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Gender

Between a Rock and a Soft Place: Ecological and Feminist Economics in Policy Debates

Citation:

Nelson, Julie A. 2009. “Between a Rock and a Soft Place: Ecological and Feminist Economics in Policy Debates.” Ecological Economics 69 (1): 1–8. 

Author: Julie A. Nelson

Abstract:

The field of ecological economics includes both economic analysis on the one hand, and discussions of normative values and visions for society, on the other. Using feminist insights into cultural beliefs about the relative “hardness” and “softness” of these two sides, this essay discusses how ecological economists can use this unique “between” space in order to better inform policy. The current crisis of global climate change, it is argued, requires that economists move beyond modeling and measurement, while ecological thinkers need to re-examine beliefs about markets and profit.

Keywords: climate, feminist economics, policy, profit, modeling

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminist Economics, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender

Year: 2009

Ambivalences of Collective Farming: Feminist Political Ecologies from Eastern India and Nepal

Citation:

Leder, Stephanie, Fraser Sugden, Manita Raut, Dhananjay Ray, and Panchali Saikia. 2019. “Ambivalences of Collective Farming: Feminist Political Ecologies from Eastern India and Nepal.” International Journal of the Commons 13 (1): 105–29.

Authors: Stephanie Leder , Fraser Sugden, Manita Raut, Dhananjay Ray, Panchali Saikia

Abstract:

Collective farming has been suggested as a potentially useful approach for reducing inequality and transforming peasant agriculture. In collectives, farmers pool land, labor, irrigation infrastructure, agricultural inputs and harvest to overcome resource constraints and to increase their bargaining power. Employing a feminist political ecology lens, we reflect on the extent to which collective farming enables marginalized groups to engage in smallholder agriculture. We examine the establishment of 18 farmer collectives by an action research project in the Eastern Gangetic Plains, a region characterised by fragmented and small landholdings and a high rate of marginalised and landless farmers. We analyze ambivalances of collective farming practices with regard to (1) social relations across scales, (2) intersectionality and (3) emotional attachment. Our results in Saptari/ Eastern Terai in Nepal, Madhubani/Bihar, and Cooch Behar/West Bengal in India demonstrate how intra-household, group and community relations and emotional attachments to the family and neighbors mediate the redistribution of labor, land, produce and capital. We find that unequal gender relations, intersected by class, age, ethnicity and caste, are reproduced in collective action, land tenure and water management, and argue that a critical feminist perspective can support a more reflective and relational understanding of collective farming processes. Our analysis demonstrates that feminist political ecology can complement commons studies by providing meaningful insights on ambivalences around approaches such as collective farming. 

Keywords: agriculture, collective action, collective farming, commons, feminist political ecology, FPE, gender, India, irrigation, land, Nepal, water

Topics: Age, Agriculture, Caste, Class, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Intersectionality, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Nepal

Year: 2019

Gender Gaps in Landownership Across and Within Households in Four Asian Countries

Citation:

Kieran, Caitlin, Kathryn Sproule, Agnes R. Quisumbing, and Cheryl R. Doss. 2017. "Gender Gaps in Landownership Across and Within Households in Four Asian Countries." Land Economics 93 (2): 342-70.

Authors: Caitlin Kieran, Kathryn Sproule, Agnes R. Quisumbing, Cheryl R. Doss

Abstract:

Using nationally representative data from Bangladesh, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, and Vietnam, this paper investigates which individual and household characteristics influence men’s and women’s landownership across and within households. Often neglected in household-level statistics, married women in all countries are landowners. Across different household structures, women own less land than men, and less land relative to the household average as household landholdings increase. Increasing gender inequality with household wealth cannot be consistently explained by an increasing share of household land devoted to crops. Findings support the need to strengthen women’s land rights within marriage and to protect them should the marriage dissolve.

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Bangladesh, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Vietnam

Year: 2017

Examining Gender Inequalities in Land Rights Indicators in Asia

Citation:

Kieran, Caitlin, Kathryn Sproule, Cheryl Doss, Agnes Quisumbing, and Sung Mi Kim. 2015. "Examining Gender Inequalities in Land Rights Indicators in Asia." Agricultural Economics 46 (S1): 119-38.

Authors: Caitlin Kieran, Kathryn Sproule, Cheryl Doss, Agnes Quisumbing, Sung Mi Kim

Abstract:

A broad consensus has emerged that strengthening women’s property rights is crucial for reducing poverty and achieving equitable growth. Despite its importance, few nationally representative data exist on women’s property rights in Asia, hindering formulation of appropriate policies to reduce gender gaps in land rights. This paper reviews existing micro-level, large sample data on men’s and women’s control of land, using this information to assess gaps in land rights. Utilizing nationally representative individual- and plot-level data from Bangladesh, Tajikistan, Vietnam, and TimorLeste, we calculate five indicators:  incidence of landownership and distribution of landownership by sex, and distribution of plots owned, mean plot size, and distribution of land area, all by sex of owner. The results reveal large gender gaps in landownership across countries. However, the limited information on joint and individual ownership are among the most critical data gaps and are an important area for future data collection and analysis.

Keywords: gender, land rights, property ownership, bundles of rights, Asia

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia Countries: Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Vietnam

Year: 2015

Globalisation Masculinities, Empire Building and Forced Prostitution: A Critical Analysis of the Gendered Impact of the Neoliberal Economic Agenda in Post-Invasion/Occupation Iraq

Citation:

Banwell, Stacy. 2015. “Globalisation Masculinities, Empire Building and Forced Prostitution: A Critical Analysis of the Gendered Impact of the Neoliberal Economic Agenda in Post-Invasion/Occupation Iraq.” Third World Quarterly 36 (4): 705–22.

Author: Stacy Banwell

Abstract:

Adopting a transnational feminist lens and using a political economy approach, this article addresses both the direct and indirect consequences of the 2003 war in Iraq, specifically the impact on civilian women. Pre-war security and gender relations in Iraq will be compared with the situation post-invasion/occupation. The article examines the globalised processes of capitalism, neoliberalism and neo-colonialism and their impact on the political, social and economic infrastructure in Iraq. Particular attention will be paid to illicit and informal economies: coping, combat and criminal. The 2003 Iraq war was fought using masculinities of empire, post-colonialism and neoliberalism. Using the example of forced prostitution, the article will argue that these globalisation masculinities – specifically the privatisation agenda of the West and its illegal economic occupation – have resulted in women either being forced into the illicit (coping) economy as a means of survival, or trafficked for sexual slavery by profit-seeking criminal networks who exploit the informal economy in a post-invasion/occupation Iraq. 

Keywords: globalisation masculinities, post-colonialism, neoliberalism, gender-based violence, transnational feminism, political economy

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Economies, Informal Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Infrastructure, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Political Economies, Security, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2015

From Indigenous Economies to Market-Based Self-Governance: A Feminist Political Economy Analysis

Citation:

Kuokkanen, Rauna. 2011. “From Indigenous Economies to Market-Based Self-Governance: A Feminist Political Economy Analysis.” Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue Canadienne de Science Politique 44 (2): 275-97.

Author: Rauna Kuokkanen

Abstract:

This paper examines the apparent contradiction between the current tendency of many Indigenous groups and their political institutions to embrace the capitalist economic model as the one and only solution in establishing contemporary Indigenous self-governance, on the one hand, and on the other, the detrimental force of the market economy on Indigenous societies, past and present. The starting point is the following question. If the global market economy historically played a significant role in the loss of political and economic autonomy of Indigenous societies and women, how meaningful or sustainable is it to seek to (re)build contemporary Indigenous governance on the very economic model that was largely responsible for undermining it in the first place? Shouldn't this history be taken into consideration when discussing and shaping models and policies for contemporary Indigenous governance and hence be more critical of the standard economic development frameworks hailed as the path toward self-governance? (Jstor)

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Rights, Indigenous Rights

Year: 2011

Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics

Citation:

Biehl, Janet. 1991. Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics. Boston: South End Press.

Author: Janet Biehl

Annotation:

Summary: 
Biehl examines the contradictions of ecofeminism and argues that social ecology, and alternate framework, offers a more liberating program for men and women, as well as for our beleagured biosphere. (Summary from Amazon)
 
Table of Contents: 
Introduction
 
1. Problems in Ecofeminism
 
2. The Neolithic Mystique
 
3. Divine Immanence and the "Aliveness" of Nature
 
4. Mythopoesis and the Irrational 
 
5. Dialectics in the Ethics of Social Ecology
 
6. Women in Democratic Politics 

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Political Participation

Year: 1991

Ecofeminism and Natural Disasters: Sri Lankan Women Post-Tsunami

Citation:

Banford, Alyssa, and Cameron Kiely Froude. 2015. “Ecofeminism and Natural Disasters: Sri Lankan Women Post-Tsunami.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 16 (2): 170–87.

Authors: Alyssa Banford, Cameron Kiely Froude

Abstract:

Women experience a host of negative consequences during and after a natural disaster. A variety of feminist theories have been used to explore this phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to posit the need for an ecofeminist perspective on analyzing women’s vulnerabilities post- natural disaster. The authors will discuss the history and branches of ecofeminism, highlighting their utility in exploring the intersection of race, class, and gender in the aftermath of disaster. An ecofeminist analysis of Sri Lankan women’s vulnerability in the wake of the 2004 tsunami will be used to illustrate the utility of the theory. Implications of using ecofeminism in natural disaster research will be discussed.

Keywords: ecofeminism, natural disaster, tsunami, Sri Lanka

Topics: Class, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women, Race Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2015

Geoengineering: A Gender Issue?

Citation:

Bronson, Diana. 2014. “Geoengineering: A Gender Issue?” In The Remaking of Social Contracts: Feminists in a Fierce New World, edited by Gita Sen and Marina Durano. London: Zed Books.

Author: Diana Bronson

Annotation:

Summary:
“With no reliable empirical evidence on gender differences with regard to views on geoengineering, this is an exploratory attempt to deconstruct geoengineering discourse from a gender perspective and argues that civil society movements – feminist, environmentalist, human rights – will need to intervene on these questions in the coming years. The point is to prevent a self-selected group of narrow scientific experts from the global North from standing in for a real global conversation where different views, experiences and visions of the future can be heard, understood and acted upon. Especially when the control of the global climate is at stake” (Bronson 2014). 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Rights, Human Rights

Year: 2014

Climate Technology, Gender, and Justice: The Standpoint of the Vulnerable

Citation:

Sikka, Tina. 2019. Climate Technology, Gender, and Justice: The Standpoint of the Vulnerable. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Author: Tina Sikka

Annotation:

Summary:
This book is the first to undertake a gendered analysis of geoengineering and alternative energy sources. Are either of these technologies sufficiently attendant to gender issues? Do they incorporate feminist values as articulated by the renowned social philosopher Helen Longino, such as empirical adequacy, novelty, heterogeneity, complexity and applicability to human needs? The overarching argument in this book contends that, while mitigation strategies like solar and wind energy go much further to meet feminist objectives and virtues, geoengineering is not consistent with the values of justice as articulated in Longino's feminist approach to science. This book provides a novel, feminist argument in support of pursuing alternative energy in the place of geoengineering. It provides an invaluable contribution for academics and students working in the areas of gender, science and climate change as well as policy makers interested in innovative ways of taking up climate change mitigation and gender. (Summary from WorldCat)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction
 
1. Geoengineering
 
2. FCE and Empirical Adequacy
 
3. Ontological Heterogeneity
 
4. Novelty
 
5. Mutuality of Interaction
 
6. Diffusion of Power
 
7. Applicability to Human Needs
 
8. Conclusion

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Infrastructure, Energy, Justice

Year: 2019

Pages

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