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Gender

Empowerment Through Energy? Impact of Electricity on Care Work Practices and Gender Relations

Citation:

Standal, Karina, and Tanja Winther. 2016. “Empowerment Through Energy? Impact of Electricity on Care Work Practices and Gender Relations.” Forum for Development Studies 43 (1): 27–45.

Authors: Karina Standal, Tanja Winther

Abstract:

Electricity provides a range of desirable services such as the electric light and the use of mobile phones and is regarded as a conditional factor for economic growth. Gender equality and women's empowerment are also promoted as a key to development on the international agenda. However, relatively little is known about how the advent of electricity in new contexts affects gender relations. The present analysis of electricity's impact on gender relations engages with the concepts of care work and empowerment. Based on two ethnographic case studies in rural communities in Uttar Pradesh, India, and Bamiyan, Afghanistan, we examine how and to what extent the introduction of electricity affected women’s care work practices and empowerment – and potentially transformed gender relations. We also draw on our own empirical material from other parts of India (West Bengal and Jharkhand). We find that electricity affected everyday life in terms of providing important resources and enhancing women’s opportunities to perform their expected role as care workers more efficiently and in a qualitatively better way. The women appreciated this positive effect of electricity in their everyday lives. However, we argue that in India, electricity at the same time reinforced structures of gender inequality such as patriarchy and dowry practices, and we trace this tendency to the conceptualisation of women as care workers in combination with conventional, gender ‘neutral’ electricity interventions. In contrast, there are signs that women’s status increased in the Afghanistan case, which we link to the unusual inclusion of women engineers in the electricity supply.

Keywords: electricity, gender relations, empowerment, care work, India, Afghanistan

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, India

Year: 2016

Boarding Mumbai Trains: The Mutual Shaping of Intersectionality and Mobility

Citation:

Kusters, Annelies. 2019. “Boarding Mumbai Trains: The Mutual Shaping of Intersectionality and Mobility.” Mobilities 14 (6): 841–58.

Author: Annelies Kusters

Abstract:

This article analyses how intersectionality and mobility shape each other in the case of deaf women who board the Mumbai suburban trains, which have separate compartments reserved for women and for people with disabilities. These compartments being adjacent, deaf women often make last-minute decisions where to board, and even happen to switch compartments at a further station. Here, intersectionality shapes mobility in that it entails a complex and changeable, context-dependent set of strategies and decisions. Mobility shapes intersectionality in that by being mobile, people assert or develop different aspects of their lived experiences, preferences and aspirations.

Keywords: crowding, commuting, women, gender, deaf, ladies compartments

Topics: Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Transportation, Intersectionality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

Is Mom Energy Efficient? A Study of Gender, Household Energy Consumption and Family Decision Making in Indonesia

Citation:

Permana, Ariva Sugandi, Norsiah Abd. Aziz, and Ho Chin Siong. 2015. “Is Mom Energy Efficient? A Study of Gender, Household Energy Consumption and Family Decision Making in Indonesia.” Energy Research & Social Science 6 (March): 78–86.

Authors: Ariva Sugandi Permana, Norsiah Abd. Aziz, Ho Chin Siong

Abstract:

This study highlights gender-related factors and attempts to understand their influence in residential energy consumption. This pilot study was done in Bandung City, Indonesia. It employed a questionnaire survey and face to face interviews. Questionnaires were randomly distributed to the households in Bandung City. In this study, energy consumption included household uses of power for lighting, entertainment, thermal comfort and cooking. Energy consumption was estimated based upon electrical and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumption. The results showed that when the decisions about energy expenditure and control of energy consumption in the household were solely made by a woman, energy consumption tended to be the lowest. There are three possible ways decision can be made, by the wife, husband and a joint decision. This evidence suggests several things. They are that (1) women are good household energy managers, (2) men may be careless with respect to energy consumption, (3) women may be more cautious about household expenditures, and (4) when joint decisions were made the husband and wife relied-upon-each-other in reaching agreement. This suggests useful entry points for energy efficient initiatives. 

Keywords: gender, control over expenditure, energy consumption

Topics: Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2015

Toward a Gender Diverse Workforce in the Renewable Energy Transition

Citation:

Pearl-Martinez, Rebecca, and Jennie C. Stephens. 2016. “Toward a Gender Diverse Workforce in the Renewable Energy Transition.” Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 12 (1): 8-15.

Authors: Rebecca Pearl-Martinez, Jennie C. Stephens

Abstract:

We explore gender diversity in the energy workforce and highlight the value of systematic assessment of women’s participation in the move toward sustainable renewable-energy systems. A gender imbalance in the energy sector workforce is apparent in countries throughout the world, yet women’s participation in, and contributions to, the energy industry have not been systematically characterized. As the energy sector transitions from fossil-fuel dominated systems toward more efficient, sustainable renewable-based systems, new opportunities for a more inclusive energy workforce are emerging. We are concerned, however, that if the energy industry does not prioritize gender diversity now, the renewable energy transition could perpetuate and deepen, rather than reduce, gender inequality. Although research demonstrates that diversity enhances innovation and creativity, there is minimal attention to considering and promoting diversity within the energy workforce. In this Community Essay we explore how greater consideration of the role of gender and the value of diversity in energy could provide multiple social benefits, including promoting more sustainable practices, accelerating innovation, enhancing women’s opportunities, and empowering communities to engage in energy-system change. 

Keywords: women, gender, renewables, sustainability, fossil fuels, Energy, transitions

Topics: Development, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods

Year: 2016

The Nuclear Ban Treaty and the Cloud Over Trudeau’s ‘Feminist’ Foreign Policy

Citation:

Broadhead, Lee-Anne, and Sean Howard. 2019. “The Nuclear Ban Treaty and the Cloud Over Trudeau’s ‘Feminist’ Foreign Policy.” International Journal: Canada's Journal of Global Policy Analysis 74 (3): 422-44.

Authors: Lee-Anne Broadhead, Sean Howard

Abstract:

The Canadian Liberal government of Justin Trudeau claims to be ushering in a new era of a ‘‘feminist’’ foreign policy. While serious steps have been taken in this direction, this paper focuses on the government’s opposition to the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, a treaty that has been negotiated with a logic and language explicitly linking issues of disarmament and gender, reframing ‘‘security’’ as fundamentally a question not of state but of human (and environmental) security. Ignoring its own public statements that repeatedly link women with peace and security, the Trudeau government’s opposition to the Treaty exposes the hollowness of its claims.

Keywords: Canada, foreign policy, nuclear weapons, Trudeau, feminism

Topics: Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender, Peace and Security, Rights, Security, Human Security, Weapons /Arms Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2019

What is Feminist Foreign Policy? An Explanatory Evaluation of Foreign Policy in OECD Countries

Citation:

Alwan, Christine, and S. Laurel Weldon. 2017. “What is Feminist Foreign Policy? An Explanatory Evaluation of Foreign Policy in OECD Countries.” Paper prepared for 2017 European Conference on Politics and Gender, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Authors: Christine Alwan, S. Laurel Weldon

Abstract:

In 2015, Sweden’s foreign affairs minister boldly acclaimed that the state had a feminist foreign policy, with rights, representation, and resources at its core (Patel 2015). While these criteria may be a helpful for understanding the variety of issues foreign policy makers must consider to develop and implement gender equitable policy, they do not provide a specific framework for a feminist foreign policy theory. We hope to address this lack of specificity by drawing on existing theories of foreign policy and feminist IR.  We argue why the idea of a feminist foreign policy is radical given the nature of international politics, state militaries, and government actors. We point to the symbiotic relationship between militarism and masculinity with militarism and the state. This androcentric view of international politics does not adequately address the ways in which women’s lives affect and are affected by foreign policy decisions. We hope that these initial discussions will help both policy scholars and practitioners develop and incorporate a feminist theory of foreign policy into foreign policy decision-making.

Topics: Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism, Rights

Year: 2017

Feminist Foreign Policy 3.0: Advancing Ethics and Gender Equality in Global Politics

Citation:

Aggestam, Karin, and Annika Bergman Rosamond. 2019. “Feminist Foreign Policy 3.0: Advancing Ethics and Gender Equality in Global Politics.” SAIS Review of International Affairs 39 (1): 37–48.

Authors: Karin Aggestam, Annika Bergman Rosamond

Abstract:

A growing number of states, including Canada, Norway, Sweden, Australia, and the United Kingdom, have adopted gender- and feminist-informed approaches to their foreign and security policies. Sweden’s feminist foreign policy was launched in 2014 and rests on the idea that gender equality is central to security and foreign policy. This article conducts an analysis of the incremental development of Sweden’s feminist foreign policy. It underlines three pillars that have informed Swedish foreign policy: rights, representation, and resources. The article assesses how these three pillars have been transformed into distinct policy and practice. It makes the following three conclusions. First, Sweden’s feminist foreign policy is distinguished by its working method pertaining to norm change whereby gendered practices and structures in global politics are challenged. Second, from the outset Sweden’s feminist foreign policy has pursued a head-wind agenda, which reflects a readiness to confront contestation in global politics. Third, as a way of tackling resistance and promoting pro-norm equality diffusion a fourth “R” has been advanced, which stands for reality checks and research.

Topics: Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Security Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Sweden

Year: 2019

Theorising Feminist Foreign Policy

Citation:

Aggestam, Karin, Annika Bergman Rosamond, and Annica Kronsell. 2019. “Theorising Feminist Foreign Policy.” International Relations 33 (1): 23-39.

Authors: Karin Aggestam, Annika Bergman Rosamond, Annica Kronsell

Abstract:

A growing number of states including Canada, Norway and Sweden have adopted gender and feminist-informed approaches to their foreign and security policies. The overarching aim of this article is to advance a theoretical framework that can enable a thoroughgoing study of these developments. Through a feminist lens, we theorise feminist foreign policy arguing that it is, to all intents and purposes, ethical and argue that existing studies of ethical foreign policy and international conduct are by and large gender-blind. We draw upon feminist International Relations (IR) theory and the ethics of care to theorise feminist foreign policy and to advance an ethical framework that builds on a relational ontology, which embraces the stories and lived experiences of women and other marginalised groups at the receiving end of foreign policy conduct. By way of conclusion, the article highlights the novel features of the emergent framework and investigates in what ways it might be useful for future analyses of feminist foreign policy. Moreover, we discuss its potential to generate new forms of theoretical insight, empirical knowledge and policy relevance for the refinement of feminist foreign policy practice.

Keywords: dialogue, ethics of care, feminist foreign policy, feminist theory, gender, inclusion, international ethics

Topics: Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender, Governance

Year: 2019

Relatos de vida de mujeres desmovilizadas: Análisis de sus perspectivas de vida

Citation:

Ocampo, Myriam, Pilar Baracaldo, Lorena Arboleda, y Angélica Escobar. 2014. “Relatos de vida de mujeres desmovilizadas: Análisis de sus perspectivas de vida.” Informes Psicológicos 14 (1): 109-28.

Authors: Myriam Ocampo, Pilar Baracaldo, Lorena Arboleda, Angélica Escobar

Abstract:

Objetivo: Analizar las perspectivas de vida de mujeres desmovilizadas a través del estudio y comprensión de sus relatos de vida. Método: Se trabajó con mujeres desmovilizadas inscritas en el programa de reintegración de la presidencia de la república de Colombia. 30 de ellas pertenecientes a la sede Cali, Colombia. Se utilizó metodología cualitativa, a través de las herramientas historias de vida y grupos focales. Se realizaron narrativas de sus historias de vida de manera individual y grupal, partir de sus vivencias generando espacios de escucha y reflexión entre las participantes. Resultados: Se logró identificar dificultad para reconocer responsabilidad de los actos violentos cometidos debido a una percepción de víctimas dentro de la guerra. Esto dificulta el proceso de reconciliación. Conclusiones: Se sugiere incluir una estrategia integral de género en la política de reintegración que favorezca la protección de las mujeres desmovilizadas contra las formas de discriminación y violencia.

Keywords: historias de vida, metodología cualitativa, mujer desmovilizada, guerrera, conflicto armado colombiano, perspectiva de vida, reintegración

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2014

Corporalidades y subjetividades sexuales: el caso de las mujeres excombatientes de las guerrillas colombianas

Citation:

Mejía Jerez, Yuly Andrea, y Priscyll Anctil Avoine. 2017. “Corporalidades y subjetividades sexuales: el caso de las mujeres excombatientes de las guerrillas colombianas.” Prospectiva: Revista de Trabajo Social e Intervención Social, no. 23, 97-122.

Authors: Yuly Andrea Mejía Jerez, Priscyll Anctil Avoine

Abstract:

El ingreso temprano de mujeres a grupos armados al margen de la ley implica la vivencia de experiencias que transmutan roles de género tradicionales, el cuidado del cuerpo, la construcción de la sexualidad y de las subjetividades. Dentro de la estructura bélica, y posteriormente, en el proceso de reintegración, las mujeres se enfrentan a múltiples decisiones en las distintas etapas de su sexualidad. Con el fin del conflicto armado con las FARC-EP, ellas se encuentran en un nuevo momento de sus vidas, pasando del contexto caracterizado por el miedo, la violencia y las ausencias estatales, a asumir otras posiciones sociales como futuras agentes de cambio. El objetivo de este artículo es reflexionar sobre las dimensiones corporales de las mujeres en las guerrillas colombianas, para contrastar el impacto de la violencia y el conflicto en la constitución de las subjetividades desde una dimensión sexual y de género. Para ello, se utiliza la metodología cualitativa de análisis documental y, además, se tienen en cuenta observaciones a partir de investigaciones anteriores realizadas con la Corporación Descontamina.

Keywords: sexualidad, mujer, Conflicto Armado, cuerpo, cuidado corporal, guerrillas colombianas

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peace Processes Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2017

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