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Gender

Asian Fury: Gender, Orientalism and the Indo-Pakistani Nuclear ‘Threat’ in US Foreign Policy Discourse, 1998 – 2009

Citation:

Vaughan, Tom. 2013. “Asian Fury: Gender, Orientalism and the Indo-Pakistani Nuclear ‘Threat’ in US Foreign Policy Discourse, 1998 – 2009.” Working Paper No. 09-13, School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Author: Tom Vaughan

Abstract:

Since India and Pakistan each carried out their second tests of nuclear weapons in 1998, US foreign policy discourse and Western media has often taken as fact the 'threat' of nuclear conflict in the region. This dissertation argues that a critical constructivist approach is required when studying Indo-Pakistani nuclear relations, given the inadequacies of structural realism and its unhelpful assumptions about the 'nature' of international politics. Since realist accounts make up the majority of recent literature on the subject, this dissertation aims to provide an alternative account, examining how US foreign policy discourse constructs the condition of threat through representations of the US, India and Pakistan. Using a discourse analysis methodology, I investigate the gendered and orientalist constructions of India and Pakistan which contribute to the mainstream perception of nuclear threat on the South Asian subcontinent. In a two-part analysis, I examine the effect that the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks have had on the US discourse around Indo-Pakistani nuclear behaviour. I find that the US discourse changes significantly over time. From the 1998 tests onwards, a direct and imminent nuclear threat to international security is constructed. After 9/11, this threat is increasingly negated. Across both periods, the US discourse constitently feminises and orientalises India and Pakistan in relation to a dominant US masculinity – practices which are instrumental in the representation of threat – although the uses and effects of these representational practices shift over time. The discursive changes observed demonstrate how 'radical breaks' in history can change knowledge about international politics, and illustrate how US foreign policy discourse reconfigures the US's global identity after 9/11.

Keywords: United States, India, Pakistan, nuclear, non-proliferation, Foucault, discourse, gender, orientalism

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Nationalism, Security, Weapons /Arms Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Pakistan, United States of America

Year: 2013

Why Women Must Reject Nuclearisation

Citation:

Sangari, Kumkum, Neeraj Malik, Sheba Chhachhi, and Tanika Sarkar. 2001. "Why Women Must Reject Nuclearisation." In Out of the Nuclear Shadow, edited by Smitu Kothari and Zia Mian, 155-163. London: Zed Books.

Authors: Kumkum Sangari, Neeraj Malik, Sheba Chhachhi, Tanika Sarkar

Annotation:

Summary:
"A bomb does not discriminate, nuclearisation does. A nuclear bomb when dropped on any population does not distinguish between Hindus and Muslims, poor or rich, civilian or military, child or adult, men or women. However nuclearisation -- developing, manufacturing and maintaining nuclear weapons -- affects special social groups in particular ways. 
 
"India's decision to become a nuclear weapons state has a profoundly negative impact on women's lives. Women, being already disadvantaged within existing social and familial structures, will bear a larger part of the social cost of nuclearisation" (Sangari et al. 2001, 155).

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Security, Weapons /Arms Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2001

The Repercussions of Nuclearization on Pakistani Women

Citation:

Khattak, Saba Gul. 1999. “The Repercussions of Nuclearization on Pakistani Women.” Development 42 (2): 71–3.

Author: Saba Gul Khattak

Abstract:

Saba Khattak looks at the impact of the Pakistan nuclear industry on women. She argues that the nuclear programme has a specific impact on women as the poorest and less powerful in their society.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Weapons /Arms Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 1999

We Are Not All the Same: Taking Gender Seriously in Food Sovereignty Discourse

Citation:

Park, Clara Mi Young, Ben White, and Julia. 2015. “We Are Not All the Same: Taking Gender Seriously in Food Sovereignty Discourse.” Third World Quarterly 36 (3): 584-99. 

Authors: Clara Mi Young Park, Ben White, Julia

Abstract:

The vision of food sovereignty calls for radical changes in agricultural, political and social systems related to food. These changes also entail addressing inequalities and asymmetries of power in gender relations. While women’s rights are seen as central to food sovereignty, given the key role women play in food production, procurement and preparation, family food security, and food culture, few attempts have been made to systematically integrate gender in food sovereignty analysis. This paper uses case studies of corporate agricultural expansion to highlight the different dynamics of incorporation and struggle in relation to women’s and men’s different position, class and endowments. These contribute to processes of social differentiation and class formation, creating rural communities more complex and antagonistic than those sketched in food sovereignty discourse and neo-populist claims of peasant egalitarianism, cooperation and solidarity. Proponents of food sovereignty need to address gender systematically, as a strategic element of its construct and not only as a mobilising ideology. Further, if food sovereignty is to have an intellectual future within critical agrarian studies, it must reconcile the inherent contradictions of the ‘we are all the same’ discourse, taking analysis of social differences as a starting point. 

Keywords: gender, women, food sovereignty, land, labour, corporate agriculture

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Food Security

Year: 2015

Gender Role in Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security in the Sahel Belt of West Africa: Application of Poisson and Negative Binomial Regression

Citation:

Oyekale, Abayomi S. 2013. “Gender Role in Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security in the Sahel Belt of West Africa: Application of Poisson and Negative Binomial Regression.” Gender & Behavior 11 (2): 5499-511.

Author: Abayomi S. Oyekale

Abstract:

The Sahel belt of West Africa is high vulnerability to poverty and hunger, especially during periods of drought and other climatic adversities. This paper analyzed the impacts of gender role in agriculture and climate change exposure on monthly food shortages. The data were collected by the the Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) from 281 farmers from Burkina Faso and Mali using multi-stage sampling procedures. Descriptive statistics, Poisson regression and Negative Binomial regression were used for data analysis. The results show that average food cropland owned were 9.0227 and 2.8266 hectares in Mali and Burkina Faso respectively while 58.87 percent and 24.29 percent of the farmers indicated that men did most of the works in raw food production. Also, 24.11 percent and 43.57 percent of the households noticed more erratic rainfall in Mali and Burkina Faso, respectively, while 16.31 percent and 36.43 percent reported less overall rainfall. The regression results showed that owned grazing land, more frequent flood, reduction in ground water level, men dominances in cash crop production, fruit production and vegetable production significantly increased the log of months with shortage due to cash (p<0.10), while community grazing land, more overall rainfall, household size, business cash income, men dominances in fodder and large livestock production significantly reduced it (p<0.10). It was concluded that recognition of the contributions of women to food production in the Sahel can facilitate a process for understanding and devising livelihood strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change. 

Keywords: food security, Poisson regression, Negative binomial regression, Sahel belt, West Africa

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Burkina Faso, Mali

Year: 2013

The Importance of Gender Roles and Relations in Rural Agricultural Technology Development: A Case Study on Solar Fruit Drying in Mozambique

Citation:

Otte, Pia Piroschka, Lucas Daniel Tivana, Randi Phinney, Ricardo Bernardo, and Henrik Davidsson. 2018. “The Importance of Gender Roles and Relations in Rural Agricultural Technology Development: A Case Study on Solar Fruit Drying in Mozambique.” Gender, Technology and Development 22 (1): 40-58.

Authors: Pia Piroschka Otte, Lucas Daniel Tivana, Randi Phinney, Ricardo Bernardo, Henrik Davidsson

Abstract:

Many agricultural technology interventions that aim to improve farmers’ livelihoods focus on households as the unit of analysis and ignore gender roles that entail different benefits and costs for different household members. Agricultural projects have shown limited success where gender roles and relations were ignored and thus more gender sensitive research is needed in agricultural technology development to ensure social acceptance. In this study, we address this need by investigating the importance of gender roles and relations in the case of solar fruit drying in Mozambique. We apply a variety of gender sensitive participatory methods that enable farmers to actively take part in the technology development process. First results indicate that the costs and benefits of solar fruit drying are not shared equally between genders. Women have much less time available for using the solar fruit dryer. The data also indicate that certain steps in the solar fruit drying process are clearly gender divided. We finally discuss potential mechanisms that can be applied in agricultural technology projects that can create awareness of the risk to reproduce traditional gender roles and unequal relations in the development process of new agricultural technologies. 

Keywords: gender relations, gender roles, technology, development, solar fruit drying, Mozambique

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Mozambique

Year: 2018

Gender Roles in Crop Production and Management Practices: A Case Study of Three Rural Communities in Ambo District, Ethiopia

Citation:

Ogato, G.S., E.K. Boon, and J. Subramani. 2009. “Gender Roles in Crop Production and Management Practices: A Case Study of Three Rural Communities in Ambo District, Ethiopia.” Journal of Human Ecology 27 (1): 1-20.

Authors: G.S. Ogato, E.K. Boon, J. Subramani

Abstract:

A research on gender in agriculture was conducted in Ambo district, Ethiopia, between July and September 2007 to assess gender roles in crop production and management. This article is the first of two papers resulting from this research. The second article is on “Improving Access to Productive Resources and Agricultural Services Through Gender Empowerment: A Case Study of Three Rural Communities in Ambo District, Ethiopia”. A key premise of this first article is that female farmers contribute more significant to crop production and management than their male counterparts. The paper identifies and examines the roles of female and male farmers in crop production and management through a thorough analysis of secondary information and primary data collected in Ambo District with the help of questionnaires, interviews, observations, focus group discussions, participatory rural appraisal, gender analysis and case studies (life histories). Statistical package for social science (SPSS) and excel spreadsheet functions were used to treat and analyze the data. The results of the analysis indicate that female farmers contribute more than their male counterparts in crop production and management. However, despite their significant role in agriculture, the triple roles of female farmers are not well recognized or valued in the district. The promotion of sustainable agricultural development in the district requires that the needs of both rural male and female farmers are addressed in a comprehensive and systemic manner.

Keywords: community development, farming activities, gender roles, non-formal education, productive role, reproductive role, management practices

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Education, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2009

'The Militarization of All Hindudom’? The Bharatiya Janata Party, the Bomb, and the Political Spaces of Hindu Nationalism

Citation:

Corbridge, Stuart. 1999. “‘The Militarization of All Hindudom’? The Bharatiya Janata Party, the Bomb, and the Political Spaces of Hindu Nationalism.” Economy and Society 28 (2): 222–55.

Author: Stuart Corbridge

Abstract:

This paper examines the means by which the Bharatiya janata Party (BJP) and its allies have sought to reinvent the political spaces of India (Hindudom). It describes the gendered rituals of pilgrimage and spatial representation that allow Hindu nationalists to position Bharat Mata(Mother India) as a geographical entity under threat from Islam and in need of the protective armies of Lord Rama. It also explores the geopolitical claims of the BJP and its attempts to position Greater India as a Great Power. The explosion of three nuclear devices in the Rajasthan desert on 11 May 1998 can be linked to this geopolitical imaginary. The paper argues, however, that the nuclear tests were triggered by the weakness of the BJP in India's centrist Political landscapes. The ‘militarization of all Hindudomis’ is sternly contested.

Keywords: Hindu nationalism, Bharatiya Janata Party, political space, Yatras, militarization, secularism

Topics: Gender, Gendered Discourses, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Nationalism, Religion, Violence, Weapons /Arms Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 1999

Militarism and Women in South Asia

Citation:

Chenoy, Anuradha M. 2002. Militarism and Women in South Asia. New Delhi: Kali for Women.

Author: Anuradha M. Chenoy

Annotation:

Summary:
This book traces the course of militarism in several South Asian states, with a more detailed account of women's experiences of it in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. This closely argued, detailed analysis of the growing militarism in South Asia presents not just the phenomenon, but all its ramifications, examining its manifestations across the region from a feminist perspective for the first time. (Summary from Google Books)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Understanding Militarism
 
2. National Security Doctrines and Feminist Critiques
 
3. Bangladesh: Poverty and Militarism
 
4. Militarism in Pakistan
 
5. Sri Lanka: Militarization of State and Society
 
6. Militarizing India

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka

Year: 2002

The Search for a Scientific Temper: Nuclear Technology and the Ambivalence of India’s Postcolonial Modernity

Citation:

Chacko, Priya. 2011. “The Search for a Scientific Temper: Nuclear Technology and the Ambivalence of India’s Postcolonial Modernity.” Review of International Studies 37 (1): 185–208.

Author: Priya Chacko

Abstract:

This article examines the relationship between India's nuclear programme and its postcolonial identity. In particular, I argue that making sense of the anomalies and contradictions of India's nuclear behaviour, such as the gap of two decades between its nuclear tests, its promotion of nuclear disarmament and its failure to sign non-proliferation and test-ban treaties requires an understanding of the racially gendered construction of India's postcolonial modernity and the central roles given to science and morality within it. I suggest that India's postcolonial identity is anchored in anticolonial discourses that are deeply ambivalent toward what was viewed as a Western modernity that could provide material betterment but was also potentially destructive. What was desired was a better modernity that took into account what was believed to be Indian civilisation's greater propensity toward ethical and moral conduct. India's nuclear policies, such as its pursuit of nuclear technology and its promotion of disarmament cannot be seen in isolation from the successes and failures of this broader project of fashioning an ethical modernity.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Nationalism, Weapons /Arms Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2011

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