The Political Economy of Post-conflict Violence against Women


True, Jacqui. 2018. "The Political Economy of Post-conflict Violence against Women." In Handbook on the International Political Economy of Gender, edited by Juanita Elias and Adrienne Roberts, 184-195. London: Edward Elgar Publishing. 

Author: Jacqui True


Eliminating violence against women and girls globally is one of the major challenges of the twenty-first century. Transformations in the political economy of gender relations, including the increasing mobilisation of women’s labour beyond the household in the public sphere and the globalisation of women’s activism, have contributed to the breaking of silence on the problem of violence against women and girls. This chapter examines the opportunity to remake political and economic institutions to redress injustices and inequalities that contribute to various forms of violence against women and girls. Contrary to hunches about post-conflict bringing a social rupture in gender roles, post-conflict transitions often heighten gender inequality in power and economic power and exacerbate sexual and gender-based violence. The chapter shows how a feminist political economy method analyses the gendered economic inequalities underlying political inequalities and applies this analysis to explain the continuum of gendered violence in transitions from conflict to peace.

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, SV against Women

Year: 2018

Intersectionality, Transitional Justice, and the Case of Internally Displaced Moro Women in the Philippines


Sifris, Ronli, and Maria Tanyag. 2019. "Intersectionality, Transitional Justice, and the Case of Internally Displaced Moro Women in the Philippines." Human Rights Quarterly 41 (2): 399-420.

Authors: Ronli Sifris, Maria Tanyag


This article explores the relevance of adopting an intersectional approach to transitional justice by focusing on the specific context of internal displacement and Moro women in Mindanao, Philippines. The analysis begins with a discussion of the value of adopting an intersectional lens when addressing overlapping and interrelated forms of sexual and gender-based violence perpetrated in armed conflicts. It then proceeds to examine how such an approach may assist in revealing everyday practices that complicate dichotomies of gendered agency and victimhood. Capturing these intersections is vital for ensuring the most marginalized groups of women and girls faced with protracted displacement and compounded suffering are at the heart of transitional justice programs.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Transitional Justice, Sexual Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2019

Transnational Justice


Trent, Carol L. 2019. "Transnational Justice." In The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, edited by Frances P. Bernat and Kelly Frailing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Author: Carol L. Trent


Transnational justice is the judicial and nonjudicial response used by societies to address widespread human rights violations, mass atrocities, or other forms of collective trauma. In nations transitioning from autocratic regimes, those emerging from periods of civil conflict and war, and those coming to terms with large‐scale violations of international law, these processes help societies reestablish the rule of law, hold perpetrators accountable and bring justice to victims, and heal communities through reconciliation. Addressing gender justice is a key facet of the transnational justice, since women and girls are particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses, including sexual and gender‐based violence (SGBV).

Keywords: human rights, international law, transitional justice, transnational justice, war crimes

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, International Law, Justice, Transitional Justice, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence

Year: 2019

Women, Peace, and Security in Pakistan


Faraz, Zeenia. 2017. Women, Peace, and Security in Pakistan. United States Institute of Peace. 

Author: Zeenia Faraz


Conflict and crisis have adversely affected the social and economic circumstances of women and girls in Pakistan. A gender lens is needed in responses to crises. 

Ensuring women’s participation at all levels in decisions related to peace and security in the country is essential.

The women, peace, and security (WPS) framework is useful for enhancing women’s participation in peace processes and applying a gender lens to postconflict reconstruction.

Implementation of the WPS agenda in Pakistan requires concrete measures at social and political levels that would challenge existing gender stereotypes and pave the way for greater participation among women in peacebuilding and peace processes.

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Peace Processes, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2017

Sexual and Reproductive Health Is a Security Issue for Southeast Asia


Tanyag, Maria. 2018. "Sexual and Reproductive Health Is a Security Issue for Southeast Asia." Australian ​Journal of International Affairs 72 (6): 495-9.

Author: Maria Tanyag



"Promoting health and well-being among young women and girls is a security issue for Southeast Asia due to the immediate need to bridge health inequalities in the region, especially among populations trapped in cycles of poverty and gender discrimination, and internally displaced populations. The often-deliberate neglect of sexual and reproductive health constitutes significant human rights violations in both crisis situations (disaster and conflict) and the everyday (Tanyag 2018). For young women and girls, sexual and reproductive health is a building block for further developing their human capabilities such as in accessing education and livelihood.

By focusing on access to sexual and reproductive health services and information, I highlight the security dimensions to addressing sexual and reproductive health especially among adolescents as both a pre-condition for truly inclusive leadership necessary to address multiple security threats in Southeast Asia, and an outcome of genuine resilience-building with gender equality at its core" (Tanyag 2018, 495).

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Rights, Security Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines

Year: 2018

Child Safeguarding in a Peacekeeping Context: Lessons from Liberia


Blakemore, Sarah, Rosa Freedman, and Nicolas Lemay-Hébert. 2019. "Child Safeguarding in a Peacekeeping Context: Lessons from Liberia." Development in Practice 29 (6): 735-47.

Authors: Sarah Blakemore, Rosa Freedman, Nicolas Lemay-Hébert


This article reviews how peacekeeping officials safeguard children from sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) in Liberia, more than 15 years after the landmark reports published on this issue. Based on original fieldwork conducted in Liberia and in New York, the article introduces an innovative framework to assess whether or not organisations effectively safeguard children from SEA. It reviews three interrelated issues: reinforcing the institutional environment in the country, strengthening prevention of and accountability for child SEA by UN actors. The article concludes with specific policy recommendations for actors involved in peacekeeping activities.

Keywords: aid, accountability, aid effectiveness, civil society, NGOs, gender and diversity, youth, Rights, Sub-Saharan Africa

Topics: Age, Youth, Civil Society, Gender, Girls, Boys, NGOs, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, North America Countries: Liberia, United States of America

Year: 2019

Forced Pregnancy versus Forcible Impregnation: A Critical Analysis of Genocidal Rape during War/Armed Conflict.


Banwell, Stacy Louise. 2019. "Forced Pregnancy versus Forcible Impregnation: A Critical Analysis of Genocidal Rape during War/Armed Conflict." Paper presented at the 75th American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, November 13-16.

Author: Stacy Louise Banwell


Forced pregnancy and forcible impregnation are contested terms in relation to genocidal rape. The International Criminal Court (ICC), for example, defines forced pregnancy as ‘the unlawful confinement of a woman forcibly made pregnant, with the intent of affecting the ethnic composition of any population’ (Rome Statute of the ICC, 2011). Whereas, The Holy See suggests that the Statute need only criminalize the act of forcibly making a woman pregnant and not the subsequent act of forcibly keeping her pregnant. Thus, they suggest the term forcible impregnation rather than forced pregnancy (Grey, 2017). This paper unpacks the implications of the ICC’s definition of forced pregnancy in relation to the rape and sexual slavery of Yazidi women in Iraq and Syria. Evidence suggest that ISIS engaged in a genocidal campaign against the Yazidis. Many women and girls were forcibly impregnated, resulting in unwanted pregnancies (Genocide Network, 2017; Human Rights Council, 2016). However, forced impregnation (as defined by the ICC) cannot be applied to this case. Drawing on Grey’s (2017) notion of ‘reproductive violence’ - violence that violates reproductive autonomy - I review international criminal law and the reproductive justice available to women and girls raped and impregnated by ISIS.

Keywords: law, rape

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Girls, Genocide, Health, Reproductive Health, International Law, International Criminal Law, Rights, Reproductive Rights, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against Women Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq, Syria

Year: 2019

Association of Exposure to Civil Conflict With Maternal Resilience and Maternal and Child Health and Health System Performance in Afghanistan


Akseer, Nadia, Arjumand Rizvi, and Zaid Bhatti. 2019. "Association of Exposure to Civil Conflict With Maternal Resilience and Maternal and Child Health and Health System Performance in Afghanistan." JAMA Network Open 2 (11): 1-16.

Authors: Nadia Akseer, Arjumand Rizvi, Zaid Bhatti


Importance: Current studies examining the effects of Afghanistan’s conflict transition on the performance of health systems, health service delivery, and health outcomes are outdated and small in scale and do not span all essential reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health interventions.
Objective: To evaluate associations of conflict severity with improvement of health system performance, use of health services, and child nutrition outcomes in Afghanistan during the 2003 to 2018 reconstruction period.
Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based survey study included a sequential cross-sectional analysis of individual-level panel data across 2 periods (2003-2010 and 2010-2018) and a difference-in-differences design. Surveys included the 2003 to 2004 and 2010 to 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and the 2018 Afghanistan Health Survey. Afghanistan’s 2013 National Nutrition Survey was used to assess nutritional outcomes, and the annual Balanced Scorecard data sets were used to evaluate health system performance. Participants included girls and women aged 12 to 49 years and children younger than 5 years who completed nationally representative household surveys. All analyses were conducted from January 1 through April 30, 2019.
Exposures: Provinces were categorized as experiencing minimal-, moderate-, and severe-intensity conflict using battle-related death data from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Health intervention coverage was examined using 10 standard indicators: contraceptive method (any or modern); antenatal care by a skilled health care professional; facility delivery; skilled birth attendance (SBA); bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination (BCG); diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccination (DPT3) or DPT3 plus hepatitis B and poliomyelitis (penta); measles vaccination; care-seeking for acute respiratory infection; oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea; and the Composite Coverage Index. The health system performance was analyzed using the following standard Balanced Scorecard composite domains: client and community, human resources, physical capacity, quality of service provision, management systems, and overall mission. Child stunting, wasting, underweight, and co-occurrence of stunting and wasting were estimated using World Health Organization growth reference cutoffs.
Results: Responses from 64 815 women (mean [SD] age, 31.0 [8.5] years) were analyzed. Provinces with minimal-intensity conflict had greater gains in contraceptive use (mean annual percentage point change [MAPC], 1.3% vs 0.5%; P < .001), SBA (MAPC, 2.7% vs 1.5%; P = .005), BCG vaccination (MAPC, 3.3% vs −0.5%; P = .002), measles vaccination (MAPC, 1.9% vs −1.0%; P = .01), and DPT3/penta vaccination (MAPC, 1.0% vs −2.0%; P < .001) compared with provinces with moderate- to severe-intensity conflict after controlling for confounders. Provinces with severe-intensity conflict fared significantly worse than those with minimal-intensity conflict in functioning infrastructure (MAPC, −1.6% [95% CI, −2.4% to −0.8%]) and the client background and physical assessment index (MAPC, −1.0% [95% CI, −0.8% to 2.7%]) after adjusting for confounders. Child wasting was significantly worse in districts with greater conflict severity (full adjusted β for association between logarithm of battle-related deaths and wasting, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.01-0.66]; P = .04).
Conclusions and Relevance: Associations between conflict and maternal and child health in Afghanistan differed by health care intervention and delivery domain, with several key indicators lagging behind in areas with higher-intensity conflict. These findings may be helpful for planning and prioritizing efforts to reach the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals in Afghanistan.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Health, Reproductive Health, Post-Conflict, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2019

Experiences of Pregnancy in Adolescence of Internally Displaced Women in Bogotá: An Ethnographic Approach


Cadena-Camago, Yazmin, Anja Krumeich, Maria Claudia Duque-Páramo, and Klasien Horstman. 2020. "Experiences of Pregnancy in Adolescence of Internally Displaced Women in Bogotá: An Ethnographic Approach." Reproductive Health 17 (1): 31-43.

Authors: Yazmin Cadena-Camago, Anja Krumeich, Maria Claudia Duque-Páramo, Klasien Horstman


Background: Pregnancy in adolescence is higher among internally displaced women in Colombia than nondisplaced women. It is defined as a problem with significant negative outcomes by both biomedical and epidemiological approaches. However, little is known about pregnancy during adolescence from the perspective of women who experienced this in the specific context of armed conflict and displacement.

Aim: This article focuses on how internally displaced women understand their experiences of pregnancy in adolescence in the context of armed conflict through an ethnographic approach in a receptor community of internally displaced women in Bogotá, Colombia.

Methods: Based on 10 years of experience in the community, we conducted 1 year of fieldwork, using an ethnographic approach. We collected life stories of 20 internally displaced women through in-depth interviews and ran 8 workshops with them and other women from the community. We used thematic analysis to analyse the responses of internally-displaced women and understand how they made meaning around their experiences of adolescent pregnancy in the context of displacement.

Results: The main themes that emerged from participants’ experiences include rural violence, early family life (characterized by violence and mistreatment at home), meanings of pregnancy at an early age (including being challenged and feelings of love), and reactions to their pregnancies during adolescence (such as stigmatization) from their families and partners.

Conclusion: Our analysis of the in-depth interviews and the workshops suggests that adolescent pregnancy among women who are internally displaced has complex dynamics, characterized by the violent context of the rural areas, but primarily by the violence experienced during their childhood. The experience of pregnancy during adolescence brings feelings of ownership and also challenges, together with the forced displacement. This understanding will provide insights for policy makers and healthcare providers on how to work with this specific population who have experienced pregnancy in adolescence.

Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, teenage pregnancies, internally displaced persons (IDPs)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Girls, Health, Reproductive Health, Households, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

The Effects of Conflict and Displacement on Violence against Adolescent Girls in South Sudan: The Case of Adolescent Girls in the Protection of Civilian Sites in Juba


Murphy, Maureen, Jeffrey B. Bingenheimer, Junior Ovince, Mary Ellsberg, and Manuel Contreras-Urbina. 2019. "The Effects of Conflict and Displacement on Violence against Adolescent Girls in South Sudan: The Case of Adolescent Girls in the Protection of Civilian Sites in Juba." Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters 27 (1): 181-91. 

Authors: Maureen Murphy, Jeffrey B. Bingenheimer, Junior Ovince, Mary Ellsberg, Manuel Contreras-Urbina


There is a paucity of data on violence against women and girls (VAWG) during times of conflict in general and even less information specifically on violence against adolescent girls. Based on secondary analysis of a larger study on VAWG in South Sudan, this article highlights the specific experience of conflict-affected adolescent girls resident in the Juba Protection of Civilian sites. Quantitative data from a cross-sectional household survey shows that the prevalence of non-partner sexual violence (NPSV) (26.5%) and intimate partner violence (IPV) (43.1% of partnered respondents) was high among a cohort of girls who were of adolescent age during the 2013 crisis. Direct exposure to armed conflict increased the odds of respondents experiencing NPSV (AOR: 7.21; 95%CI: 3.94–13.17) and IPV (AOR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.07–5.29). Quantitative and qualitative data also showed that patriarchal practices, compounded by poverty and unequal power relationships within the home, remain some of the primary drivers of VAWG even in conflict-affected settings. Prevention activities need to consider these wider underlying drivers of VAWG during times of armed conflict, as they remain key factors affecting violence against adolescent girls.

Keywords: violence against women and girls, conflict, non-partner sexual violence, adolescent girls, Intimate partner violence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Domestic Violence, Gender, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Households, Sexual Violence, SV against Women Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2019


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