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Genocide

Gender Hate Propaganda and Sexual Violence in the Rwandan Genocide: An Argument for Intersectionality in International Law

Citation:

Coleman, Llezlie Green. 2002. “Gender Hate Propaganda and Sexual Violence in the Rwandan Genocide: An Argument for Intersectionality in International Law.” Columbia Human Rights Law Review 33 (3): 733-76.

Author: Llezlie Green Coleman

Abstract:

This article explores the gendered dimensions of genocidal hate propaganda before and during the Rwandan genocide and proposes that the international tribunal consider these cases with an intersectional approach that attempts to fully appreciate the harm inflicted upon Tutsi women.

Keywords: human rights, genocide, critical theory

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Genocide, International Law, International Criminal Law, International Human Rights, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, TRCs, Non-State Armed Groups, Race, Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, SV against Women, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2002

The Women and Peace Hypothesis in Peacebuilding Settings: Attitudes of Women in the Wake of the Rwandan Genocide

Citation:

Brounéus, Karen. 2014. “The Women and Peace Hypothesis in Peacebuilding Settings: Attitudes of Women in the Wake of the Rwandan Genocide.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 40 (1): 522-42.

Author: Karen Brounéus

Annotation:

Summary: 
"But what happens in the wake of war? For the first time, this study brings the women and peace hypothesis to the postconflict, peacebuilding setting. It argues that due to the particular circumstances of a country after civil war, not only must the questions surrounding the women and peace hypothesis shift from focusing on attitudes toward war to focusing on attitudes toward peace, but war-related trauma must be integral to the debate. Knowledge of women’s and men’s psychological health and attitudes toward peacebuilding in postconflict settings may provide valuable information for understanding the challenges of peacebuilding and ultimately for improving the prospects for peace. By studying the relation between war-related psychological ill health and attitudes about trust, coexistence, and the gacaca the Rwandan peacebuilding process among women and men twelve years after the genocide, this study extends the women and peace hypothesis to the peacebuilding phase" (Brounéus 2014, 125-6). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Women, Genocide, Health, Trauma, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2014

Effect of Conflict on Age at Marriage and Age at First Birth in Rwanda

Citation:

Jayaraman, Anuja, Tesfayi Gebreselassie, and S. Chandrasekhar. 2009. “Effect of Conflict on Age at Marriage and Age at First Birth in Rwanda.” Population Research and Policy Review 28 (5): 551–67.

Authors: Anuja Jayaraman, Tesfayi Gebreselassie, S. Chandrasekhar

Abstract:

Using Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey 2005 data, we estimate a Cox proportioanl hazard model to identify the determinates of age at marriage and age at first birth and whether these decisions were affected by conflict. We find that women living in clusters accounting for a larger proportion of sibling deaths in 1994, the year of the genocide, were more likely to marry later and have children later compared to those living in clusters accounting for a lower proportion of sibling deaths. Women living in regions with higher levels of under-five mortality were more likely to have their first child earlier compared with women living in regions with lower infant mortality. The age at marriage was probably affected by two reasons: the change in age structure and sex ration of the population following the genocide, and the breakdown of kinship in the case of women who lost siblings.

Topics: Age, Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Genocide, Households Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2009

Force & Marriage: The Criminalisation of Forced Marriage in Dutch, English and International Criminal Law

Citation:

Haenen, Iris. 2014. Force & Marriage: The Criminalisation of Forced Marriage in Dutch, English and International Criminal Law. Cambridge, UK: Intersentia.

Author: Iris Haenen

Abstract:

Forced marriages take place all over the world, both in times of peace and in times of conflict. Media attention and judicial scrutiny have helped place this practice in the legal and political limelight, requiring national governments and the international community alike to develop strategies to deal with this human rights violation. On the level of national law, several countries have introduced a specific offense of forced marriage in their criminal laws. On the level of international law, courts and tribunals have deliberated on how to legally classify this practice and are faced with the question of whether or not forced marriage should be seen as a 'new' crime against humanity. This book provides a comparative perspective on the criminalization of forced marriage, focusing on the question of whether - and, if so, how - the practice of forced marriage should be criminalized under both Dutch and international law. After offering a thorough description of the phenomenon of forced marriage in and outside of conflict situations, a synthesized doctrinal foundation for criminalization on the national and international level is presented. Next, the book delves into international case law and criminal law concerning the act of forced marriage. It goes on to provide a comprehensive overview of and comparison between Dutch and English criminal law and civil law. It then discusses whether forced marriage should be criminalized in Dutch law and whether it should be added to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court as a distinct crime against humanity, war crime, or act of genocide.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Genocide, International Law, International Criminal Law, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, War Crimes, Rights, Human Rights

Year: 2014

Rush to Closure: Lessons of the Tadic Judgment

Citation:

Alvarez, Jose. 1998. "Rush to Closure: Lessons of the Tadic Judgment" Michigan Law Review 96 (7): 2031-111.

Author: Jose E. Alvarez

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Genocide, International Law, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Sexual Violence, Rape, Violence

Year: 1998

Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa: Protection of Women from Sexual Violence during Armed Conflict

Citation:

Dyani, Ntombizozuko, Ebenezer Durojaye, and Emezat H. Mengesha. 2006. “Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa: Protection of Women from Sexual Violence during Armed Conflict.” African Human Rights Law Journal 6 (1): 166–87.

Authors: Ntombizozuko Dyani, Ebenezer Durojaye, Emezat H. Mengesha

Abstract:

Sexual violence during armed conflict is prohibited by international humanitarian law. International tribunals have held that sexual violence can constitute torture, crimes against humanity and genocide. The Protocol on the Rights of Women deals quite extensively with the protection of women in armed conflicts. However, there are no clear guidelines for states on how to implement these obligations.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Genocide, International Law, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Justice, Crimes against Humanity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Torture Regions: Africa

Year: 2006

Unrecognized Victims: Sexual Violence Against Men in Conflict Settings Under International Law

Citation:

Lewis, Dustin A. 2009. “Unrecognized Victims: Sexual Violence against Men in Conflict Settings under International Law.” Wisconsin International Law Journal 27: 1–50.

Author: Dustin A. Lewis

Abstract:

This article casts light on the international law aspects of a largely unrecognized occurrence in armed conflict: sexual violence against men. The article discusses causes and consequences of such violence, and assesses pertinent aspects of international law. The article argues that, to reduce and prevent sexual violence against men in conflict settings, international law should be interpreted, applied, and enforced in ways that delegitimize the prejudicial and discriminatory conceptions of gender, sex, and (homo)sexuality that often fuel such violence in the first place. Toward this aim, the article highlights why it is necessary to use a definition of sexual violence that encompasses, among other things, violence targeting an individual's imputed, perceived, or actual sexuality. In addition, the article provides a prosecution roadmap, sketching the conventional and jurisprudential standards for sexual violence to be prosecuted as a constituent element of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. The article concludes by suggesting two additional ways to enhance protection: treaty drafters should explicitly recognize men as a class of victims, and a postulated jus cogens norm should be expanded to include all forms of sexual violence against men, women, and children.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Men, Boys, Genocide, International Law, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, War Crimes, Sexual Violence, SV against Men, Sexuality

Year: 2009

Widows and Community Based Transitional Justice in Post Genocide Rwanda

Citation:

Tobin, Angela. 2012. "Widows and Community Based Transitional Justice in Post Genocide Rwanda." British Journal of Community Justice 10 (1): 27-39.

Author: Angela Tobin

Abstract:

After decades of cycles of violence between Hutu and Tutsi in Rwanda, 1994 witnessed genocide more effective than Hitler's gas chambers (Carlsson, 2005) costing the lives of estimates between 500,000 (Desforges, 1999) to one million people (Gourevitch, 1998). The way communities and families killed neighbours and relatives has been documented by many. In light of the localised nature of this conflict, this contribution suggests that the community should be involved in the delivery of justice as part of an effort to repair the social bonds that were damaged. This article will focus on women's relationship to transitional justice in the aftermath of the conflict. The role of community-based organisations and the support they provided to widows of the conflict will be considered. Widows have been selected as the focal point as they represent a distinctive group: they must contend with gender-specific challenges in the wake of their loss and adapt to become responsible for tasks which they previously depended on male relatives to complete. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and Gacaca, the formal judicial and quasi judicial models developed to aid all concerned with the means to face what had happened in order to live together peacefully, have been subject to much criticism; these will be discussed. The article will draw on empirical research exploring community-based projects that were supported by a women's charity, established to support widows and orphans in the aftermath of the genocide. Their efforts will be presented as an efficient and effective strategy of transitional justice, due to its location in the community.

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Genocide, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Transitional Justice, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2012

Straight as a Rule: Heteronormativity, Gendercide, and the Noncombatant Male

Citation:

Jones, Adam. 2006. “Straight as a Rule: Heteronormativity, Gendercide, and the Noncombatant Male.” Men and Masculinities 8 (4): 451–69. doi:10.1177/1097184X04268797.

Author: Adam Jones

Abstract:

This article is an extension of the author's research into the vulnerability of noncombatant "battle-age" males in situations of war and genocide. It explores the role of heteronormativity–defined as culturally hegemonic heterosexuality–in shaping the victimization experiences of male noncombatants. An introductory section addresses definitional issues and frames the discussion in terms of the study of gendercide, or gender-selective mass killing. The link among noncombatant status, imputed violations of heteronormativity, and gendercide is then explored. A separate section considers the phenomenon of sexual violence against males in wartime and asks whether feminist theories of "genocidal rape" can usefully be deployed to assist understanding of this little studied phenomenon. The conclusion cites some remaining conceptual and conventional obstacles to research on male noncombatants, and suggests avenues for further investigation. (Sage Journals)

Annotation:

Quotes:

"One of the most intriguing elements of male-on-male rape and sexual violence is the gendered positioning of rapist and victim: the way in which victims are feminized while rapists are confirmed in their heterosexual, hegemonic masculinity." (459)

"The question is, Can sexual violence against noncombatant men also serve a genocidal purpose? I think it can. First, it must be noted that the rape of males in the context of war and genocide far less frequently involves actual intercourse between assailant and assailed. More common is one of two patterns: (1) forced rape of one “subordinate” male (especially an imprisoned one) by another; or (2) severe sexual torture, up to and including castration (sometimes also committed by one subordinate male against another on the command of a prison guard; reports of both variants surfaced in the Bosnian war-crimes trials)." (461)

"First, the coercion of one’s fellows to inflict the violence is a special feature of sexual violence against males and can be predicted to erode group cohesion in something of the same way that rapes and impregnations of subordinate-group women are expected to do. The ‘feminization’ of male victims certainly threatens the masculine group cohesion that is essential for military action. And, finally, the element of sexual torture and genital damage that figures so strongly in accounts of male rape and sexual violence in conflict situations can be seen as a counterpart to the forced impregnation and cultural humiliation of female victims." (461)

"We need to understand better the fluid, shifting, and contingent character of hegemonic masculinity through history." (462)

"The subject of the deployment of gendered language and propaganda before and during outbreaks of war and genocide deserves close attention for what it might teach us about how the masculine identities of perpetrators are shored up and how the Other is feminized as a prelude to victimization or extermination." (462)

"A significant difficulty is that we still lack a clear empirical picture of the character and scale of victimization inflicted on ‘outgroup’ males, including bearers of subordinate masculinities, throughout history and around the contemporary world."(463)

"One question that preoccupies me is the extent to which male victimization, including the abuse and atrocity meted out to noncombatant males, merits analysis within a ‘human-rights’ framework. We have grown accustomed to the (once-radical) statement that ‘women’s rights are human rights’: that is, gender-specific rights issues are an integral part of broader human-rights framings. Do ‘men’s rights’ deserve similar consideration?"(463)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Men, Boys, Genocide, Sexual Violence, SV against Men, Sexuality

Year: 2006

Forced Marriage: Rwanda’s Secret Revealed

Citation:

Kalra, Monika Satya. 2001. “Forced Marriage: Rwanda’s Secret Revealed.” U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy 7: 197.

Author: Monika Satya Kalra

Abstract:

The author of this article argues that the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) should charge forced marriage as a crime of sexual violence. Part I explores sexual violence during the 1994 Rwandan genocide adn the phenomenon of forced marriage. Part II addresses the importance of charging perpetrators with the crime of forced marriage and the role the OTP has in ensuring justice is done. Finally, Partly III discusses the legal framework for prosecuting forced marriage under the ICTR Statute. Finally, Part IV offers recommendations for trying and investigating the crime (Women's Human Rights Resources Database). 

Topics: Genocide, International Law, International Criminal Law, Sexual Violence, SV against Women Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2001

Pages

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