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Governance

Mainstreaming Gender in Philippine Institutional Responses to Climate Change

Citation:

Badayos-Jover, Mary Barby P. 2012. “Mainstreaming Gender in Philippine Institutional Responses to Climate Change.” PhD diss., College of Agricultural Sciences and College of the Liberal Arts, The Pennsylvania State University.

Author: Mary Barby P. Badayos-Jover

Abstract:

Global climate change has become a pressing environmental, social, political and economic problem in highly vulnerable developing countries like the Philippines. A number of socio-political institutions are thus now involved in climate change initiatives in Philippine locales. While these efforts are underway, there is also a parallel growing concern that institutional responses to climate change will reinforce gender inequalities or undermine the gains made towards gender equality. This apprehension is significant in the Philippines since it has long officially subscribed to gender mainstreaming and is ranked high in gender equity indices.

The study focused on analyzing the extent to which Philippine institutional climate change efforts integrate gender concerns. Data collection made use of feminist approaches and institutional ethnography to reveal the complex ruling relations that influence practices on the ground. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with representatives from international institutions working in the Philippines, national government agencies, local government units, civil society groups and grassroots communities.

Study results highlighted that institutional and community representatives acknowledge gender as a cross cutting issue yet associate it mainly with "women's participation". Gender mainstreaming has largely remained rhetoric in the face of organizational masculinism. Hence, there is minimal integration of gender concerns in Philippine institutional climate change initiatives, despite specific policy pronouncements and years of bureaucratic gender mainstreaming. These results have implications on gender equity within climate change institutional structures and processes. However, the results also provide entry points for developing gender-sensitive, equitable, efficient and effective on-the-ground climate change initiatives in vulnerable Philippine locales.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, NGOs, Political Participation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2012

Gendered Eviction, Protest and Recovery: A Feminist Political Ecology Engagement with Land Grabbing in Rural Cambodia

Citation:

Lamb, Vanessa, Laura Schoenberger, Carl Middleton, and Borin Un. 2017. “Gendered Eviction, Protest and Recovery: A Feminist Political Ecology Engagement with Land Grabbing in Rural Cambodia.” The Journal of Peasant Studies, 44 (6) : 1215-1234. 

Authors: Vanessa Lamb , Laura Schoenberger, Carl Middleton, Borin Un

Abstract:

We examine what we argue has been overlooked in the Cambodian context: the roles and practices of women in relation to men and their complementary struggles to protest land grabbing and eviction, and subsequently rebuild community and state relations. We present research carried out in Cambodia in 2014–2015 in Kratie, the country’s most concessioned province. Through a feminist political ecology lens, we examine how protest and post-eviction community governance are defined as women’s or men’s work. Our case also reveals how ‘rebuilding’ gender relations in rural Cambodia simultaneously rebuilds uneven community and state relations.

Keywords: gender, land grab, eviction, Cambodia, South East Asia, state-gender relations

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gendered Discourses, Governance, Land grabbing Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2017

Historical Perspectives on Industrial Development, Mining, and Prostitution

Citation:

Laite, Julia Ann. 2009. “Historical Perspectives on Industrial Development, Mining, and Prostitution.” The Historical Journal 52 (3): 739–61.

Author: Julia Ann Laite

Abstract:

Prostitution has been linked by many historians and social commentators to the industrial development and capitalism of the modern age, and there is no better example of this than the prostitution that developed in mining regions from the mid-nineteenth century. Using research on mining-related prostitution, and other social histories of mining communities where prostitution inevitably forms apart, large or small, of the historian's analysis of the mining region, this article will review, contrast, and compare prostitution in various mining contexts, in different national and colonial settings. From the American and Canadian gold rushes in the mid-and late nineteenth century, to the more established mining frontiers of the later North American West, to the corporate mining towns of Chile in the interwaryears, to the copper and gold mines of southern Africa and Kenya in the first half of the twentieth century, commercial sex was present and prominent as the mining industry and mining communities developed. Challenging the simplistic images and stereotypes of prostitution that are popularly associated with the American mining frontier, historians have shown that prostitution's place in mining communities, and its connection to industrial development, was as complex as it was pervasive and enduring.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Governance, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, North America, South America Countries: Canada, Chile, Kenya, South Africa, United States of America

Year: 2009

Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Niger Delta Women and the Burden Of Gas Flaring

Citation:

Omeire, Edward Uche, Agbatse Augustine Aveuya, Chinedu T. Muoneme Obi, Adolphus Gold, Ufomba Akudo, and Chinemerem Adaiheoma Omeire. 2014. “Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Niger Delta Women and the Burden Of Gas Flaring.” European Scientific Journal, ESJ 10 (26): 151-62.

Authors: Edward Uche Omeire, Agbatse Augustine Aveuya, Chinedu T. Muoneme Obi, Adolphus Gold, Ufomba Akudo, Chinemerem Adaiheoma Omeire

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of gas flaring on Niger Delta Women. The findings of the study show that gas flaring impact men and women disappropriately, with women being more exposed and vulnerable due to a number of associated cultural and socio-economic factors. It was also observed that gas flaring ritual has continued endlessly in Niger Delta due to a number of factors which include: lack of political will, lack of sound and broad regulatory framework, high level of corruption and lack of patriotism among state actors and above all, insincerity and lack of environmental accountability among multi-national oil companies operating in the Niger delta. The authors therefore conclude that there is the urgent need to mainstream gender in oil and gas policies in Nigeria. There is also the need to put in place a sound and broad regulatory framework that will compel multi-national oil companies operating in the Niger delta to be environmentally accountable to the people.

Keywords: gas flaring, Niger Delta, women, degradation, environment

Topics: Corruption, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Energy, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2014

National Action Plans as an Obstacle to Meaningful Local Ownership of UNSCR 1325 in Liberia and Sierra Leone

Citation:

Basini, Helen, and Caitlin Ryan. 2016. “National Action Plans as an Obstacle to Meaningful Local Ownership of UNSCR 1325 in Liberia and Sierra Leone.” International Political Science Review 37 (3): 390-403.

Authors: Helen Basini, Caitlin Ryan

Abstract:

National Action Plans (NAPs) have been hailed as the preferential mode of implementing United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 at a national level. In recent years, member states, especially post-conflict member states, have been heeding the calls of the United Nations to develop their own National Action Plans. However, there has been limited assessment of whether or not National Action Plans are beneficial to women in post-conflict states. Using evidence from field research in Liberia and Sierra Leone, this article argues that, despite the intent to increase national ownership of 1325 in post-conflict states, National Action Plans are ineffective at creating meaningful local ownership because they are driven by a bureaucratic approach to peacebuilding. Furthermore, implementation of National Action Plans in post-conflict states is hampered by a variety of factors, such as lack of capacity and lack of political will. Finally, we conclude that National Action Plans also do a disservice to the hard work and dedication of local women’s organisations.

Keywords: gender, Liberia, National Action Plans, peace, post-conflict, security, Sierra Leone, UNSCR 1325, women

Topics: Gender, Women, Conflict, Governance, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia, Sierra Leone

Year: 2016

Women Coping with Change in an Icelandic Fishing Community

Citation:

Skaptadóttir, Unnur Dı́s. 2000. “Women Coping with Change in an Icelandic Fishing Community.” Women’s Studies International Forum 23 (3): 311–21. doi:10.1016/S0277-5395(00)00089-3.

Author: Unnur Dı́s Skaptadóttir

Abstract:

In Iceland we find great commitment to market solutions in the fishery as exemplified by the individually transferable quota system (ITQ). This management system, along with the state's diminishing commitment to regional planning, have had marked impact on the people who live in fishing communities. In this article, I explore some of the consequences of these changes on women's lives within a particular fishing village. The inhabitants of the village have not been able to take advantage of the new system in which fewer and larger companies are taking over. The inhabitants are consequently faced with the process of increased marginalization that presents new challenges to which men and women respond differently. The coping mechanisms adopted by women stress community and working together whereas men respond more on an individual level. The already existing gender divisions within fishing communities underpin the different responses and coping strategies.

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Analysis, Governance Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Iceland

Year: 2000

Women’s Crucial Role in Collective Operation and Maintenance of Drinking Water Infrastructure in Rural Uganda

Citation:

Naiga, Resty, Marianne Penker, and Karl Hogl. 2017. “Women’s Crucial Role in Collective Operation and Maintenance of Drinking Water Infrastructure in Rural Uganda.” Society & Natural Resources 30 (4): 506–20. doi:10.1080/08941920.2016.1274460.

Authors: Resty Naiga, Marianne Penker, Karl Hogl

Abstract:

Operation and maintenance of communally owned water sources in Uganda still pose challenges despite the devolution of water management from the state to user communities. Using a mixed-methods approach and a gender-sensitive collective action analytical framework, this article quantifies the role of women in drinking-water governance and identifies barriers to women’s participation. The findings show that women not only are more willing to contribute but have also stated higher actual contribution than their male counterparts. The article outlines the institutional and individual attributes constraining women’s effective participation in water management and suggests how to enhance women’s participation in water governance. We argue that a strategy built on water users’ collective action in Uganda has to be built on women’s participation through effective rules and monitoring mechanisms, as well as on long-term sensitization and awareness creation on gender stereotypes that hitherto hinder women’s participation.

Keywords: collective action, demand-driven approach, drinking water, gender relations, local water governance, operation and maintenance, rural Uganda, willingness to contribute, women

Topics: Citizenship, Development, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Participation Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2017

Gender Budgeting: Fiscal Context and Current Outcomes

Citation:

Stotsky, Janet G. 2016. “Gender Budgeting: Fiscal Context and Current Outcomes.” IMF Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 

Author: Janet G. Stotsky

Abstract:

Gender budgeting is an approach to budgeting that uses fiscal policy and administration to promote gender equality and girls’ and women’s development. This paper posits that, properly designed, gender budgeting improves government budgeting, and it places budgeting for this purpose in the context of sound budgeting principles and practices. The paper provides an overview of the policies and practices associated with gender budgeting as they have emerged across the world, as well as examples of the most prominent efforts in every region of the world. Finally, it suggests what can be learned from these efforts.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Fiscal policy, fiscal administration

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Budgeting, Governance

Year: 2016

Gender Responsive Budgeting in Fragile States: The Case of Timor-Leste

Citation:

Costa, Monica. 2017. Gender Responsive Budgeting in Fragile States: The Case of Timor-Leste. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge.

Author: Monica Costa

Annotation:

"A growing number of governments have made commitments to achieving gender equality and women's rights, with many using gender responsive budgeting (GRB) to allocate resources for the delivery of economic policy and governance that equally benefits men and women. At a time when GRB is growing in global traction, this book investigates what it can deliver for gender equality and state resilience in contexts where the state is weak or prone to violence, such as in Timor-Leste.
 
"Gender Responsive Budgeting in Fragile States: The Case of Timor-Leste uses the Timor-Leste case to investigate whether gender equality reform can be adopted at the same time as establishing economic and institutional fundamentals. Whilst some may have thought that the adoption of GRB strategy in 2008 was premature, Monica Costa argues that GRB initiatives have contributed to budget accountability and transparency, and ultimately improved policy and budget processes and decisions. This multi-disciplinary analysis of a decade of GRB demonstrates why GRB is important to inform the debate on state fragility-resilience and argues that fragile states cannot defer gender equality in the name of getting the economic and institutional basics right.
 
"While a growing number of fragile states have taken steps to make their budget more gender responsive, questions remain for economists and policy makers about how and what can be achieved. Gender Responsive Budgeting in Fragile States is the first international publication on GRB in fragile state contexts and will be of interest to researchers, upper level students, policy makers and NGOs with an interest in policy, economics, gender and development." (Summary from Google Books)

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2017

Justicia de género y tierras en Colombia: Desafíos para la era del ‘pos-acuerdo’

Citation:

Meertens, Donny. 2016. "Justicia de género y tierras en Colombia: Desafíos para la era del ‘pos-acuerdo’." Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe 102: 89-100.

Author: Donny Meertens

Abstract:

Spanish Abstract:

Con la firma del Acuerdo de Paz entre FARC guerrilla y el Gobierno de Colombia, en Agosto de 2016, el país enfrenta un sinnúmero de desafíos para la implementación de lo pactado, no sólo en lo inmediato (desarme-desmovilización-reintegración de excombatientes y de justicia-verdad-reparación para las víctimas) sino frente a las transformaciones democráticas estipuladas para el pos-conflicto. En esta exploración reflexiono sobre la restitución de tierras como medida de reparación a víctimas y su alcance transformativo en términos de justicia de género. Colombia es el primer país en América Latina en el cual estos dos elementos, tierras y género, han sido incorporados explícitamente en un proceso de paz. Una de las conclusiones de esta reflexión es que se requiere un mayor impulso institucional a la organización de las mujeres rurales para consolidar los resultados de la restitución, articularlos a la reforma agraria pactada en el Acuerdo de Paz y contribuir así a una participación más democrática de hombres y mujeres en el desarrollo rural del pos-conflicto. 

English Abstract:

Gender and Land Justice in Colombia: Challenges for the Post-Peace Accords Era

With the signature of a Peace Accord between FARC guerrilla and the Colombian Government in August 2016, the country confronts a great number of challenges in terms of the implementation, not only of the immediate actions needed to carry out the DDR process for ex-combatants and the truth, justice and reparations measures for the victims, but also of the long-term democratic transformations agreed upon at the negotiations table. In this exploration I will reflect on the scope of land restitution as a measure of reparations, and its transformative potential in terms of gender justice. Colombia is the first country in Latin America in which these two elements, land and gender, have been explicitly included in the peace process. One of the conclusions of this reflection is that more institutional support is needed for rural women’s organizations in order to consolidate the results of a gender-just land restitution and link these to the rural reforms of the peace agenda, as a contribution to a more democratic participation of men and women in post-conflict rural development. 

Keywords: restitución de tierras, justicia, organizaciones de mujeres, proceso de paz, gênero, gender, land restitution, justice, women's organizations, peace process

Topics: Gender, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, Land grabbing, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

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