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Gendered Discourses

Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Radicalizing Gendered Narratives


Manchanda, Rita. 2004. "Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Radicalizing Gendered Narratives."​ Cultural Dynamics 16 (2-3): 237-58.

Author: Rita Manchanda


The article examines the gender dynamics of the political contradictions in the Maoist revolution in Nepal. It probes the tension between a near critical mass of women in the Maoist movement and a male leadership ambivalent about redefining gender relations. Exploring the emancipatory potential of the participation of women in an authoritarian, militarized movement, this article comments on the transformation of cultural identities and the radicalization of the social agenda in Nepal. What does this mean for the development of freedom? How does it impact gender relations? What questions does it raise about accountability for human rights abuses?

Keywords: ethnicity, gender, resistance movement

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2004

Globalising ‘Gender’ in: Or as: Governance? Questioning the Terms of Local Translations


Manicom, Linzi. 2001. “Globalising ‘Gender’ in: Or as: Governance? Questioning the Terms of Local Translations.” Agenda, no. 48, 6–21.

Author: Linzi Manicom


Manicom argues that a particular discourse of 'gender' has become normalised in the project of transforming governance in South Africa. She shares with other feminists a concern about the political implications and effects of institutionalising gender, about its apparent depoliticisation and the extent to which it has become a technocratic, disciplinary category.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, Governance, International Organizations, NGOs

Year: 2001

Dismembering the Male: Men's Bodies, Britain and the Great War


Bourke, Joanna. 1996. Dismembering the Male: Men's Bodies, Britain and the Great War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Author: Joanna Bourke


Some historians contend that femininity was "disrupted, constructed and reconstructed" during World War I, but what happened to masculinity? Using the evidence of letters, diaries, and oral histories of members of the military and of civilians, as well as contemporary photographs and government propoganda, Dismembering the Male explores the impact of the First World War on the male body. Each chapter explores a different facet of the war and masculinity in depth. Joanna Bourke discovers that those who were dismembered and disabled by the war were not viewed as passive or weak, like their civilian counterparts, but were the focus of much government and public sentiment. Those suffering from disease were viewed differently, often finding themselves accused of malingering. Joanna Bourke argues convincingly that military experiences led to a greater sharing of gender identities between men of different classes and ages. Dismembering the Male concludes that ultimately, attempts to reconstruct a new type of masculinity failed as the threat of another war, and with it the sacrifice of a new generation of men, intensified.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Post-Conflict Regions: Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 1996

A Few Kind Women: Gender Essentialism and Nordic Peacekeeping Operations


Valenius, Johanna. 2007. “A Few Kind Women: Gender Essentialism and Nordic Peacekeeping Operations.” International Peacekeeping 14 (4): 510–23.

Author: Johanna Valenius


This article examines constructions of gender in UN documents and peace operations. The focus is on gender mainstreaming: the kinds of notion of men and women that are produced in gender mainstreaming and what kind of effect mainstreaming has. Based on an analysis of the key UN documents and the fieldwork among Finnish peacekeepers in Kosovo, the argument is that gender mainstreaming documents and practices tend to rely on essentialized notions of women as victims and inherently peaceful. The consequences of this are twofold. On the one hand the international community is not able to see local women as agents of their own future. On the other, the participation of women in peacekeeping forces is promoted on the basis of an alleged pacifying effect on their male colleagues. As a result traditional gender roles are reinforced and the variations in masculinities and femininities are ignored.

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Discourses, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Finland

Year: 2007

Fitting Gender into Development Institutions


Razavi, Shahra. 1997. “Fitting Gender into Development Institutions.” World Development 25 (7): 1111–25.

Author: Shahra Razavi


This paper analyzes some of the more prominent strands of gender and development (GAD) discourse that have justified the need for policy attention to women on efficiency and poverty grounds. The analysis is set within the context of organizational politics, as well as the changing national and international policy environment of the past decade which has hastened the need for gender lobbies to forge strategic alliances with like-minded social forces. While admitting the analytical and methodological weaknesses that very often characterize the gender policy discourses, the paper draws attention to the political imperatives and institutional constraints within which these arguments have taken shape. A clearer recognition of these constraints and the fact that gender discourses are context-specific raises questions about the allegations of instrumentalism that are often levelled against them by institutional outsiders.

Keywords: gender, WID, development institutions, advocacy, efficiency, poverty

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gendered Discourses, International Financial Institutions, International Organizations

Year: 1997

Policing Boundaries: Race, Class, and Gender in Cartagena, Colombia


Streicker, Joel. 1995. “Policing Boundaries: Race, Class, and Gender in Cartagena, Colombia.” American Ethnologist 22 (1): 54–74.

Author: Joel Streicker


Analysis of everyday discourse among the poor of Cartagena, Colombia, reveals the mutual construction of race, class, and gender identities. Discourse on class and gender encodes racially discriminatory concepts, identifying blackness with acts that contradict normative class and gender identities. This article shows how the interlocking meanings of race, class, and gender enforce the status quo of men's, nonblacks', and elders' authority within the popular class.

Topics: Class, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Race Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 1995

Gender and European External Relations: Dominant Discourses and Unintended Consequences of Gender Mainstreaming


David, Maxine, and Roberta Guerrina. 2013. “Gender and European External Relations: Dominant Discourses and Unintended Consequences of Gender Mainstreaming.” Women’s Studies International Forum 39 (4): 53-62.

Authors: Maxine David, Roberta Guerrina


This paper presents a critical assessment of the unintended consequences of gender mainstreaming when applied to European external relations. It seeks to address two distinct but interrelated questions: 1) has gender mainstreaming, as a strategy and political objective, fulfilled its potential? and 2) what kind of gender order is emerging in the context of a wider European equality agenda, which includes external relations within its remit. Using discourse analysis it will identify the dominant gender discourses in European external relations and foreign policy documents and compare this to the overarching aims of equality principles enshrined within the Treaties. It will look specifically at the European Neighbourhood Policy as it provides a useful starting point and areas of comparison given its similarity, in terms of power relations between the EU and third countries, to the process of enlargement

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Discourses Regions: Europe

Year: 2013

Gendering the War in Iraq

Laura Sjoberg

February 13, 2007

The Fletcher School, Tufts University

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Interrogating Imperialism: Conversations on Gender, Race, and War


Riley, Robin L., and Naeem Inayatullah. 2006. Interrogating Imperialism: Conversations on Gender, Race, and War. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Robin L. Riley, Naeem Inayatullah


This collection of multiple perspectives on the "war on terror" and the new imperialism provides a depth of analysis. Looking at the imperialism and the "war on terror" through a lens focused on gender and race, the contributors expose the limitations of the current popular discourse and help to uncover possibilities not yet apparent in that same discourse. (Amazon)

Keywords: imperialism, gender, race, war on terror, war

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Race, Terrorism

Year: 2006


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