Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

Genocide

Women’s Participation in the Rwandan Genocide: Mothers or Monsters?

Citation:

Hogg, Nicole. 2010. “Women’s Participation in the Rwandan Genocide: Mothers or Monsters?” International Review of the Red Cross 92 (877): 69–102. doi:10.1017/S1816383110000019.

Author: Nicole Hogg

Abstract:

The participation of women in the 1994 Rwandan genocide should be considered in the context of gender relations in pre-genocide Rwandan society. Many ‘ordinary’ women were involved in the genocide but, overall, committed significantly fewer acts of overt violence than men. Owing to the indirect nature of women’s crimes, combined with male ‘chivalry,’ women may be underrepresented among those pursued for genocide-related crimes, despite the broad conception of complicity in Rwanda’s Gacaca Law. Women in leadership positions played a particularly important role in the genocide, and gendered imagery, including of the ‘evil woman’ or ‘monster’, is often at play in their encounters with the law.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Genocide, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2010

Don’t Let the Suffering Make You Fade Away: An Ethnographic Study of Resilience among Survivors of Genocide-Rape in Southern Rwanda

Citation:

Zraly, Maggie, and Laetitia Nyirazinyoye. 2010. “Don’t Let the Suffering Make You Fade Away: An Ethnographic Study of Resilience among Survivors of Genocide-Rape in Southern Rwanda.” Social Science & Medicine 70 (10): 1656–64.

Authors: Maggie Zraly, Laetitia Nyirazinyoye

Abstract:

Rape has been used in contemporary armed conflicts to inflict physical, psychological, cultural and social damage. In endeavoring to address the psychological damage of collective violence, some researchers and global health practitioners are turning toward post-conflict mental health promotion approaches that centrally feature resilience. Though previous findings from resilience and coping research are robust, few studies have actually investigated resilience among genocide-rape survivors in cultural context in non-Western settings. This paper presents ethnographic data gathered over 14 months (September 2005 to November 2006) in southern Rwanda on resilience among genocide-rape survivors who were members of two women's genocide survivor associations. Study methods included a content analysis of a stratified purposive sample of 44 semi-structured interviews, as well as participant-, and non-participant-observation. Resilience among genocide-rape survivors in this context was found to be shaped by the cultural-linguistic specific concepts of kwihangana (withstanding), kwongera kubaho (living again), and gukomeza ubuzima (continuing life/health), and comprised of multiple sociocultural processes that enabled ongoing social connection with like others in order to make meaning, establish normalcy, and endure suffering in daily life. The results of this research show that the process of resilience among genocide-rape survivors was the same regardless of whether genocide survivor association membership was organized around the identity of genocide-rape survivorship or the identity of widowhood. However, the genocide-rape survivors' association members were more involved with directing resilience specifically toward addressing problems associated with genocide-rape compared to the members of the genocide widows' association. The findings from this research suggest that ethnographic methods can be employed to support resilience-based post-conflict mental health promotion efforts through facilitating collective sexual violence survivors to safely socially connect around their shared experiences of rape, neutralizing social threats of stigma and marginalization.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Civil Society, Gender, Women, Genocide, Health, Mental Health, Trauma, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2010

Rape as an Act of Genocide

Citation:

Russel-Brown, Sherrie. 2003. “Rape as an Act of Genocide.” Berkeley Journal of International Law 21 (3): 350-73.

Author: Sherrie Russel-Brown

Abstract:

Like all rape, genocidal rape is particular as well as part of the generic, and its particularity matters. This is ethnic rape as an official policy of war in a genocidal campaign for political control. That means not only a policy of the pleasure of male power unleashed, which happens all the time in so-called peace; not only a policy to defile, torture, humiliate, degrade, and demoralize the other side, which happens all the time in war; and not only a policy of men posturing to gain advantage and ground over other men. It is specifically rape under orders. This is not rape out of control. It is rape under control. It is also rape unto death, rape as massacre, rape to kill and to make the victims wish they were dead. It is rape as an instrument of forced exile, rape to make you leave your home and never want to go back. It is rape to be seen and heard and watched and told to others; rape as spectacle. It is rape to drive a wedge through a community, to shatter a society, to destroy a people. It is rape as genocide.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnicity, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Genocide, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Torture, Sexual Torture

Year: 2003

Sexual Violence and Genocide, the Greatest Violation of Human Security: Responses to the Case of Darfur

Citation:

Price, Lisa S. 2010. “Sexual Violence and Genocide, the Greatest Violation of Human Security: Responses to the Case of Darfur.” In The Gender Imperative: Human Security Vs State Security, edited by Betty A. Reardon and Asha Hans, 138–72. New York: Routledge.

Author: Lisa S. Price

Abstract:

 

 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Genocide, Security, Human Security, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2010

Gender Crimes Jurisprudence in the ICTR: Positive Developments

Citation:

Askin, Kelly Dawn. 2005. “Gender Crimes Jurisprudence in the ICTR: Positive Developments.” Journal of International Criminal Justice 3 (4): 1007–18.

Author: Kelly D. Askin

Abstract:

Considering the magnitude of rape and other sexual crimes perpetrated during the Rwandan genocide, gender crimes prosecutions at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) have been inadequate so far. Nonetheless, the ICTR case law must be commended for the impulse given, with and after Akayesu, to the criminalization and punishment of gender-related violence. This paper points to the achievements of the ICTR case law in this respect.

Topics: Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Genocide, International Law, International Criminal Law, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2005

Mass Rape During War: Prosecuting Bosnian Rapists Under International Law

Citation:

Aydelott, Danise. 1993. “Mass Rape During War: Prosecuting Bosnian Rapists Under International Law.” Emory International Law Review 7: 585-631.

Author: Danise Aydelott

Abstract:

The author reviews the history of mass rape during war and the international legal provisions that can be invoked to punish the perpetrators. Part I evaluates the historical acceptance of rape as a by-product of war. Part II discusses mass rape as a weapon of genocide in Bosnia. Part III evaluates existing methods of international law that can be used to punish the violators. Part IV describes the statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) designed to prosecute Balkan criminals. Part V examines the reasons why the situation in Bosnia provides a particularly strong case for prosecuting rape as a war crime. Part VI concludes that existing substantive international law is sufficient to punish the perpetrators, and comments on the need to address procedural problems inherent in punishing rapists as war criminals, rather than pushing to have rape declared a "war crime."

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Genocide, International Law, International Criminal Law, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 1993

Consent to Genocide?: The ICTY’s Improper Use of the Consent Paradigm to Prosecute Genocidal Rape in Foca

Citation:

Kalosieh, Adrienne. 2002. “Consent to Genocide?: The ICTY’s Improper Use of the Consent Paradigm to Prosecute Genocidal Rape in Foca.” Women’s Rights Law Reporter 24: 121–36.

Author: Adrienne Kalosieh

Topics: Gender, Women, Genocide, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Europe, Balkans Countries: Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2002

The Role of Women in Reconciliation and Peace Building in Rwanda: Ten Years After Genocide

Citation:

Mutamba, John, and Jeanne Izabiliza. 2005. The Role of Women in Reconciliation and Peace Building in Rwanda: Ten Years After Genocide. Kigali, Rwanda: National Unity and Reconciliation Commission (NURC).

Authors: John Mutamba, Jeanne Izabiliza

Keywords: Rwanda, genocide, peace building, gender, women

Topics: Gender, Women, Genocide, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Peacebuilding Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2005

Rape as Genocide: The Legal Response to Sexual Violence

Citation:

Pilch, Frances T. 2002. “Rape as Genocide: The Legal Response to Sexual Violence.” Working paper, The Center for Global Security and Democracy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.

Author: Frances T. Pilch

Abstract:

The last decade has witnessed a profound transformation in the treatment of sexual violence in international law. The overwhelming evidence of the widespread use of rape as a policy tool in the former Yugoslavia, combined with the tragedy of the genocide in Rwanda, in which rape was also widely prevalent, has led to a legal reconceptualization of sexual violence in internal and international conflicts. The ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, have genuinely broken new ground as they have confronted cases dealing with the complexities of rape, torture, and genocide. They have struggled with determining the legal definition of rape and finding a balance between the rights of witnesses and defendants. The revolutionary changes that have taken place in this area of the law in large part reflect the growing mobilization and influence of non-governmental organizations articulating the importance of the rights of women, and the increasing importance of the presence of women advocates, prosecutors, and judges.

In this chapter, some of the most important changes in the legal interpretation of sexual violence will be addressed. The importance of new actors in the international arena will also be examined. Finally, the proposed tribunal to deal with violations of international humanitarian and human rights law in Sierra Leone will be examined in light of the experiences of the ad hoc tribunals. (Columbia International Affairs Online)

Topics: Gender, Genocide, Justice, Sexual Violence, Rape

Year: 2002

Prolonged Grief Disorder and Depression in Widows due to the Rwandan Genocide

Citation:

Schaal, Susanne, Thomas Elbert, and Frank Neuner. 2009. “Prolonged Grief Disorder and Depression in Widows due to the Rwandan Genocide.” Omega 59 (3): 203–19.

Authors: Susanne Schaal, Thomas Elbert, Frank Neuner

Abstract:

Should pathological grief be viewed as a nosological category, separate from other forms of mental diseases? Diagnostic criteria for "Prolonged Grief Disorder" (PGD) have recently been specified by Prigerson and her coworkers. We interviewed a total of 40 widows who had lost their husbands during the Rwandan genocide in 1994. We assessed Major Depression using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) and prolonged grief reactions with the PG-13. In order to examine the distinctiveness of the two syndromes we performed a multitrait correlational matrix analysis using modified versions of Generalized Proximity Functions (GPFs). 12.5% (n = 5) of the sample fulfilled the criteria for a diagnosis of PGD; 40% (n = 16) met criteria for Major Depressive Episode. The two syndromes were strongly associated. No discriminant validity was found between the two constructs suggesting that PGD may rather be an appearance of depression than a separate nosological entity.

Topics: Gender, Women, Genocide, Health, Mental Health, Trauma Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2009

Pages

© 2021 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Genocide