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Gender

Three Sides to Every Story: Gender Perspectives in Energy Transition Pathways in Canada, Kenya and Spain

Citation:

Lieu, Jenny, Alevgul H. Sorman, Oliver W. Johnson, Luis D. Virla, and Bernadette P. Resurrección. 2020. “Three Sides to Every Story: Gender Perspectives in Energy Transition Pathways in Canada, Kenya and Spain.” Energy Research & Social Science 68 (October): 101550.

Authors: Jenny Lieu, Alevgul H. Sorman, Oliver W. Johnson, Luis D. Virla, Bernadette P. Resurrección

Abstract:

Transitions toward a low-carbon future are not only technical and economical, but also deeply social and gendered. The gendered nature of energy transitions is often implicit and unexplored. As a corrective, this paper explores energy pathways by applying concepts from innovations and gender studies. We examine gender perspectives and niche energy innovations which could disrupt the regime. The regime represents the mainstream pathway that includes the dominant gender perspective and energy system. We explore different gender perspectives of energy transition pathways by applying an Alternative Pathways framework that includes: (1)  on-stream pathways that exist within the mainstream pathway to promote equal opportunities for women and men, as well as niches for energy innovations without challenging the high-carbon energy regime; (2) off-stream pathways that depart from the mainstream and promote differences across different genders while creating niches outside the energy regime; and (3) transformative pathways that are fundamentally different from the previous mainstream and includes all gender perspectives in a new energy regime. Applying this framing, in Canada, we explored Indigenous perspectives in the oil sands sector; in Kenya, we studied largescale renewable energy impacting Indigneous communities; in Spain, we evaluate the movement away from fossil fuels and towards renewable technologies. The framework helped to identify that mainstream pathways represented the dominant male perspective while woman's perspective were largely left out. Such absence generate energy pathways that are disconnected from local realities, lack public buy-in and slow-down a sustainable energy transition.

Keywords: energy transition pathways, renewable energy, gender, women, intersectionality, Indigenous people

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, East Africa, Americas, North America, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Canada, Kenya, Spain

Year: 2020

Exploring the Linkages between Energy, Gender, and Enterprise: Evidence from Tanzania

Citation:

Pueyo, Ana, Marco Carreras, and Gisela Ngoo. 2020. “Exploring the Linkages between Energy, Gender, and Enterprise: Evidence from Tanzania.” World Development 128 (April): 104840.

Authors: Ana Pueyo, Marco Carreras, Gisela Ngoo

Abstract:

The productive use of electricity is essential for poverty reduction in newly electrified rural communities as well as for the financial sustainability of electricity suppliers. Because men and women assume different roles in the rural economy, the inclusion of gender concerns in interventions to promote productive uses of energy could improve development outcomes. Using a multi-methods approach, this study provides new evidence about how men and women use energy in rural micro-enterprises in Tanzania, and which benefits they obtain from it. In our research region, most businesses are owned by men and men-owned enterprises use electricity more frequently and intensely than women owned enterprises. The latter dominate the productive use of cooking fuels like charcoal and firewood. Electricity use is consistently associated with better business performance, but women entrepreneurs do not use it as much as men. There are multiple reasons for this gender imbalance. First, women enjoy less favourable starting conditions for enterprise creation due to poor access to finance, education, and other resources. Furthermore, women are required to balance care responsibilities with paid work and are subject to social norms that determine the acceptability of certain productive activities. Typically, female activities are less profitable and less mechanised than men’s. Consequently, in the absence of gender interventions, male entrepreneurs are more likely to benefit from the promotion of productive uses of electricity. The paper discusses several approaches to improve the gender equity of PUE interventions.

Keywords: Energy, gender, enterprise, africa, tanzania, electricity

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2020

The Gendered Dimensions of Illicit Financial Flows

Citation:

Merkle, Ortrun. 2019. The Gendered Dimensions of Illicit Financial Flows. Berlin: Transparency International and CHR Michelsen Institute. 

Author: Ortun Merkle

Abstract:

Illicit financial flows (IFFs) are increasingly understood as one of the greatest challenges to global development. Interestingly, while much attention is paid to gendered aspects of development overall, there are very few studies exploring the extent to which women are affected by and involved in IFFs. The links between gender and IFFs can be investigated from three main perspectives: i) how IFFs specifically affect women; ii) the roles women play in IFFs; and iii) how women can help curb IFFs.

Topics: Development, Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Women

Year: 2019

Women, Energy and Sustainable Development

Citation:

Shailaja, R. 2000. “Women, Energy and Sustainable Development.” Energy for Sustainable Development 4 (1): 45–64.

Author: R. Shailaja

Abstract:

Summary:
"Sustainable development is an equitable, empowering, environmentally sound, economically viable process of growth. Energy is the key indicator of sustainable development. About 74% of the population of India live in rural areas. 80% of their energy needs are derived from biomass. About 92% of this energy is consumed in cooking activity. Women play a major role in biofuel management. Rural women's perspective in sustainable development is therefore critical.

Declining biofuel resources, poor quality of the available biofuels and inefficient devices have pushed women into greater hardships. This paper examines the role of rural women in biomass management. The energy resources that rural women use, the strategy that the government and other organisations have adopted to alleviate rural energy problems and how these strategies have benefited women and improved their quality of life, the importance of incorporating the concept of ‘gender and development’ in alternative energy strategies to achieve the objectives of sustainable development are discussed in this paper" (Shailaja 2000, 45).

Topics: Development, Environment, Gender, Women, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2000

Integrating Women in Energy Assistance: Which Way Forward?

Citation:

Skutsch, Margaret M. 1994. “Integrating Women in Energy Assistance: Which Way Forward?” Energy for Sustainable Development 1 (3): 49-51.

Author: Margaret M. Skutsch

Annotation:

Summary:
“Almost all the western donor agencies are very concerned with responding to ‘‘women’s needs’’ in the planning and implementation of development projects. Some donors have special units not only to organise women’s projects but increasingly also to make sure the needs of women are attended to in ‘‘mainstream’’ projects, for example by developing checklists against which to assess a project’s likely impact on women, or as an aide- memoire to planners to think about women’s interests when designing the project. All the DAC countries of the OECD have indeed agreed to prepare such instruments (OECD, 1990), which undoubted1y are useful in creating better working habits, and this is a good initiative. However, the existence and even the use of such guidelines will not seriously change the way development assistance works with regard to women if they are simply applied to the same types of development interventions that we have been using in the past. To really help women, it is necessary to rethink the types of projects supported, with a more basic understanding of what women need” (Skutsch 1994, 49-50).

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 1994

The Gender Issue in Energy Project Planning: Welfare, Empowerment or Efficiency?

Citation:

Skutsch, Margaret M. 1998. “The Gender Issue in Energy Project Planning: Welfare, Empowerment or Efficiency?” Energy Policy 26 (12): 945–55.

Author: Margaret M. Skutsch

Abstract:

The gap between gender policy as adopted by governments and donors, and the inclusion of gender issues in energy planning practice at project level, is great, despite the fact that there are many manuals available which demonstrate how to go about gathering gender-based data and analysing this. This gap is partly due to difficulties in translating policy into achievable objectives at project level, which in itself is due to differences of opinion on what the motive is for including gender as a variable. Three main motivations are identified, and is it shown that once this has been done, the choice of planning tools, instruments and approaches for gender sensitive energy project planning falls more easily into place.

Keywords: gender policy, energy project planning, welfare, empowerment, efficiency

Topics: Gender, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 1998

Gender Analysis for Energy Projects and Programmes

Citation:

Skutsch, Margaret M. 2005. “Gender Analysis for Energy Projects and Programmes.” Energy for Sustainable Development 9 (1): 37–52.

Author: Margaret M. Skutsch

Annotation:

Summary:
"This paper proposes that one of the reasons why gender is not being mainstreamed in energy project and programme planning is because there are no appropriate gender-analytic tools available for the special case of energy. It reviews the standard gender tools as used in development planning, and a number of approaches that have been proposed for the energy sector, such as the EnPoGen model and various schemes based on the project cycle. The critique of these leads to suggestions for an improved model. The paper was written as part of a process in which a training manual on gender and energy is being prepared" (Skutsch 2005, 37).

 

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 2005

Macroeconomic Policy Tools to Finance Gender Equality

Citation:

Seguino, Stephanie. 2019. “Macroeconomic Policy Tools to Finance Gender Equality.” Development Policy Review  37 (4): 504-25.

Author: Stephanie Seguino

Abstract:

Feminist economists and heterodox macroeconomists have contributed substantively to the body of research that explores the distributional effects of macro policies. This work explicitly addresses the livelihood problems created by neoliberalism and, in addition, it provides a pathway for identifying financing mechanisms. Building on earlier work by Seguino and Grown (2006), this article synthesizes and elaborates the major contributions of this body of gender and macro research and, from this, extrapolates macro-level policies and tools that support gender equality. Among the tools identified is targeted government spending on physical and social infrastructure, the latter a relatively new conceptual tool that is discussed in detail. A key argument is that financing for gender equality that raises economy-wide productivity can be self-sustaining. As a result, both physical and social infrastructure spending have the ability to create fiscal space. This possibility offers a financing framework for gender equality expenditures. A contribution of this article is to critique mainstream monetary policies and identify alternative approaches that expand the toolkit to achieve gender equality goals. 

Keywords: monetary policy, gender, fiscal space, public investment, Fiscal policy

Topics: Economies, Public Finance, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Livelihoods

Year: 2019

Unraveling Relationships in the Energy-Poverty-Gender Nexus

Citation:

Skutsch, Margaret, and Joy Clancy. 2006. “Unraveling Relationships in the Energy-Poverty-Gender Nexus.” In Transforming Power: Energy, Environment, and Society in Conflict, edited by John Byrne, Leigh Glover, and Noah J. Toly, 61–89. New York: Routledge.

Authors: Margaret Skutsch, Joy Clancy

Abstract:

This chapter attempts to unravel some of the relationships in the gender, energy and poverty nexus. It starts by explaining that there is an energy dimension to poverty, and considers why energy policy and planning in most developing countries has paid scant attention to this. Energy poverty is a concept that captures the energy dimension of poverty. It has a number of effects on poor families, which tend to use less energy than wealthier ones. To understand more clearly why energy planning fails the poor, one has to understand that it involves two quite different sub-sectors: the modern sector, including renewable energy technologies (RETs), and the traditional sector. New and RETs can be considered part of the modern, commercial energy sector and are receiving increasing attention. Of several important reasons, the chapter explores: the structure of mainstream development theories and the failure of the energy sector to keep abreast of developments in other sectors as regards gender.

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 2006

Solar-Based Rural Electrification and Microenterprise Development in Latin America: A Gender Analysis

Citation:

Smith, Julie A. 2000. Solar-Based Rural Electrification and Microenterprise Development in Latin America: A Gender Analysis. Golden, Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Author: Julie A. Smith

Abstract:

Worldwide, an estimated 1.5 to 2 billion people do not have access to electricity, including 100 million in the Latin America region. Depending on the country, 30 to 90 % of this unelectrified Latin American population lives in rural areas where geographic remoteness and low energy consumption patterns may preclude the extension of the conventional electricity grid. Women are heavily impacted by the energy scarcity given their role as primary energy procurers and users for the household, agricultural and small industrial subsectors in developing countries. As a result, women spend disproportionately more time engaged in energy-related activities like carrying water and searching for cooking fuel.

This paper describes the use of decentralized renewable energy systems as one approach to meet the energy needs of rural areas in Latin America. It outlines the advantages of a decentralized energy paradigm to achieve international development goals, especially as they relate to women. The paper studies Enersol Associates, Inc.’s Solar-Based Rural Electrification model as an example of a decentralized energy program that has merged energy and development needs through the local involvement of energy entrepreneurs, non-governmental organizations and community members.

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Gender, Women, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, NGOs Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America

Year: 2000

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