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A Framework for Engaging Navajo Women in Clean Energy Development through Applied Theatre


Osnes, Beth, Adrian Manygoats, and Lindsay Weitkamp. 2015. “A Framework for Engaging Navajo Women in Clean Energy Development through Applied Theatre.” Research in Drama Education: The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance 20 (2): 242–57.

Authors: Beth Osnes, Adrian Manygoats, Lindsay Weitkamp


Through applied theatre, Navajo women can participate in authoring a new story for how energy is mined, produced, developed, disseminated and used in the Navajo Nation. This article is an analysis of a creative process that was utilised with primarily Navajo women to create a Navajo Women’s Energy Project (NWEP). The framework for this creative process guided women in deeply considering energy issues from their own perspective and value base, facilitated them in articulating their values around energy, assessing the current energy situation not authored by women and invited them to imagine what kind of energy future they want. Finally, it facilitated women in identifying and rehearsing actions to move from the current story to the new story. This process is designed to include the participation of women who have rich life experience that is often in intimate and direct relationship with the environment, who hold knowledge in their bodies from lived experience and value traditional views and beliefs. The framework for applied theatre in this article helped to lay the groundwork for the NWEP in a relatively short amount of time in a manner that was inclusive, efficient, aesthetically stirring and fun. This framework has the potential to expedite and support the participation of women in authoring a new story for a wide variety of social issues.

通過應用戲劇,納瓦霍族婦女參與創作了一個關於在納瓦霍族保留地如何開採、生產、發展、散播以及使用能源的新故事。本文描述了這一創造性的過程,納瓦霍族婦女利用這一過程建立了納瓦霍族婦女能源計畫,即NWEP。這一創造性的過程引領女性從她們自身的角度與價值觀出發,深入思考了能源問題,激發她們表達自己對能源的觀點並衡量並非由女性所造成的能源現狀,激發她們想像什麼才是未來她們需要的能源。接下來,認識問題與排練的活動由當前的故事推進到新的故事。這一過程的設計旨在使各種女性都參與其中,她們中有人與環境有著密切相關的豐富經驗,有人擁有來自生活經歷的知識與認識,有人更是抱著出於自身文化的傳統觀點與信仰。 文中描述的應用戲劇專案幫助NWEP在相對有限的時間裡完成了基本工作,內容上相容並蓄,在高效率的同時兼顧了審美性與趣味性。這一專案有潛力推動並支持女性就更多的社會問題創作新的故事。

A través del teatro aplicado, las mujeres Navajo pueden participar en la autoría de una nueva historia de cómo se extrae, se produce, se desarrolla, se disemina y se usa la energía en la Nación de Navajo. Este artículo es un informe descriptivo sobre un proceso creativo que fue utilizado principalmente con mujeres Navajo para crear un Proyecto de Energía de las Mujeres Navajo (NWEP) . El marco para este proceso creativo guió a las mujeres a considerar profundamente los problemas de energía desde sus propias perspectivas y su base de valores, les ayudó a expresar sus apreciaciones sobre energía, evaluando la situación actual de la energía no creada por mujeres, y las invitó a imaginar la clase de futuro energético que desean. También facilitó la identificación y el ensayo de acciones para pasar de la historia actual a la nueva historia. Este proceso está diseñado para incluir la participación de mujeres con vidas llenas de experiencias que a menudo están en directa e intima relación con el medio ambiente, que poseen conocimiento en sus cuerpos de las experiencias vividas y que valoran muchos de los puntos de vista y creencias tradicionales de su cultura. El marco de teatro aplicado descrito en este artículo ayudó a fundar las bases para la NWEP en un tiempo relativamente corto y de una manera que fue comprensiva, eficiente, estéticamente estimulante y divertida. Esta estructura tiene el potencial de acelerar y de apoyar la participación de las mujeres en la autoría de una nueva historia para una amplia variedad de asuntos sociales.

Keywords: clean energy, gender equity, Navajo women, participatory development, applied theatre

Topics: Environment, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2015

Gender Issues in Energy Policy and Pricing


Parikh, GenJyoti K. 1996. “Gender Issues in Energy Policy and Pricing.” Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 16 (3): 116–21.

Author: GenJyoti K. Parikh


"The energy sector requires a large share of the national investment in developing countries (DC). People’s needs for energy are not yet met, even for basic needs and amenities, therefore, levels of national investment in this sector will be high for many decades to come. For example, in India, the energy sector has accounted for 25% to 30% allocations for every five-year plan in the last 3 decades. In addition to this capital investment, annual import requirements for the energy sector are of major concern. Oil imports require 30% to as much as 90% of the export earnings of many developing countries depending on their levels of energy utilization, resource-mix, indigenous availability of energy sources, world prices and so on. Elsewhere, (1994) I have shown that oil-imports do not provide the full picture of energy related imports because capital goods for energy such as power plants, mining equipment for fossil fuels are accounted for elsewhere. Total annual imports for the energy sector for all countries increase by substantial margins when energy is related to capital goods and included along with oil imports. Therefore, the scale of investments and imports for the energy sector is large enough to have macro-economic ramifications. Some developing countries do not have enough energy to provide every home with clean cooking fuel and light bulbs. Thus, the policies for investment, and for imports in the energy sector are two cornerstones for a country’s economic structure. The well-being of society depends heavily on decisions involving energy and finances” (Parikh 1996, 116).

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 1996

Gender Issues in Energy Policy


Parikh, Jyoti K. 1995. “Gender Issues in Energy Policy.” Energy Policy 23 (9): 745–54.

Author: Jyoti K. Parikh


Gender issues have received attention at micro level in terms of technological intervention such as cookstoves, biogas, solar cookers, and wood plantations. They have yet to be addressed in macro level policies. Women’s needs for energy vary depending on whether they are in urban or rural areas, their stage of economic development, and whether they are economically active. This article emphasizes the need for better understanding of these issues for women engaged in different sectors, whether agriculture, transport, industries, household, and the energy sector itself (ie charcoal making, fuel gathering and fuel marketing). Deeper enquiries, analysis, and action for gender issues are needed through surveys, laboratory experiments, macro policy modeling and analysis, and technology development and production. This article makes a plea to include gender issues in macro level energy policies such as energy investment, imports, and pricing. The latter are discussed in detail. A lot more work lies ahead.

Keywords: gender issues, macro policies, cooking fuels

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Economies, Gender, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Transportation

Year: 1995

Combining Feminist Political Ecology and Participatory Diagramming to Study Climate Information Service Delivery and Knowledge Flows among Smallholder Farmers in Northern Ghana


Nyantaki-Frimpong, Hanson. 2019. “Combining Feminist Political Ecology and Participatory Diagramming to Study Climate Information Service Delivery and Knowledge Flows among Smallholder Farmers in Northern Ghana.” Applied Geography 112: 1-17.

Author: Hanson Nyantaki-Frimpong


Using innovative diagramming and a feminist political ecology (FPE) approach, this paper examines gender, power, and equity considerations in the delivery of climate information service (CIS) to smallholder farmers. Based upon a multi-method triangulation fieldwork involving a survey (n = 998), participatory listing and scoring activities (n = 82), and network diagramming (n = 180), the paper illuminates several structural barriers to acquiring CIS. These barriers include gender norms and expectations, patriarchal values, time poverty, and the format in which technical climate forecasts are presented to illiterate farmers. Another key finding is the multiple subject positions beyond gender within which women are embedded, such as the intersection of seniority, religion, class, and positions within households, that further reconfigure access to CIS. In addition to contributing to emerging intersectional research in FPE, the paper proposes innovative ways of studying household relations and politics. More specifically, it illustrates how feminist political ecologists could deploy participatory network diagramming to provide a nuanced, powerful, and graphic account of subtle politics at the household scale.

Keywords: climate information service, smallholder farmers, gender, participatory diagramming, feminist political ecology, Ghana

Topics: Age, Class, Agriculture, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households, Intersectionality, Religion Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2019

Gender Impacts and Determinants of Energy Poverty: Are We Asking the Right Questions?


Pachauri, Shonali, and Narasimha D. Rao. 2013. “Gender Impacts and Determinants of Energy Poverty: Are We Asking the Right Questions?” Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5 (2): 205–15.

Authors: Shonali Pachauri, Narasimha D. Rao


Compelling empirical evidence on the gender differentiated impacts and determinants of energy transitions remains weak. In this paper, we focus on identifying key gaps in our current understanding of how women’s well-being relates to energy poverty and in framing questions for further research. Our overarching message is twofold: first, more research and empirical evidence is needed to understand the factors – both outside and within the household – that influence women’s decision-making power in relation to the adoption of modern energy services, and whether their adoption leads to the intended benefits. Second, policies (and research) that aim to improve (study) women’s well-being through improvements in household energy use need to consider not only this broader enabling context, but also the multiple dimensions of modern energy service provision. Existing power relations and institutions today discriminate against women in many developing countries. Disregarding these gender inequalities can undermine the potential for transforming women’s status and well-being.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 2013

Agricultural Diversification and Dietary Diversity: a Feminist Political Ecology of the Everyday Experiences of Landless and Smallholder Households in Northern Ghana


Nyantaki-Frimpong, Hanson. 2017. “Agricultural Diversification and Dietary Diversity: a Feminist Political Ecology of the Everyday Experiences of Landless and Smallholder Households in Northern Ghana.” Geoforum 86: 63-75.

Author: Hanson Nyantaki-Frimpong


There is an emerging literature suggesting that when smallholder households diversify their agriculture, a wide range of food groups will be available, and consequently, dietary diversity will be improved. The present article brings this literature into critical conversation with research in feminist political ecology. Grounded in five years of repeated fieldwork, the article weaves together 70 in-depth interviews, and dietary as well as farm production diversity data from 30 households in northern Ghana. This dataset is analyzed by considering not only the diversity of farming systems, but also household headship, including male-headed, de facto female-headed, and de jure female-headed. Among other findings, the paper suggests that dietary diversity scores are lowest for households who have lost their farmlands to on-going land grabbing in Ghana. Furthermore, the paper suggests that while agricultural diversification is essential, it is not sufficient in itself to address nutritional challenges confronting smallholder households. In the contested and political arena of the household, the gendered politics of access to food can deeply shape how agricultural diversification contributes to dietary diversity. Overall, I do not wish to conclude that there are no benefits of increasing the diversity of farm production. Rather, I wish to stress that farm production diversity might not be the best or only strategy to improving dietary diversity among rural households. Through this case study, I also contribute to emerging research in new feminist political ecologies by demonstrating how the intersection of gender, seniority, marital status, and sexual politics shapes resource access and control.

Keywords: farm production diversity, dietary diversity, land, gender, feminist political ecology, Ghana

Topics: Agriculture, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Households, Intersectionality, Land grabbing Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2017

Scoping the Gender Issues in Liquid Biofuel Value Chains


Nelson, Valerie, and Yianna Lambrou. 2011. “Scoping the Gender Issues in Liquid Biofuel Value Chains.” NRI Working Paper Series: Climate Change, Agriculture and Natural Resources No. 3, Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, London.

Authors: Valerie Nelson, Yianna Lambrou


“The gender dimensions of biofuel development have been relatively neglected. Yet to achieve equitable and socially sustainable development requires an understanding of how women, men and social groups may be affected differently by biofuel innovations. Whole communities will be affected by biofuel developments, but the opportunities available and the significant risks and impacts involved are not experienced equally by women and men. This is because of the gender inequalities that prevail throughout the world. In fact, women and female-headed households will be disproportionately affected, because they usually have less decision-making power, and lack control over key livelihood resources and their situations could be made worse by gender-blind biofuel developments.

“Field-based evidence is scarce for identifying best practice in biofuel gender mainstreaming, and this is perhaps unsurprising given the recent nature of the commercial biofuels boom and the catch-up that is required of development practitioners and policy-makers to understand and respond to the risks, impacts and opportunities involved. More in-depth field studies in Asia, Latin America and Africa are needed to provide evidence that will enable the formulation of detailed guidance on specific feedstocks in different contexts.

“A huge range of journal articles and grey literature has been reviewed to produce this study and in the search for information on the gender dimensions of biofuels. This scoping study seeks to inform policy-makers and practitioners about the key issues of gender in biofuels schemes and value chains and to provide recommendations about what can be done by building on women’s capabilities, to support their agency and collective action and thus to promote their empowerment for more equitable rural pathways” (Nelson and Lambrou 2011, 1).

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods

Year: 2011

Wood Energy: The Role of Women’s Unvalued Labor


Nathan, Dev, and Govind Kelkar. 1997. “Wood Energy: The Role of Women’s Unvalued Labor.” Gender, Technology and Development 1 (2): 205–24.

Authors: Dev Nathan, Govind Kelkar


This paper argues that in a farm, family-specific aspects of gender relations—that women’s labor is unvalued as ’domestic service,’ or that it has a lower value and lower opportunity cost than men’s labor—lead to the overuse of women’s labor in activities like wood fuel collection. This inhibits farm families from investing in labor-saving and fuel-saving devices, like improved stoves. It also has an adverse impact on farm women’s leisure time and their health. The paper argues that the primary emphasis in policy to bring about an increase in fuel efficiency or fuel switching should be on increasing the possibility of women’s income-earning opportunities, mainly outside the homestead, as in rural industry.

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Economies, Gender, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods

Year: 1997

Clean, Renewable Energy: Improving Womens' Lives in South Asia


Mohideen, Reihana. 2013. “Clean, Renewable Energy: Improving Womens' Lives in South Asia.” IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 32 (3): 48–55.

Author: Reihana Mohideen


As feminist scholars have long argued, there are no purely technological solutions to achieving progress on gender equity and women’s empowerment. Nevertheless, in rural South Asia, where many women’s lives are marked by gender inequalities, access to clean and renewable energy technology and services can make a difference if those resources are also targeted at improving women’s access and welfare. This, however, compels us to go beyond the meter. Special social and technical interventions that simultaneously target energy access and gender equity are necessary.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, Asia, gender issues, electricity, government policies, gender equity, social factors, africa

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2013

Gender and Energy Issues in the Global South: Implications for the Post-Millennium Development Goals Agenda after 2015


Mininni, Giulia M. 2015. “Gender and Energy Issues in the Global South: Implications for the Post-Millennium Development Goals Agenda after 2015.” The Luminary (5): 43–62.


Author: Giulia M. Mininni


Due to the conditions of gender inequality that limit women’s access to and control over environmental resources in remote rural areas, unfavourable environmental conditions tend to have more negative effects on women than on men. The same considerations can be applied to the lack of access to energy services, especially given women’s traditional roles and responsibilities as housekeepers. This happens more consistently in areas where people are directly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods. This paper will explore how access to energy services is essential to improving the living conditions of women in off-grid rural areas of the global south, and, in the end, to contribute to global poverty reduction. It will highlight how for a long time energy projects have been treated as “gender neutral”, founded on the belief that energy issues and solutions were the same for men and women. However, the reality is different in most countries in the global south. The paper will outline how gender sensitive policies and programmes are necessary to address women’s specific needs. Finally, the paper will focus on the post- Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) agenda and underline how the new framework has the potential to offer opportunities to integrate energy access as a priority goal. Small-scale decentralised energy options could also ensure better participation at local level of under-represented groups such as women and push for better gender equality.

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods

Year: 2015


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