Gender Budgeting: Fiscal Context and Current Outcomes


Stotsky, Janet G. 2016. “Gender Budgeting: Fiscal Context and Current Outcomes.” IMF Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 

Author: Janet G. Stotsky


Gender budgeting is an approach to budgeting that uses fiscal policy and administration to promote gender equality and girls’ and women’s development. This paper posits that, properly designed, gender budgeting improves government budgeting, and it places budgeting for this purpose in the context of sound budgeting principles and practices. The paper provides an overview of the policies and practices associated with gender budgeting as they have emerged across the world, as well as examples of the most prominent efforts in every region of the world. Finally, it suggests what can be learned from these efforts.

Keywords: gender budgeting, fiscal policy, fiscal administration

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Budgeting, Governance

Year: 2016

Food Crisis, Nutrition, and Female Children in Rural Bangladesh


Bairagi, Radheshyam. 1986. “Food Crisis, Nutrition, and Female Children in Rural Bangladesh.” Population and Development Review 12 (2): 307–15.

Author: Radheshyam Bairagi


Although almost all nations show lower female than male mortality, Bangladesh and certain other developing countries show higher female mortality rates. Among children aged 1 to 4 in Bangladesh, female mortality rates are 45% higher for girls than for boys. This paper examines whether 1) sex biased attitudes toward nutrition (as expressed in terms of food intake) are more marked during food crises, and 2) these biases are related to the socioeconomic status of the family. The study measured weight and height of approximately 1400 children aged 1 to 4 in Bangladesh from April 1975 (10 months after the famine began) through December 1976 (14 months after the famine ended). The findings clearly indicate that sex and social status are strong correlates of nutritional status. Children of higher status families with larger homes fared better throughout the time period. Within each status category, boys fared better than girls. While poor families were harder hit by famine than wealthier ones, male-female nutritional discrimination was stronger among the higher classes. These differences were accentuated during the famine period. Policy makers and planners in Bangladesh must be made aware that such sex biases exist and that these patterns are exacerbated during food shortages. (NCBI)

Topics: Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Food Security, Gender, Girls Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 1986

Gender Relations, Livelihood Security And Reproductive Health Among Women Refugees In Uganda: The Case Of Sudanese Women In Rhino Camp And Kiryandongo Refugee Settlements


Mulumba, Deborah. 2005. Gender Relations, Livelihood Security and Reproductive Health Among Women Refugees in Uganda: The Case of Sudanese Women in Rhino Camp and Kiryandongo Refugee Settlements. PhD thesis, Wageningen University.

Author: Deborah Mulumba


Armed conflict and civil wars are the main cause of refugees in the Great Lakes Region of Eastern Africa. Forced migration into alien refugee settings exacerbates gender inequalities and increases the vulnerability of women and girls. The main objective of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of gender relations, livelihood security and reproductive health among refugees in Uganda with a particular focus on women. The research design was descriptive and exploratory in nature and the methodology was primarily qualitative. The main findings were that refugee policies and gender relations have an immense influence on human reproduction, reproductive health and livelihood security. Although UNHCR has formulated gender sensitive policies, their implementation in rural settlements remains gender neutral. In addition, the strategic needs of women refugees are not catered for. The study concludes that there is a discrepancy between the international and national policies and what is on the ground. (ResearchGate)


Table of Contents:

1. Background and Rationale for the Study
2. Theoretical and Conceptual Perspectives
3. Research Questions and Methodology
4. The History and Management of Refugees and Displacement in Uganda
5. The International and National Health Policies
6. Ministries, Organizations and Programmes Dealing in Reproductive Health Issues
7. The Study Area and ‘Host Environment’
8. Gender Relations, Livelihood Security and Reproductive Health: Discussion of Findings and Experiences from Rhino Camp Refugee Settlement 
9. Gender Relations, Livelihood Security and Reproductive Health: Discussion of Findings and Experiences from Kiryandongo Refugee Settlement
10. Conclusions

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Girls, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan, Uganda

Year: 2005

Girlhood in a Post-Conflict Situation: The Case of Rwanda


Gervaid, Myriam, Eliane Ubalijoro, and Euthalie Nyirbega. 2009. “Girlhood in a Post-Conflict Situation: The Case of Rwanda” Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equity 79:13-23

Authors: Myriam Gervaid, Eliane Ubalijoro, Euthalie Nyirbega


Girls in Rwanda have been confronted with unique challenges since the 1994 genocide. This study aims to analyse their everyday experiences, given the repercussions the genocide has had on their lives and the sociocultural pressures they face. Using a comprehensive cross-sectoral approach we examine their positions and roles through four 'lenses': security and protection, economic security, access to basic services, and participation and empowerment. This gender analysis of girlhood in a post-conflict environment reveals that girls must contend with a wide-ranging and interconnected set of gender biases and highlights the fact that they are relatively 'invisible' in programmes for women or youth, even though they play a major role in the rebuilding of peaceful communities. We conclude that post-conflict programmes would benefit from consulting with girls and young women to detect disparities in access to welfare services and resources and help shape policies and programmes that address their interests.

Keywords: girls, gender, youth, post-conflict situation, empowerment

Topics: Age, Youth, Girls, Genocide, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Human Security Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2009

Precious Resources: Adolescents in the Reconstruction of Sierra Leone : Participatory Research Study with Adolescents and Youth in Sierra Leone, April-July 20


Lowicki, Jane, Allison A Pillsbury, and Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2002. Precious Resources: Adolescents in the Reconstruction of Sierra Leone : Participatory Research Study with Adolescents and Youth in Sierra Leone, April-July 2002. New York, N.Y.: Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children.

Authors: Jane Lowicki, Allison A. Pillsbury



Introduction pg. 1

Chapter II. Executive Summary pg. 3

Chapter III. Map pg.  9 

Chapter IV. Adolescence and Youth: A Community in Crisis pg. 10

Chapter V. Education: A Linchpin for Peace and Recovery pg. 14

Chapter VI. Livelihood: Young People Need Skills and Jobs pg. 22

Chapter VII. Health: Myth Versus Reality pg. 26

Chapter VIII. Protection: Few Resources, Many Categories of Vulnerability pg. 36

Chapter IX. Psychosocial: Moving Beyond Manipulation and Abuse pg. 55

Chapter X. Survey Results: Education, Poverty and Health Care Are Top Concerns pg. 64

Chapter XI. Adolescent Researchers Lead the Study: Methodology and Lessons Learned pg. 80

Chapter XII. International, Regional, National and Local Responses to Adolescent and Youth Concerns pg. 90

Chapter XIII. Recommendations pg. 101

Chapter XIV. Appendices pg. 108

Sierra Leone: Glossary of Key Players and Other Basics pg. 108

Methodological Materials pg. 112

Task Force on Protection From Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises pg.117

Youth Organizations pg. 118

Acronyms pg. 120

Chapter XV. Endnotes pg. 122

Topics: Age, Youth, Gender, Girls, Boys, Health, Mental Health, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2002

In War’s Wake: Contextualizing Trauma Experiences and Psychosocial Well-Being Among Eritrean Youth


Farwell, Nancy. 2003. “In War’s Wake: Contextualizing Trauma Experiences and Psychosocial Well-Being Among Eritrean Youth.” International Journal of Mental Health 32 (4): 20–30.

Author: Nancy Farwell


This study examines war trauma experienced by Eritrean youth, their psychological symptoms and contextual actors related to their psychosocial well-being in the postwar environment in Eritrea. The youth offered retrospective accounts of trauma experiences in semi-structured interviews that included open- and closed-ended questions and the administration of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Among the ninety-seven youth in this school-based sample from four regions of Eritrea, exposure to trauma and economic hardship were significant predictors of psychological distress. Refugee status did not predict lower symptom levels, a factor related to the stressors encountered in exile as well as to the earlier war events that forced the youth and their families to flee their country. For many youth, grief over the loss of parents and close relatives was not resolved. The youth were generally positive about the future, both personally and in the context of a free and independent Eritrea. This article suggests that the intrapsychic post-traumatic stress disorder framework may be too narrow for conceptualizing war trauma, which is essentially psychosocial in nature, and deeply contextualized in a community's socioeconomic and political realities of conflict and its aftermath. Expanding this knowledge base is important order to ensure that practitioners and policy makers can effectively assist youth and their families with the postconflict tasks of healing and reintegration, essential elements of building a lasting peace.

Topics: Age, Youth, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Girls, Boys, Health, Trauma, Humanitarian Assistance, Context-Appropriate Response to Trauma, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Eritrea

Year: 2003

La experiencia de jóvenes mujeres como combatientes de la guerrilla de las FARC y del ELN


Niño Vega, Nohora Constanza. 2016. “La experiencia de jóvenes mujeres como combatientes de la guerrilla de las FARC y del ELN.” DESIDADES - Revista Eletrônica de Divulgação Científica da Infância e Juventude 0 (11): 32-40.

Author: Nohora Constanza Niño Vega


El presente artículo tiene como objetivo presentar hallazgos acerca de cómo la participación entanto combatientes de las guerrillas de las FARC y el ELN en Colombia tensiona la experienciade ser niña y joven y la construcción de las categorías de infancia y juventud en cinco jóvenesexcombatientes de estas guerrillas.

Keywords: infancia, juventud, guerilla, habitus guerrero, vida civil

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Girls, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Youth Transport, Mobility, and Security in Sub-Saharan Africa - The Gendered Journey to School


Porter, Gina, Kate Hampshire, Albert Abane, Alister Munthali, Elsbeth Robson, Mac Mashiri, and Augustine Tanle. 2009. “Youth Transport, Mobility, and Security in Sub-Saharan Africa - The Gendered Journey to School.” In Women’s Issues in Transportation - Summary of the 4th International Conference. Vol. 2. Irvine, California: Transportation Research Board.

Authors: Gina Porter, Kate Hampshire, Albert Abane, Alister Munthali, Elsbeth Robson, Mac Mashiri, Augustine Tanle


This paper draws on empirical data from a three-country (Ghana, Malawi, and South Africa) study of young people’s mobility to explore the gendered nature of children’s journeys to school in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender differences in school enrollment and attendance in Africa are well established: education statistics in many countries indicate that girls’ participation in formal education is often substantially lower than boys’, especially at the secondary school level. Transport and mobility issues commonly form an important component of this story, though the precise patterning of the transportation and mobility constraints experienced by girls and the ways in which transport factors interact with other constraints vary from region to region. In some contexts, the journey to school represents a particularly hazardous enterprise for girls because they face a serious threat of rape. In other cases, girls’ journeys to school and school attendance are hampered by Africa’s transport gap and by cultural conventions that require females to be responsible for pedestrian head loading (transporting loads such as food crops or fuel on the head) and other work before leaving for, or instead of attending, school. evidence comes from a diverse range of sources, but the data used here are principally drawn from a survey questionnaire conducted with approximately 1,000 children ages 7 to 18 years across eight sites in each country. The aim of this study is to draw attention to the diversity of gendered travel experiences across geographical locations (paying attention to associated patterns of transport provision); to explore the implications of these findings for access to education; and to suggest areas in which policy intervention could be beneficial.

Topics: Age, Youth, Education, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Roles, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Malawi, South Africa

Year: 2009

Gender and Energy for Sustainable Development


Oparaocha, Sheila, and Soma Dutta. 2011. "Gender and Energy for Sustainable Development." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 3 (4): 265-271.

Authors: Sheila Oparaocha, Soma Dutta


Energy services are linked to well-being and have the potential to impact almost every area of human life, from increased economic activity to improved child literacy, safe drinking water and women's empowerment. Energy is a critical input in the daily lives of women for their household chores such as cooking and space heating; for agricultural uses, including post-harvest processing; and for rural industry uses such as milling and process heat. Energy poverty is a problem that has a disproportionate effect on women and girls. This paper explores the implications of the prevalent energy poverty for women in developing countries. At the same time, the paper highlights how addressing gender issues in the energy sector can help achieve overall developmental goals, contribute towards achievement of the MDGs, and makes specific recommendations towards gender mainstreaming in the energy sector.

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Mainstreaming, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Water & Sanitation

Year: 2011

The Gendered Nature of Education under Siege: A Palestinian Feminist Perspective


Shalhoub-Kevorkian, Nadera. 2008. “The Gendered Nature of Education under Siege: A Palestinian Feminist Perspective.” International Journal of Lifelong Education 27 (2): 179–200.

Author: Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian


Military occupation affects educational space and places, transforming them into politicized, sexed, gendered, and racialized ones. The uncontrolled political violence in conflict zones causes psychological trauma, internal displacement and economic stagnation, and intersect to shape the gendered nature of education. This article is based on data collected from young Palestinian women in the Occupied Palestinian Territories between 2004–2007. Its theoretical background departs from the perspective that women's education in conflict zones is simultaneously a site of empowerment, resistance, and victimization. As such, the article demonstrates that the personal is political, and highlights how education can be both a source of consciousness-raising and a powerful mobilizing force for young women while simultaneously being oppressive in nature. The results show that the covert and overt acts of political violence against Palestinians has transformed Palestinian gender relations in complex, contradictory, and diverse ways while both militarizing and violating their right to education. In addition, the article argues that the study of gender and education requires close attention to women's words and acts in order to identify revolutionary modes of resistance that are capable of promoting social justice. It concludes by arguing that the daily terror facing young women on their way to school, the systematic denial of school permits, and other actions that interfere with their right to obtain an education not only necessitates the re-conceptualization of education conceived as a neutral zone and separated from the politics of the state, but also requires a close scrutiny of the gendered nature of education under siege. 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Education, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Mental Health, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Rights, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2008


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