The Gender Issue in Energy Project Planning: Welfare, Empowerment or Efficiency?


Skutsch, Margaret M. 1998. “The Gender Issue in Energy Project Planning: Welfare, Empowerment or Efficiency?” Energy Policy 26 (12): 945–55.

Author: Margaret M. Skutsch


The gap between gender policy as adopted by governments and donors, and the inclusion of gender issues in energy planning practice at project level, is great, despite the fact that there are many manuals available which demonstrate how to go about gathering gender-based data and analysing this. This gap is partly due to difficulties in translating policy into achievable objectives at project level, which in itself is due to differences of opinion on what the motive is for including gender as a variable. Three main motivations are identified, and is it shown that once this has been done, the choice of planning tools, instruments and approaches for gender sensitive energy project planning falls more easily into place.

Keywords: gender policy, energy project planning, welfare, empowerment, efficiency

Topics: Gender, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 1998

Gender, Tax Reform and Taxation Cooperation Issues: Navigating Equity and Efficiency under Policy Constraints


Williams, Mariama. 2019. Gender, Tax Reform and Taxation Cooperation Issues: Navigating Equity and Efficiency under Policy Constraints. Policy Brief No. 9. Geneva: The South Centre.

Author: Mariama Williams


This policy brief has sought to present a review of the state of thinking and research on a pressing issue of the day: tax reform and tax cooperation and its gendered impacts. There is undeniably widespread agreement amongst all the entities of global governance with responsibility for a role in macroeconomic, financial and trade policies that gender equality and women’s empowerment are important to sustained growth and development. Increasingly, these same voices are articulating and researching on how fiscal policy both on the budgetary and on the revenue side can be made more efficient, gender sensitive and gender responsive. Taxation is the latest area of focused attention in this regard. There is now a quite strong body of work, including case studies, that demonstrates how the tax system can work to the disadvantage of socio-economic development and social goals including gender equality and women’s empowerment. 
La présente note d'orientation a pour but de présenter un état de la réflexion et de la recherche concernant la question brûlante des réformes et de la coopération en matière fiscale et leurs incidences en fonction du sexe. Il existe un consensus clair au sein des structures de la gouvernance mondiale qui jouent un rôle dans les politiques macroéconomiques, financières et commerciales selon lequel l'égalité des sexes et l'autonomisation des femmes sont essentielles pour garantir une croissance et un développement durables. De plus en plus des voix s'expriment et des recherches sont entreprises sur les moyens permettant de faire en sorte que les politiques fiscales, tant du point de vue des dépenses que du point de vue des recettes, soient plus efficaces, tiennent davantage compte des questions de genre et intègrent la dimension homme-femme. La fiscalité est le dernier domaine qui fait l'objet d'une attention particulière sur ce point. Il existe aujourd'hui un corpus de travaux plus que solide, y compris des études de cas, qui démontrent que le système fiscal peut nuire au développement socio-économique et aux objectifs sociaux, qui incluent l’égalité des sexes et l'autonomisation des femmes.
Este informe de políticas tiene como objetivo presentar un balance de la opinión predominante y la investigación sobre un tema apremiante de la actualidad: la reforma y la cooperación tributarias y sus repercusiones en las cuestiones de género. Entre todas las entidades de gobernanza mundial responsables de desempeñar un papel en las políticas macroeconómicas, financieras y comerciales existe indiscutiblemente un amplio consenso acerca de la importancia de la igualdad de género y el empoderamiento de las mujeres para lograr el crecimiento y el desarrollo sostenidos. Cada vez más, estas mismas voces están articulando e investigando de qué forma la política fiscal, tanto en materia presupuestaria como de ingresos, puede ser más eficiente y sensible a las cuestiones de género y tener en cuenta el género. La tributación es el último ámbito en que se está centrando la atención a este respecto. Actualmente, existe un corpus de trabajo bastante sólido que incluye estudios de caso y demuestra que el sistema tributario puede perjudicar el desarrollo socioeconómico y los objetivos sociales, como la igualdad de género y el empoderamiento de las mujeres.

Topics: Development, Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance

Year: 2019

Gender Issues in Energy Policy & Planning: Perspectives from the Dakar Workshop


Wakhungu, Judi Wangalwa. 1996. “Gender Issues in Energy Policy & Planning: Perspectives from the Dakar Workshop.” Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 16 (3): 98–106.

Author: Judi Wangalwa Wakhungu


“The international experts working in the field of energy had the following objectives in meeting in Dakar: to corroborate their views on gender issues in energy policy analyses; provide a strategic assessment of research issues and gaps; advance research on women and global energy policy as a new area for policy analysis; and to create an informal network of institutions and individuals with an interest in women and global energy policy research. It was incumbent on the energy policy makers assembled in Dakar to re-evaluate the issues. In order to assess what improvements were required in the future, the energy experts reflected on the energy strategies of the last two decades and what the effects had been. They assessed the key energy actors, energy strategies, and possibilities for improved policy analysis and decision-making which will highlight women’s relevance to and potential contributions for sustainable energy development. Participants discussed which issues are still relevant to today’s intellectual debate and which new issues exist. Participants also attempted: to establish a consensus around policies that make sense in the midst of the current energy and socio-economic situation; to begin the process of rejecting energy policies that tie us to the status quo; and finally, to establish a framework for ensuring more effective integration of gender concerns into energy policy-making” (Wakhungu 1996, 98).

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 1996

Clean, Renewable Energy: Improving Womens' Lives in South Asia


Mohideen, Reihana. 2013. “Clean, Renewable Energy: Improving Womens' Lives in South Asia.” IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 32 (3): 48–55.

Author: Reihana Mohideen


As feminist scholars have long argued, there are no purely technological solutions to achieving progress on gender equity and women’s empowerment. Nevertheless, in rural South Asia, where many women’s lives are marked by gender inequalities, access to clean and renewable energy technology and services can make a difference if those resources are also targeted at improving women’s access and welfare. This, however, compels us to go beyond the meter. Special social and technical interventions that simultaneously target energy access and gender equity are necessary.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, Asia, gender issues, electricity, government policies, gender equity, social factors, Africa

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2013

Rural Energy Planning and Policies in Nepal: Gender Perspectives


Mahat, Ishara. 2004. “Rural Energy Planning and Policies in Nepal: Gender Perspectives.” Journal of Resources, Energy and Development 1 (1): 19–41.

Author: Ishara Mahat


Women in rural Nepal are heavily involved in managing household energy systems. They spend a large proportion of their time and energy in collecting firewood and processing food grain. For instance, a woman in Nepal’s rural mountainous area spends four to six hours in collecting a bundle firewood. Being the primary users and managers of household energy, women are very careful in ensuring efficient energy use. Indeed, they possess indigenous knowledge and skills in energy production and management. Despite this reality, Nepal’s planners and policy-makers – who are usually male – rarely consider rural energy problems from the perspective of women. Rural energy interventions are planned and designed with the aim of saving fuel rather than that of reducing human drudgery or opening up new development opportunities for women and men. This paper analyses the issues and challenges facing Nepal’s rural energy sector and makes some policy recommendations with a focus on gender-based plans and policies. A gender-sensitive planning framework indicating long-term goals, medium-term objectives, and relevant indicators has been designed to provide planners with a basis to integrate gender into rural energy planning and policies.

Topics: Gender, Governance, Households, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2004

The "Real" Chechen Man: Conceptions of Religion, Nature, and Gender and the Persecution of Sexual Minorities in Postwar Chechnya


Scicchitano, Dominic. 2019. “The "Real" Chechen Man: Conceptions of Religion, Nature, and Gender and the Persecution of Sexual Minorities in Postwar Chechnya.” Journal of Homosexuality. doi:10.1080/00918369.2019.1701336.

Author: Dominic Scicchitano


In March of 2017, the Russian LGBT Network received their first reports of police violence against individuals in Chechnya because of their perceived sexual orientation. In the following months, news spread of a campaign of forced disappearances and torture specifically targeting suspected homosexual men. Between December, 2018 and February, 2019, police carried out another wave of unlawful detentions of men on the basis of their sexual orientation. The reports of unlawful detentions and extrajudicial killings of queer men may seem surreal in a world that has slowly grown more progressive with regard to LGBT rights issues. And yet, this violence is the reality faced by gay and bisexual men in Chechnya under Ramzan Kadyrov, the hypermasculine Chechen leader. This paper explores the ways in which religious practice, imaginations of nature, and conceptions of gender have influenced Chechnya’s current anti-LGBT climate.

Keywords: Chechnya, caucasus, LGBTQ+, antigay violence, unlawful detentions, religious fundamentalism, masculinities, gendered nature

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, LGBTQ, Male Victims, Post-Conflict, Religion, Sexuality, Violence Regions: Asia, Europe Countries: Russian Federation

Year: 2019

Queering Colombia's Peace Process: A Case Study of LGBTI Inclusion


Maier, Nicole. 2020. "Queering Colombia's Peace Process: A Case Study of LGBTI Inclusion." The International Journal of Human Rights 24 (4): 377-92.

Author: Nicole Maier


In August 2016, Colombia's government announced that they had reached an agreement with the country's largest guerrilla group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). This peace deal was historic in Colombia's more than half-century long armed conflict; however, Colombian voters rejected it. A revised version was ultimately passed through a congressional vote. Despite the intense domestic criticism of the peace talks, they have been praised internationally and revered as a model for the world, particularly with regard to their efforts surrounding victims of the armed conflict. This article focuses on one particular group of victims, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) individuals. The experience of LGBTI people in armed conflicts has historically been one of exclusion from peace processes. This article explores how Colombia's peace process has approached the LGBTI experience through interviews with LGBTI activists and analyses of collaborative civil society efforts. The actions taken by LGBTI organisations reveal the critical role of truth and memory initiatives and capacity building. While much work has been done, Colombia is left with many unanswered questions about what a post-conflict society will look like for LGBTI victims of the armed conflict.

Keywords: LGBT, victim, Colombia, armed conflict, transitional justice, peacebuilding

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Justice, Transitional Justice, LGBTQ, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Sexuality Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

The Effects of Japanese Income Tax Provisions on Women’s Labour Force Participation


Shibata, Aiko. 1992. “The Effects of Japanese Income Tax Provisions on Women’s Labour Force Participation.” In Women's Work in the World Economy, edited by Nancy Folbre, B. Bergmann, B. Agarwal, and M. Floro, 169-79. London: Palgrave Macmillan London.

Author: Aiko Shibata


At a session of the Congress of the International Institute of Public Finance in Istanbul in the summer of 1988, a gentleman from a small oil-producing country in the Middle East asked me: ‘Was there any effective governmental means of keeping wives at home?’ I was taken by surprise and didn’t know how to respond. However, I later realised that Japanese tax laws implicitly do just that. Designed to give a tax break to married taxpayers, they discourage housewives from taking jobs. Further, many private companies have adopted wage structures that also discourage housewives from working out-side their homes.

Keywords: marginal contribution, labour participation rate, spouse earning, high income group

Topics: Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Women, Governance, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 1992

Lesbian Activism in the (Post-)Yugoslav Space: Sisterhood and Unity


Bilić, Bojan, and Marija Radoman, eds. 2019. Lesbian Activism in the (Post-)Yugoslav Space: Sisterhood and Unity. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Bojan Bilić, Marija Radoman


This book intertwines academic and activist voices to engage with more than three decades of lesbian activism in the Yugoslav space. The empirically rich contributions uncover a range of lesbian initiatives and the fundamental, but rarely acknowledged, role that lesbian alliances have played in articulating a feminist response to the upsurge of nationalism, widespread violence against women, and high levels of lesbophobia and homophobia in all of the post-Yugoslav states. By offering a distinctly intergenerational and transnational perspective, this collection does not only shed new light on a severely marginalised group of people, but constitutes a pioneering effort in accounting for the intricacies – solidarities, joys, and tensions – of lesbian activist organising in a post-conflict and post-socialist environment. With a plethora of authorial standpoints and innovative methodological approaches, the volume challenges the systematic absence of (post-)Yugoslav lesbian activist enterprises from recent social science scholarship. (Summary from Palgrave Macmillian)

Table of Contents:
1.Introduction: Recovering/Rethinking (Post-)Yugoslav Lesbian Activisms
Bojan Bilić

2.Yearning for Space, Pleasure, and Knowledge: Autonomous Lesbian and Queer Feminist Organising in Ljubljana
Teja Oblak and Maja Pan

3.Cartographies of Fear and Freedom: Lesbian Activists in the First Belgrade and Zagreb Pride Parades
Sanja Kajinić

4.Sisterhood Beyond Borders: Transnational Aspects of Post-Yugoslav Lesbian Activism
Irene Dioli

5.Breaking the Silence: Lesbian Activism in Macedonia
Irena Cvetkovic

6.Searching for a Lesbian Voice: Non-Heterosexual Women’s Activism in Montenegro
Marina Vuković and Paula Petričević

7.(In)Visible Presences: PitchWise Festival as a Space of Lesbian Belonging in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Adelita Selmić and Bojan Bilić

8.Conclusion: Discovering the Lesbian in Us—On Our Ongoing, Never-Ending Struggles
Marija Radoman

9.Epilogue: Collecting Fragments—Towards (Post-)Yugoslav Activist Archives
Bojan Bilić

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Governance, LGBTQ, Nationalism, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights Regions: Europe, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2019

Old Ties and New Binds: LGBT Rights, Homonationalisms, Europeanization and Post-War Legacies in Serbia


Gabbard, Sonnet D’Amour. 2017. “Old Ties and New Binds: LGBT Rights, Homonationalisms, Europeanization and Post-War Legacies in Serbia.” PhD diss., The Ohio State University.

Author: Sonnet D’Amour Gabbard


My dissertation examines the historic links between the anti-war activists in Serbia with the current efforts and work for LGBT justice and rights. As an interdisciplinary scholar, my work integrates a variety of epistemologies across disciplines by putting anti-war and LGBT activists' experience in Serbia into conversation with one another to address unique vulnerabilities. Drawing from transnational feminist and queer critiques of governance, (homo)nationalism, and transnational sexuality studies, I consider how new nonheterosexual identity politics—with roots in anti-war activism—have surfaced in Serbia since the Kosovo War. I argue that it is at the intersection of anti-war and LGBT organizing that new and conflicting identity politics have emerged, in part as a reaction to a pro-war hyper-nationalism and neoliberal globalization.

Keywords: LGBT, Balkans, sexuality studies, feminism, transnational, global studies, international relations, development, Serbia, Yugoslavia, post-conflict, Transgender, lesbian, gay, pride parade, gentrification, Slavic studies, queer

Topics: Civil Society, Feminisms, Governance, Globalization, Justice, LGBTQ, Nationalism, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Sexuality Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Serbia

Year: 2017


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