapid environmental change, increasing climate variability, land fragmentation, and underlying institutional lacunae have shaped rural livelihoods in India. Increasingly, rural-urban migration has been a significant livelihood strategy to manage risks, meet aspirations, and move out of increasingly unprofitable agriculture. I argue that this movement of people is changing shape household structures, and the metrics to assess these transitions, often through categories of male- and female-headed households, fall short in understanding the experiences and outcomes of migration. Using a household survey (n = 825) and life history interviews (n = 16) to study rural-urban migration in South India, I demonstrate that shifting household configurations due to migration and commuting have implications for the risk management strategies people undertake. This calls for an expanded understanding of the ‘household’, which captures the realities of multi-local households, and consequently, for an expanded conceptualisation of ‘local adaptation’. Such an understanding is sensitive to the ‘beyond-local’ flows and networks that shape household risk management behaviour and has implications for improving the effectiveness of climate change adaptation interventions.

Keywords: migration, aspirations, intra-household dynamics, gender, adaptation, India, climate change

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

Women Growing Livelihoods through Food Security: Inanda’s Inqolobane Yobumbano Secondary Co-operative

Citation:

Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu. 2016. “Women Growing Livelihoods through Food Security: Inanda’s Inqolobane Yobumbano Secondary Co-operative.” Agenda 30 (4): 62-73.

Author: Ndwakhulu Tshishonga

Abstract:

This article explores the successes and challenges women face in their attempt to feed and take care of their families in Inanda, KwaZulu-Natal, and uses primary and secondary sources. Due to climate change and policy fragmentation household food security and nutrition remain a perpetual challenge, especially for women eking out a living on the periphery. One of the premises that this paper is based on is the assumption that women are prime producers of their communities’ food, which is mainly for food security. Inqolobane Yobumbano Secondary Co-operative (IYSC) could be seen as an initiative that entrenches this role, adding to the burden of women’s care work and ‘subordination’. Contradictorily, the initiative offers women the opportunity to transform this role, empowering them and enabling them to take control of their lives in many ways. Issues pertaining to food security and insecurity are intertwined with women’s struggle for land, which mirrors the unfinished business in post-apartheid South Africa. The case of IYSC is used to interrogate opportunities and challenges besetting the efforts of mainly women in Inanda township. The Secondary Co-Operative is an apex co-operative body formed in 2013 and it has four primary co-operatives. This association was formed with the primary purpose of improving the functioning of agricultural co-operatives within the Inanda area in dealing with food insecurity, poverty, unemployment and inequality.

Keywords: food security, women, livelihoods, Inqolobane Yobumbano Secondary Co-operative, agricultural co-operatives

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2016

African Indigenous Food Security Strategies and Climate Change Adaptation in South Africa

Citation:

Tlhompho, Gaoshebe. 2014. “African Indigenous Food Security Strategies and Climate Change Adaptation in South Africa.” Journal of Human Ecology 48 (1): 83-96.

Author: Gaoshebe Tlhompho

Abstract:

The paper used a participatory and case study research approach to investigate the role of African Indigenous Food Security Strategies for climate change adaptation in Ganyesa Village, South Africa. The study revealed that local people, especially women, have over the years developed local food security strategies for climate change adaptation. These included knowledge of behaviours of living organisms, wind directions, position of stars as early warning indicators of changing weather conditions, selection of appropriate seeds and animal species, mixed cropping, and water harvesting technologies and food preservation techniques such as fermentation and sun drying for food security. These knowledge systems tend to be marginalized in the search for sustainable solutions for food security and climate change. The study recommends their documentation to inform policy, incorporation into educational curriculum. This will also assist in identifying gaps to be improved through interface with other knowledge systems.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge systems, climate change, women, food preservation, early-warning systems, educational curriculum

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Households, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2014

Gendered Reporting of Household Dynamics in the Kenyan Dairy Sector: Trends and Implications for Low Emissions Dairy Development

Citation:

Tavenner, Katie, Simon Fraval, Immaculate Omondi, and Todd A. Crane. 2018. “Gendered Reporting of Household Dynamics in the Kenyan Dairy Sector: Trends and Implications for Low Emissions Dairy Development.” Gender, Technology and Development 22 (1): 1-19.

Authors: Katie Tavenner, Simon Fraval, Immaculate Omondi, Todd A. Crane

Abstract:

Within the Kenyan dairy sector, climate change mitigation interventions are striving to sustainably intensify milk production while addressing the gender dynamics that mediate farmers’ ability to effectively participate in, and benefit from, low emissions development. In order to better understand these gender dynamics, household surveys were deployed by the East African Dairy Development (EADD) program to collect information on current practices of decision-making, resources, and labor dynamics within dairy farm households. Using the EADD survey results as secondary data, this study analyzes emergent patterns in these domains among cattle-keeping households in Bomet, Nandi, Uasin Gishu, and Kericho counties in Western Kenya. In analyzing these patterns, paired sample tests revealed statistically significant differences in results based on the gender of the respondent. While there were some categories that women and men reported on similarly, other areas were hotly contested. These results provide important challenges, both methodologically and programmatically, in interpreting gender dynamics across these domains. This paper reflects on the challenges and the opportunities of these data for informing gender-equitable low emissions development in the Kenyan dairy sector.

Keywords: gender, dairy, household survey, low emissions development, livestock, Kenya

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2018

Understanding the Vulnerability, Resilience and Adaptive Capacity of Households in Rural Victorian Towns in the Context of Long-Term Water Insecurity

Citation:

Stebbing, M.S., M. Carey, M. Sinclair, and M. Sim. 2013. “Understanding the Vulnerability, Resilience and Adaptive Capacity of Households in Rural Victorian Towns in the Context of Long-Term Water Insecurity.” Australasian Journal of Water Resources 17 (2): 193-201.

Authors: M. S. Stebbing, M. Carey, M. Sinclair, M. Sim

Abstract:

While the range of impacts of a changing climate on farming communities has been extensively studied in Australia, little is known about how individuals and households in small rural towns adapt to the effects of long-term water insecurity. The health and wellbeing impacts of climate variability may be experienced as direct or indirect health impacts or as reduced access to health and other services as reduced economic viability affects rural towns. Identifying risk factors for vulnerability and local measures and practices that will reduce health and wellbeing impacts offers evidence for climate change adaptation policy direction at the local, state and national level. This paper discusses the results of a study that aimed to improve understanding of the vulnerability, resilience and adaptive capacity of rural communities at the household scale. Focus groups with town residents and key informant interviews were conducted in three rural towns in Western Victoria experiencing differing water security challenges during a period of “drought”. Perceived health and wellbeing impacts and the differing ways in which residents adapted their lives to accommodate these changes were explored. The study revealed a range of physical, mental, oral health and food security impacts on health and wellbeing. There were clear gender differences in the ways that men and women identified, communicated and dealt with these impacts. Perceived water quality and cost were shown to be key determinants of acceptance of the small town reticulated water supply. The results of this study suggest that a history of conservatism, degree of community connectedness and communication, the small town ethic of self-reliance, and the openness of government to community involvement in decision making, planning and action around water supplies are important factors in determining resilience to threats to water security in small rural towns. 

Keywords: water security, water-supply, rural, water use, climate change adaptation

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Security, Food Security Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2013

'Gender Hates Men': Untangling Gender and Development Discourses in Food Security Fieldwork in Urban Malawi

Citation:

Riley, Liam, and Belinda Dodson. 2016. “‘Gender Hates Men’: Untangling Gender and Development Discourses in Food Security Fieldwork in Urban Malawi.” Gender, Place & Culture 23 (7): 1047-60.

Authors: Liam Riley, Belinda Dodson

Abstract:

This article examines the social construction and contestation of gender and gender roles in the city of Blantyre in Malawi. In fieldwork on gendered household roles related to food security, interviews with men and women revealed a distinct set of connotations with the word gender, which reflected Malawians’ historical and contemporary engagement with concepts of development, modernity, and human rights. We denote the Malawian concept of gender as gender in order to distinguish the word participants used in interviews from the more widely accepted conventional definition. We then use this distinction to highlight the ways in which ideas of gender equality have been introduced and received in the Malawian context. The urban setting of the research is key to drawing out the association of gender with Westernization, bringing into focus the power dynamics inherent in the project of translating global discourses of gender rights and gender equality into meaningful social change in developing countries. Gender in Malawi denotes a top-down (and outside-in) process of framing Malawi’s goals for gender equality. This creates political constraints both in the form of resistance to gender, because it resonates with a long history of social change imposed by outside forces, and in the form of superficial adherence to gender to appear more urban and modern, especially to a Western researcher. Local understandings of gender as gender undermine efforts to promote gender equality as a means to address Malawi’s intense urban poverty and household food insecurity.

Keywords: gender, development, postcolonial feminism, urban, qualitative research, Malawi

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Malawi

Year: 2016

The Importance of Gender Roles and Relations in Rural Agricultural Technology Development: A Case Study on Solar Fruit Drying in Mozambique

Citation:

Otte, Pia Piroschka, Lucas Daniel Tivana, Randi Phinney, Ricardo Bernardo, and Henrik Davidsson. 2018. “The Importance of Gender Roles and Relations in Rural Agricultural Technology Development: A Case Study on Solar Fruit Drying in Mozambique.” Gender, Technology and Development 22 (1): 40-58.

Authors: Pia Piroschka Otte, Lucas Daniel Tivana, Randi Phinney, Ricardo Bernardo, Henrik Davidsson

Abstract:

Many agricultural technology interventions that aim to improve farmers’ livelihoods focus on households as the unit of analysis and ignore gender roles that entail different benefits and costs for different household members. Agricultural projects have shown limited success where gender roles and relations were ignored and thus more gender sensitive research is needed in agricultural technology development to ensure social acceptance. In this study, we address this need by investigating the importance of gender roles and relations in the case of solar fruit drying in Mozambique. We apply a variety of gender sensitive participatory methods that enable farmers to actively take part in the technology development process. First results indicate that the costs and benefits of solar fruit drying are not shared equally between genders. Women have much less time available for using the solar fruit dryer. The data also indicate that certain steps in the solar fruit drying process are clearly gender divided. We finally discuss potential mechanisms that can be applied in agricultural technology projects that can create awareness of the risk to reproduce traditional gender roles and unequal relations in the development process of new agricultural technologies. 

Keywords: gender relations, gender roles, technology, development, solar fruit drying, Mozambique

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Mozambique

Year: 2018

Gender Roles in Crop Production and Management Practices: A Case Study of Three Rural Communities in Ambo District, Ethiopia

Citation:

Ogato, G.S., E.K. Boon, and J. Subramani. 2009. “Gender Roles in Crop Production and Management Practices: A Case Study of Three Rural Communities in Ambo District, Ethiopia.” Journal of Human Ecology 27 (1): 1-20.

Authors: G.S. Ogato, E.K. Boon, J. Subramani

Abstract:

A research on gender in agriculture was conducted in Ambo district, Ethiopia, between July and September 2007 to assess gender roles in crop production and management. This article is the first of two papers resulting from this research. The second article is on “Improving Access to Productive Resources and Agricultural Services Through Gender Empowerment: A Case Study of Three Rural Communities in Ambo District, Ethiopia”. A key premise of this first article is that female farmers contribute more significant to crop production and management than their male counterparts. The paper identifies and examines the roles of female and male farmers in crop production and management through a thorough analysis of secondary information and primary data collected in Ambo District with the help of questionnaires, interviews, observations, focus group discussions, participatory rural appraisal, gender analysis and case studies (life histories). Statistical package for social science (SPSS) and excel spreadsheet functions were used to treat and analyze the data. The results of the analysis indicate that female farmers contribute more than their male counterparts in crop production and management. However, despite their significant role in agriculture, the triple roles of female farmers are not well recognized or valued in the district. The promotion of sustainable agricultural development in the district requires that the needs of both rural male and female farmers are addressed in a comprehensive and systemic manner.

Keywords: community development, farming activities, gender roles, non-formal education, productive role, reproductive role, management practices

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Education, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2009

Land Grabbing, Social Differentiation, Intensified Migration and Food Security in Northern Ghana

Citation:

Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson, and Rachel Bezner Kerr. 2017. “Land Grabbing, Social Differentiation, Intensified Migration and Food Security in Northern Ghana.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 44 (2): 421-44.

Authors: Hanson Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Rachel Bezner Kerr

Abstract:

This paper argues that large-scale land appropriation is displacing subsistence farmers and reworking agrarian social relations in northern Ghana. The recent wave of farmland enclosure has not only resulted in heightened land scarcity, but also fostered a marked social differentiation within farming communities. The dominant form of inequality is an evolving class of landless and near-landless farmers. The majority of households cope with such dynamics by deepening their own self-exploitation in the production process. The fulcrum of this self-exploitation is gendered property rights as part of the conjugal contract, with men exerting a far greater monopoly over land resources than had previously been the case. Due to acute land shortages, women’s rights to use land as wives, mothers and daughters are becoming insecure, as their vegetable plots are being reclassified as male-controlled household fields. The paper further documents the painful choices that landless farmers have to make in order to meet livelihood needs, including highly disciplined, yet low-waged, farm labor work and sharecropping contracts. In these livelihood pathways, there emerge, again, exploitative relations of production, whereby surplus is expropriated from land- dispossessed migrant laborers and concentrated with farm owners. These dynamics produce a ‘simple reproduction squeeze’ for the land-dispossessed. Overall, the paper contributes to the emerging land grabbing literature by showing geographically specific processes of change for large-scale mining operations and gendered differentiated impacts. 

Keywords: land grabbing, gender relations, peasant class differentiation, food security, Ghana

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Households, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2017

Gendered Mobilities and Food Security: Exploring Possibilities for Human Movement within Hunger Prone Rural Tanzania

Citation:

Mason, Ryan, John R. Parkins, and Amy Kaler. 2017. “Gendered Mobilities and Food Security: Exploring Possibilities for Human Movement within Hunger Prone Rural Tanzania.” Agriculture and Human Values 34 (2): 423-34.

Authors: Ryan Mason, John R. Parkins, Amy Kaler

Abstract:

This paper explores the movements, meanings and potential movements of men and women as they seek to secure food resources. Using a gendered mobilities framework, we draw on 66 in-depth interviews in the Kongwa district of rural Tanzania, illustrating how people move, their motivations and understandings of these movements, the taboos, rituals, and cultural characteristics of movement that hold implications for men and women and their food security needs. Results show that male potential mobility and female relative immobility is a critical factor in understanding how mobility affects food security differentially for men and women. We identify the links between mobilities and the development of social capital, particularly amongst men. We also illustrate problems with greater integration of women into the agricultural sector when these women risk stigma and censure from the increased physical movement that this integration requires. Implications from this study are examined in light of gender transformative approaches to agricultural interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. 

Keywords: gender analysis, social norms, poverty alleviation, food production, livelihoods, social capital

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2017

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