Thinking Eco-Feminism


Jahanbegloo, Ramin, and Vandana Shiva. 2013. “Thinking Eco-Feminism.” In Talking Environment: Vandana Shiva in Conversation with Ramin Jahanbegloo. Oxford University Press.

Authors: Ramin Jahanbegloo, Vandana Shiva


In this section, Vandana Shiva talks about her book Ecofeminism, which offers a critique of patriarchal violence, capitalism, and colonialism. She comments on the reductive nature of scientific reasoning and argues that reductionism influences the way people think about the world around them. Discussing the connection between reduction and science, Vandana views eco-feminism as recognition of the conquest of nature and the conquest of human beings. She explains how reductionist science results in ignorance; how science is related to techno-science; and techno-science as a form of knowledge. Moreover, she emphasizes the role of mutual care and love in a global civil society; biodiversity and the plurality of knowledge in a community; how corporations and scientists are harming nature and biodiversity; eco-feminism and the feminism of ordinary women; poverty in India; how Indians can fight corruption; and the negative impact of globalization on spirituality and the ‘sacredness of life’.

Keywords: Vandana Shiva, ecofeminism, India, poverty, corruption, reductionism, eco-feminism, techno-science, feminism, spirituality

Topics: Civil Society, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Globalization, Livelihoods, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2013

Ecofeminism at the Heart of Ecosocialism


Brownhill, Leigh, and Terisa E. Turner. 2019. "Ecofeminism at the Heart of Ecosocialism." Capitalism Nature Socialism 30 (1): 1-10.

Authors: Leigh Brownhill, Terisa E. Turney


"African women have been at the forefront of resistance to corporate globalization since neoliberalism struck in the 1980s. They are joined, on an expanding scale, by diverse women of all continents who have also been deeply engaged in ecofeminist politics of resistance (Shiva 2008; Gago and Aguilar 2018; Giacomini et al. 2018). These resistance politics have today converged in the politics of transition to a fossil-fuel-free world. Being more fully and directly reliant on nature for their daily subsistence, specific African women have faced and resisted enclosure of their commons and collectively maintained indigenous knowledge, seeds, practices, food production, and energy technologies that offer clear alternatives to oil and petro-chemical reliant food and energy systems. The prominence of women in defending the commons against commodification has been evident in Africa for many decades. It is now also evident globally" (Brownhill and Turney 2019, 1). 

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Globalization, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Livelihoods Regions: Africa

Year: 2019

Forced Prostitution: Unpacking the Links between Globalization, Neo-liberalism, and the Illicit Sex Trade


Banwell, Stacy. 2018. “Forced Prostitution: Unpacking the Links between Globalization, Neo-liberalism, and the Illicit Sex Trade.” Paper presented at Prostitution, Pimping and Trafficking, Conway Hall, London, September 5.

Author: Stacy Banwell


Transnational feminism attributes women’s social, political and economic marginalization to capitalism, class exploitation, neo-imperialism and neo-liberalism. It addresses the local and global contexts in which violence against women and girls occurs. Allied to this is the political economy approach. This approach addresses the relationship between the economic, the social and the political. Moving beyond direct acts of physical violence - by addressing structural forms of inequality and violence - the political economy approach broadens what is meant by violence and abuse. Accordingly, forced prostitution - resulting from a lack of employment opportunities - is considered a form of structural violence. Drawing on both of these perspectives, and focusing on Iraq and Syria, Dr Banwell examines how globalization and neo-liberalism impact the day-to-day lives of women and girls in war-shattered economies. The talk will conclude with some thoughts on what is being done to address gender-based violence and what measures can be taken to achieve gender equality in post-conflict situations.

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq, Syria

Year: 2018

States and Markets: An Ecofeminist Perspective on International Political Economy


Tickner, J. Ann. 1993. “States and Markets: An Ecofeminist Perspective on International Political Economy.” International Political Science Review / Revue Internationale de Science Politique 14 (1): 59–69.

Author: J. Ann Tickner


This article examines the way in which the interaction between states and markets since the seventeenth century has depended on the exploitation of nature. The accumulation of wealth and power by the early modern state depended on the enlightenment ideology that saw nature as a resource to be exploited for human progress. An expansionary Eurocentric state system imposed this ideology on other cultures through imperialism and the globalization of capitalism. Feminists believe that this attitude toward nature has also been associated with the exploitation of women and other cultures. While environmentalists look to international regulation to solve ecological problems caused by the development of the international system, feminists and social ecologists claim that not until all these forms of exploitation are ended can an ecologically secure future be achieved.

Topics: Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Globalization, Political Economies

Year: 1993

Explorations: Feminist Ecological Economics


Perkins, Ellie, Edith Kuiper, Rayén Quiroga-Martínez, Terisa E. Turner, Leigh S. Brownhill, Mary Mellor, Zdravka Todorova, Maren A. Jochimsen, and Martha McMahon. 2005. “Explorations: Feminist Ecological Economics.” Feminist Economics 11 (3): 107–50.

Authors: Ellie Perkins, Edith Kuiper, Rayén Quiroga-Martínez, Terisa E. Turner, Leigh S. Brownhill, Mary Mellor, Zdravka Todorova, Maren A. Jochimsen, Martha McMahon


These Explorations argue that more links between the fields of feminist ecology and feminist economics are both needed and promising, and presents new, boundary-crossing research in this area. It brings together contributions from various regions in the world that link political action and experience in practice and research in an economic theorizing that includes both environmental and feminist concerns.

Keywords: ecology, women, nature, globalization, feminist economic theory, agriculture

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Feminist Economics, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Globalization

Year: 2005

Globalisation Masculinities, Empire Building and Forced Prostitution: A Critical Analysis of the Gendered Impact of the Neoliberal Economic Agenda in Post-Invasion/Occupation Iraq


Banwell, Stacy. 2015. “Globalisation Masculinities, Empire Building and Forced Prostitution: A Critical Analysis of the Gendered Impact of the Neoliberal Economic Agenda in Post-Invasion/Occupation Iraq.” Third World Quarterly 36 (4): 705–22.

Author: Stacy Banwell


Adopting a transnational feminist lens and using a political economy approach, this article addresses both the direct and indirect consequences of the 2003 war in Iraq, specifically the impact on civilian women. Pre-war security and gender relations in Iraq will be compared with the situation post-invasion/occupation. The article examines the globalised processes of capitalism, neoliberalism and neo-colonialism and their impact on the political, social and economic infrastructure in Iraq. Particular attention will be paid to illicit and informal economies: coping, combat and criminal. The 2003 Iraq war was fought using masculinities of empire, post-colonialism and neoliberalism. Using the example of forced prostitution, the article will argue that these globalisation masculinities – specifically the privatisation agenda of the West and its illegal economic occupation – have resulted in women either being forced into the illicit (coping) economy as a means of survival, or trafficked for sexual slavery by profit-seeking criminal networks who exploit the informal economy in a post-invasion/occupation Iraq. 

Keywords: globalisation masculinities, post-colonialism, neoliberalism, gender-based violence, transnational feminism, political economy

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Economies, Informal Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Infrastructure, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Political Economies, Security, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2015

Sexual Violence in Iraq: Challenges for Transnational Feminist Politics


Al-Ali, Nadje. 2018. "Sexual Violence in Iraq: Challenges for Transnational Feminist Politics." European Journal of Women's Studies 25 (1): 10-27.

Author: Nadje Al-Ali


The article discusses sexual violence by ISIS against women in Iraq, particularly Yezidi women, against the historical background of broader sexual and gender-based violence. It intervenes in feminist debates about how to approach and analyse sexual and wider gender-based violence in Iraq specifically and the Middle East more generally. Recognizing the significance of positionality, the article argues against dichotomous positions and for the need to look at both macrostructural configurations of power pertaining to imperialism, neoliberalism and globalization on the one hand, and localized expressions of patriarchy, religious interpretations and practices and cultural norms on the other hand. Finally, the article reflects on the question of what a transnational feminist solidarity might look like in relation to sexual violence by ISIS.

Keywords: gender-based violence, ISIS, Kurdish Region of Iraq, positionality, Yezidi Women

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Globalization, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups, Religion, Sexual Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2018

Women and the Gendered Politics of Food


Shiva, Vandana. 2009. “Women and the Gendered Politics of Food.” Philosophical Topics 37 (2): 17-32. 

Author: Vandana Shiva


From seed to table, the food chain is gendered.

When seeds and food are in women's hands, seeds reproduce and multiply freely, food is shared freely and respected. However, women's seed and food economy has been discounted as "productive work." Women's seed and food knowledge has been discounted as knowledge.

Globalization has led to the transfer of seed and food from women's hands to corporate hands. Seed is now patented and genetically engineered. It is treated as the creation and "property" of corporations like Monsanto. Renewable seed becomes nonrenewable. Sharing and saving seed becomes a crime. Diversity, nourished by centuries of women's breeding, disappears, and with it the culture and natural evolution that is embodied in the diversity is lost forever.

Food, too, is transformed in corporate hands. It is no longer our nourishment; it becomes a commodity. And as a commodity it can be manipulated and monopolized. If food grain makes more money as cattle feed than it does as food for human consumption, it becomes cattle feed. If food grain converted to biofuel to run automobiles is more profitable, it becomes ethanol and biodiesel.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Globalization, Political Economies, Security, Food Security

Year: 2009

Gender, Feminism and the Civil Commons: Women and the Anti-Corporate, Anti-War Movement for Globalization from Below


Turner, Terisa E., and Leigh S. Brownhill. 2001. "Gender, Feminism and the Civil Commons: Women and the Anti-Corporate, Anti-War Movement for Globalization from Below." Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue Canadienne d’Études du Développement 22 (4): 805-18

Authors: Terisa E. Turner, Leigh S. Brownhill


"The thirteen contributions to Gender, Feminism and the Civil Commons build on three bodies of previous scholarship. First is the vast body of work by Korten (1995, 1996) and Chossoduvsky (1998, 2000), which demonstrates that corporate globalization is inimical to the ecological and human project. These authors stop short of treating what C.L.R. James (1977) has called the future in the present or the groundings for response by a variety of social forces. They do not engender their analyses. Gender, Feminism and the Civil Commons examines the deep history of the civil commons and the gendered class character of its reassertion” (Turner and Brownhill 2011, 805).

Topics: Class, Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Globalization, Political Economies

Year: 2001

Women Navigating Globalization: Feminist Approaches to Development


Everett, Jana, and Sue Ellen M. Charlton. 2014. Women Navigating Globalization: Feminist Approaches to Development. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Authors: Jana Everett, Sue Ellen M. Charlton


This up-to-date text offers a clear and cogent introduction to women in development. Exploring the global structures and processes that impede or support the empowerment of women, Jana Everett and Sue Ellen M. Charlton use a feminist lens to understand contemporary gender roles. Without such a lens, they argue, our understanding of globalization and development is incomplete, resulting in flawed policies that fail to improve the lives of millions of people around the globe. After a set of introductory chapters that conceptually frame the issues, the authors then investigate women’s struggles within and against globalization and development through powerful case studies of sex trafficking, water, work, and health. These chapters, by using specific examples, develop the concepts of structure and agency, levels of analysis, and feminist approaches as tools to help students understand the complexities of development and alternative strategies.
Through rich interdisciplinary analysis, Everett and Charlton explore the individual and collective strategies women have used to improve their lives under globalization and weigh how effective they have been. Their book will be an essential resource in women’s studies, political science, political economy, anthropology, sociology, and development studies. (Summary from Google Books)

Topics: Development, Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Infrastructure, International Organizations, Political Economies

Year: 2014


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