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Engendering Post-Colonial Nuclear Policies Through the Lens of Hindutva: Rethinking the Security Paradigm of India

Citation:

Das, Runa. 2002. “Engendering Post-Colonial Nuclear Policies Through the Lens of Hindutva: Rethinking the Security Paradigm of India.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 22 (1-2): 76-89.

Author: Runa Das

Annotation:

Summary:
"Of particular interest in this article are the roles of the contemporary Hindu right government in India and religious nationalism, expressed here as Hindutva, in shaping the contemporary nuclear security problematic of India. In investigating this link, I raise the following questions: Does the recent rise of Hindu nationalism in India conflate the multicultural and secular nation of India into a monolithic Hindu nationalist identity? Does this conflation signify a conceptual merger of Hindu nationalism with the Indian state, nation, and the secular Indian nationalism? If so, what implications may this conceptual merger have on constructing Pakistan as a security threat, Other, to the supposedly Hindu India? Does it re-enforce a state-centric version of security as opposed to a people-centric view of security? Does it re-enforce Othering along communal and gender lines in terms of India's national and regional security concerns? At a broader level, if theorizing in international relations (IR) and policy implications in international security studies seek to move towards conflict resolution, then should the role of ideology in the form of religious nationalism/ communalism that constructs insecurity "scapes/imaginaries," through a discursive process of Othering, be deconstructed? Finally, is it important to go beyond the observable geostrategic factors (that are so emphasized by conventional IR theorists) and delve into more intrinsic factors, such as the role of ideology, that may shape security discourses in IR?
 
"This article represents an analytical hybrid of the critical constructivist approach as its theoretical framework and the concept of postcolonial insecurity for an interpretation of politics to re-read the role of ideology in defining the interrelations between security, gender, and politics in IR I focus on the tensions between the realist and antinuclear groups in India as a case study to explore how the recent rise of a Hindu nationalist ideology in India, expressed as Hindutva, which primarily hinges on a Hindu-Muslim axis, may be utilized by the contemporary Indian right government to justify India's nuclearization policies" (Das 2002, 76).

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Nationalism, Religion, Security, Weapons /Arms Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2002

Encountering Hindutva, Interrogating Religious Nationalism and (En)gendering a Hindu Patriarchy in India's Nuclear Policies

Citation:

Das, Runa. 2006. “Encountering Hindutva, Interrogating Religious Nationalism and (En)gendering a Hindu Patriarchy in India’s Nuclear Policies.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 8 (3): 370-93.

Author: Runa Das

Abstract:

This article explores the consequences of a gendered nationalism under India's recent Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government that has relied on the discourses of Hindu women's violence and protection as elements of its discursive arsenal to pursue nuclearization as an aggressive policy of the Indian state. To this extent, the article interrogates a discursive relationship between a cultural patriarchy, its quest for Hindu nationalism and gender and the ways in which this patriarchy has both used and (ab)used the images of Hindu women to establish Islam/Pakistan as a threat to the supposedly Hindu India, and justify a nuclear policy for India. The article's contribution to international feminist politics lies in its attempts to stitch the localized politics of Hindu nationalism with its broader geo-political aspirations and implications, namely the role of the Indian state, under the BJP, in maintaining a communalized, militarized and a Hindu patriarchal violence at three inter-connected levels – between gender, communities and nations.

Keywords: communalism, gender, India, nationalism, nuclearization, religion

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Nationalism, Religion, Violence, Weapons /Arms Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2006

Only Resist: Feminist Ecological Citizenship and the Post-Politics of Climate Change

Citation:

MacGregor, Sherilyn. 2014. “Only Resist: Feminist Ecological Citizenship and the Post-Politics of Climate Change.” Hypatia 29 (3): 617–33.

Author: Sherilyn MacGregor

Abstract:

European political theorists have argued that contemporary imaginaries of climate change are symptomatic of a post-political condition. My aim in this essay is to consider what this analysis might mean for a feminist green politics and how those who believe in such a project might respond. Whereas much of the gender-focused scholarship on climate change is concerned with questions of differentiated vulnerabilities and gendered divisions of responsibility and risk, I want to interrogate the strategic, epistemological, and normative implications for ecological feminism of a dominant, neoliberal climate change narrative that arguably has no political subject, casts Nature as a threat to be endured, and that replaces democratic public debate with expert administration and individual behavior change. What hope is there for counter-hegemonic political theories and social movements in times like these? I suggest that rather than give in and get on the crowded climate change bandwagon, an alternative response is to pursue a project of feminist ecological citizenship that blends resistance to hegemonic neoliberal discourses with a specifically feminist commitment to reclaiming democratic debate about social-environmental futures.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Governance

Year: 2014

Earth Mother Myths and Other Ecofeminist Fables: How a Strategic Notion Rose and Fell

Citation:

Leach, Melissa. 2007. “Earth Mother Myths and Other Ecofeminist Fables: How a Strategic Notion Rose and Fell.” Development and Change 38 (1): 67–85.

Author: Melissa Leach

Abstract:

The notion that women are ‘closer to nature’, naturally caring for land, water, forests and other aspects of the environment, has held powerful sway in certain development circles since the 1980s. Along with the rise in global environmental concern, ‘women, environment and development’ (WED) perspectives gained ground among many donor agencies and NGOs, complementing and sharing core assumptions with earlier-established ‘women in development’ (WID) discourses. The materialist dimensions of WED were bolstered by fables about women’s natural, cultural or ideological closeness to nature grounded in varieties of ecofeminist analysis. This proved a seductive mix for agencies wishing simultaneously to promote environmental protection and WID, as well as for certain forms of feminist activism and sisterhood-construction, such as those around the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. This contribution revisits these narratives and the politics of this strategic fix in the development of international environmentalism and explores the sustained critiques of these ecofeminist fables by feminist scholars and activists from the early 1990s onwards. It provides a critical review of the approach to gender and the environment in some current donor, NGO and other policy documents, which draw little from the feminist critiques of the 1990s. The author reflects on how, and for whom, women–nature links might have practical or strategic value today.

Topics: Development, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, International Organizations, NGOs

Year: 2007

Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective

Citation:

Kheel, Marti. 2008. Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. 

Author: Marti Kheel

Annotation:

Summary: 
In Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective, Marti Kheel explores the underlying worldview of nature ethics, offering an alternative ecofeminist perspective. She focuses on four prominent representatives of holist philosophy: two early conservationists (Theodore Roosevelt and Aldo Leopold) and two contemporary philosophers (Holmes Rolston III, and transpersonal ecologist Warwick Fox). Kheel argues that in directing their moral allegiance to abstract constructs (e.g. species, the ecosystem, or the transpersonal Self) these influential nature theorists represent a masculinist orientation that devalues concern for individual animals. Seeking to heal the divisions among the seemingly disparate movements and philosophies of feminism, animal advocacy, environmental ethics, and holistic health, Kheel proposes an ecofeminist philosophy that underscores the importance of empathy and care for individual beings as well as larger wholes. (Summary from Rowman & Littlefield) 
 
Table of Contents:
1. Finding a Niche for All Animals in Nature Ethics
 
2. Masculine Identity: Born Again 'Man'
 
3. Origins of the Conservation Movement: Preserving Manhood
 
4. Thinking Like a Mountain or Thinking Like a Man?
 
5. The Ecophilosophy of Holmes Rolston
 
6. The Transpersonal Ecology of Warwick Fox
 
7. Ecofeminist Holist Philosophy

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies

Year: 2008

A Discussion

Citation:

Hawkins, Roberta, Diana Ojeda, Kiran Asher, Brigitte Baptiste, Leila Harris, Sharlene Mollett, Andrea Nightingale, Dianne Rocheleau, Joni Seager, and Farhana Sultana. 2011. “A Discussion.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 29 (2): 237–53.

Authors: Roberta Hawkins, Diana Ojeda, Kiran Asher, Brigitte Baptiste, Leila Harris, Sharlene Mollett, Andrea Nightingale, Dianne Rocheleau, Joni Seager, Farhana Sultana

Annotation:

Summary:
"The motivation for this paper came from multiple conversations between the editors about gender and environment theory and practice. From our own research on the gendered politics that articulate particular spaces, environments, and subjects across scales (Hawkins, forthcoming; Ojeda, 2010), we felt the need to review current and past work in the field, looking for theoretical and methodological clues on how to better understand the relation between gendered subjects and the gendered environments they signify, inhabit, and transform. With this broad question in mind, we did a thorough reading of gender and environment work within geography with the desire to review how current and past work relate to and diverge from one another, and how current work in the field has encompassed theoretical advances in feminist theory, nature^society theory, and analyses of the social production of nature" (Hawkins et al. 2011, 237). 

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender

Year: 2011

What Determines Poverty Transition? An Investigation of Women Livestock Farmers in Bangladesh

Citation:

Akter, Shaheen, and John Farrington. 2011. “What Determines Poverty Transition? An Investigation of Women Livestock Farmers in Bangladesh.” Development in Practice 21 (2): 269–81.

Authors: Shaheen Akter, John Farrington

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article evaluates poverty transition using self-assessment in a quasi-experimental framework. Data are drawn from a survey conducted in 2006 of 400 women who were the beneficiaries of a poverty-alleviation programme which involved longer-term interventions towards building the strength of government departments, participating organisations, and beneficiaries. During the survey, when the project was approaching its conclusion, about 50 per cent of these farmers were still in the programme. The article addresses a number of key questions related to pathways out of poverty through livestock-based activities, heterogeneity in livelihood choice and its impact on household welfare, and wider applications.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Cet article évalue la transition hors de la pauvreté à l'aide de l'auto-évaluation dans un cadre quasi-expérimental. Les données sont tirées d'une étude menée en 2006 parmi 400 femmes qui étaient les bénéficiaires d'un programme d'atténuation de la pauvreté qui faisait intervenir des interventions à plus long terme visant à renforcer les départements gouvernementaux, les organisations participantes et les bénéficiaires. Durant cette étude, alors que le projet touchait à sa fin, environ 50 pour cent de ces éleveuses étaient encore dans le programme. Cet article aborde un certain nombre de questions clés liées aux chemins possibles pour sortir de la pauvreté au moyen d'activités basées sur le bétail, l'hétérogénéité dans le choix du moyen de subsistance et son impact sur le bien-être des ménages, ainsi que des applications plus larges.
 
PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT:
Este artigo avalia a transição da pobreza utilizando a auto-avaliação em uma estrutura quase-experimental. Os dados são extraídos de um levantamento realizado em 2006 com 400 mulheres que eram as beneficiárias de um programa de alívio da pobreza que envolveu intervenções de mais longo prazo voltadas ao fortalecimento de departamentos governamentais, organizações participantes e beneficiários. Durante o levantamento, quando o projeto estava abordando sua conclusão, cerca de 50 por cento destas produtoras rurais ainda estavam no programa. O artigo aborda algumas questões-chave relacionadas a maneiras de se deixar a pobreza através de atividades que envolvem gado, heterogeneidade na escolha dos meios de subsistência e seu impacto no bem-estar familiar e aplicações mais abrangentes.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Este ensayo analiza la evolución de la pobreza utilizando un método de autoevaluación en un marco semiexperimental. Las estadísticas proceden de encuestas realizadas a 400 mujeres beneficiarias de un programa de reducción de la pobreza en 2006. El programa consistió en acciones a largo plazo para fortalecer a agencias gubernamentales, organizaciones y beneficiarias. Durante el periodo de las encuestas, hacia el final del programa, alrededor de la mitad de las campesinas seguía participando. Este ensayo aborda varias interrogantes en torno a las vías para superar la pobreza a través de actividades ganaderas, de la diversificación de medios de subsistencia y de su impacto en el bienestar familiar, entre otras aplicaciones.

Keywords: Gender and Diversity, Labour and livelihoods, technology, South Asia

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2011

The Role of Gender in Improving Adaptation to Climate Change among Small-Scale Fishers

Citation:

Musinguzi, Laban, Vianny Natugonza, Jackson Efitre, and Richard Ogutu-Ohwayo. 2018. “The Role of Gender in Improving Adaptation to Climate Change among Small-Scale Fishers.” Climate and Development 10 (6): 566-76.

Authors: Laban Musinguzi, Vianny Natugonza, Jackson Efitre, Richard Ogutu-Ohwayo

Abstract:

Climate change disproportionately affects marginalized groups, especially women. To guide the integration of gender roles in interventions to improve adaptation, we examined gender roles among fishers on Lake Wamala, Uganda, which has been increasingly affected by climate change. We found lower participation of women than men in preharvest and postharvest fishing activities, with 99% of fishers and 92.9% of fish processors and traders combined being men. The men had more fishing experience, started fishing at a younger age and exited at a later age, targeted more species, used more fishing gears and bought more fish for processing and trading. Although we observed diversification to non-fishery livelihoods, such as crop and livestock production to increase food security and income among others, income from these activities was not controlled or shared equally between men and women. Compared to men, women worked longer hours, engaging in more simultaneous activities both in and out of the home and reported less time resting. The income controlled by women was used directly to meet household needs. The implications of these differences for adaptation, what men and women can do best to enhance adaptation and how some adaptation practices and interventions can be implemented to benefit both men and women are discussed.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, small-scale fishers, gender, livelihoods, Uganda

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018

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