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Gender Roles

Women’s Status and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A Quantitative Cross-National Analysis

Citation:

Ergas, Christina, and Richard York. 2012. “Women’s Status and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A Quantitative Cross-National Analysis.” Social Science Research 41 (4): 965–76.

Authors: Christina Ergas, Richard York

Abstract:

Global climate change is one of the most severe problems facing societies around the world. Very few assessments of the social forces that influence greenhouse gas emissions have examined gender inequality. Empirical research suggests that women are more likely than men to support environmental protection. Various strands of feminist theory suggest that this is due to women’s traditional roles as caregivers, subsistence food producers, water and fuelwood collectors, and reproducers of human life. Other theorists argue that women’s status and environmental protection are linked because the exploitation of women and the exploitation of nature are interconnected processes. For these theoretical and empirical reasons, we hypothesize that in societies with greater gender equality there will be relatively lower impacts on the environment, controlling for other factors. We test this hypothesis using quantitative analysis of cross-national data, focusing on the connection between women’s political status and CO2 emissions per capita. We find that CO2 emissions per capita are lower in nations where women have higher political status, controlling for GDP per capita, urbanization, industrialization, militarization, world-system position, foreign direct investment, the age dependency ratio, and level of democracy. This finding suggests that efforts to improve gender equality around the world may work synergistically with efforts to curtail global climate change and environmental degradation more generally.

Keywords: gender and environment, women's status, carbon dioxide emissions

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Political Participation

Year: 2012

Women’s Human Rights in a Changing Climate: Highlighting the Distributive Effects of Climate Policies

Citation:

Bendlin, Lena. 2014. “Women’s Human Rights in a Changing Climate: Highlighting the Distributive Effects of Climate Policies.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 27 (4): 680–98. 

Author: Lena Bendlin

Abstract:

A women’s rights perspective can inform and structure research on climate policy impacts on women. To date, climate policy analysis has mostly considered women as agents of climate protection, that is, objects of mitigation policies, rather than subjects in their own right. However, climate change mitigation involves direct and indirect distributive effects depending on which sectors are involved, which instruments are chosen and how funds are obtained and allocated. Since gender roles impact on individual livelihoods and activities, distributive effects are likely to be gendered. This paper suggests that women’s human rights can be used as a framework for research aiming to fill this gap. They provide a well-developed, tested range of criteria for gender justice. Such assessments would allow for a more systematic and comprehensive understanding of the gendered distributive effects of climate policies, notably with regard to the particularly understudied situation in the industrialized world.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Justice, Livelihoods, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2014

Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity of Inuit Women to Climate Change: A Case Study from Iqaluit, Nunavut

Citation:

Bunce, Anna, James Ford, Sherilee Harper, and Victoria Edge. 2016. “Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity of Inuit Women to Climate Change: A Case Study from Iqaluit, Nunavut.” Natural Hazards 83 (3): 1419–41

Authors: Anna Bunce, James Ford, Sherilee Harper, Victoria Edge

Abstract:

Climate change impacts in the Arctic will be differentiated by gender, yet few empirical studies have investigated how. We use a case study from the Inuit community of Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize vulnerability and adaptive capacity of Inuit women to changing climatic conditions. Interviews were conducted with 42 Inuit women and were complimented with focus group discussions and participant observation to examine how women have experienced and responded to changes in climate already observed. Three key traditional activities were identified as being exposed and sensitive to changing conditions: berry picking, sewing, and the amount of time spent on the land. Several coping mechanisms were described to help women manage these exposure sensitivities, such as altering the timing and location of berry picking, and importing seal skins for sewing. The adaptive capacity to employ these mechanisms differed among participants; however, mental health, physical health, traditional/western education, access to country food and store bought foods, access to financial resources, social networks, and connection to Inuit identity emerged as key components of Inuit women’s adaptive capacity. The study finds that gender roles result in different pathways through which changing climatic conditions affect people locally, although the broad determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity for women are consistent with those identified for men in the scholarship more broadly.

Keywords: climate change, women, adaptation, vulnerability, gender, Inuit, Nunavut

Topics: Education, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Health Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2016

Climate Change and Gender: Economic Empowerment of Women through Climate Mitigation and Adaptation?

Citation:

Bäthge, Sandra. 2010. “Climate Change and Gender: Economic Empowerment of Women through Climate Mitigation and Adaptation?” Working Paper, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn. 

Author: Sandra Bäthge

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This discussion paper attempts to describe the potential that lies in climate mitigation and adaptation for the economic empowerment of women. It intends to discuss the aspects to be considered in order to enhance economic empowerment with the help of mitigation and adaptation measures and to contribute to the genuine advancement of gender equality as against merely cementing existing roles” (Bäthge 2010, 5).

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year:

Gendered Discourse About Climate Change Policies

Citation:

Swim, Janet K., Theresa K. Vescio, Julia L. Dahl, and Stephanie J. Zawadzki. 2018. “Gendered Discourse About Climate Change Policies.” Global Environmental Change 48: 216–25.

Authors: Janet K. Swim, Theresa K. Vescio, Julia L. Dahl, Stephanie J. Zawadzki

Abstract:

Extending theory and research on gender roles and masculinity, this work predicts and finds that common ways of talking about climate change are gendered. Climate change policy arguments that focus on science and business are attributed to men more than to women. By contrast, policy arguments that focus on ethics and environmental justice are attributed to women more than men (Study 1). Men show gender matching tendencies, being more likely to select (Study 2) and positively evaluate (Study 3) arguments related to science and business than ethics and environmental justice. Men also tend to attribute negative feminine traits to other men who use ethics and environmental justice arguments, which mediates the relation between type of argument and men’s evaluation of the argument (Study 3). The gendered nature of public discourse about climate change and the need to represent ethical and environmental justice topics in this discourse are discussed.

Keywords: gender, climate change, political discourse, masculinity, environmental justice

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Justice

Year: 2018

Margins, Silences, and Bottom Rungs: How to Overcome the Underestimation of Power in the Study of International Relations

Citation:

Enloe, Cynthia. 2004. “Margins, Silences, and Bottom Rungs: How to Overcome the Underestimation of Power in the Study of International Relations.” In The Curious Feminist: Searching for Women in a New Age of Empire, 19–42. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Author: Cynthia Enloe

Annotation:

Summary: 
When I think about what it is that seems so unrealistic (yes, that loaded term) in most formal analyses of international politics, what strikes me is how far their authors are willing to go in underestimating the amounts and varieties of power it takes to form and sustain any given set of relationships between states. This conclusion, of course, rings oddly. So many analysts, after all, profess to be interested chiefly in power – who has it, how they got it, what they try to do with it. Their profession notwithstanding, I believe that by concentrating so single-mindedly on what is referred to euphemistically as the ‘centre’, scores of analysts have produced a naive portrait of how international politics really (there's that tricky concept again) work.
 
No individual or social group finds themselves on the ‘margins’ of any web of relationships – a football league, an industry, an empire, a military alliance, a state – without some other individual or group having accumulated enough power to create the ‘centre’ somewhere else. Beyond its creation, too, there is the yearly and daily business of maintaining the margin where it currently is and the centre where it now is. It is harder for those at the alleged centre to hear the hopes, fears and explanations of those on the margins, not because of physical distance – the margin may be two blocks from the White House, four stops on the Paris metro from the Quai d'Orsay – but because it takes resources and access to be ‘heard’ when and where it matters. (Summary from Cambridge University Press)

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy

Year: 2004

Gender and the Role of Women in Colombia’s Peace Process

Citation:

Bouvier, Virginia M. 2016. Gender and the Role of Women in Colombia’s Peace Process. New York: UN Women.

Author: Virginia M. Bouvier

Abstract:

The promises and visions articulated in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 and subsequent UN resolutions and position papers that recognize the connection between gender equity and women’s participation in all aspects of peace processes and peacebuilding on the one hand, and international peace and security on the other, have not been fulfilled. Nonetheless, these resolutions have opened the way for advocacy that has had some successes in specific contexts. Colombia offers one such case.
 
Through desk research, literature review, and personal interviews, this paper provides an overview of the Colombian internal armed conflict and the peace process currently underway to transform it. It begins with an historical overview of the conflict, and then explores some of its gender dimensions. It analyzes the differential impact of the internal armed conflict on the lives of women and men, LBGTI persons, and boys, girls and adolescents, as well as the intersectionality between multiple components of identity, including gender, class, age, ethnicity, and region. The paper then turns to the peace process. It explores the roles of women in preparing the ground for a political solution to Colombia’s internal armed conflict. It considers women’s official, semi-official, and unofficial roles at, around, and outside the peace talks that were launched in late 2012 between the Colombian government and the Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC-EP). This paper underscores the essentially gendered nature of both war and peace. It assesses shifting gender roles and ideologies, and the ways that they intersect with a peace process and transitions in a post-Accord period, particularly in relation to issues of transitional justice. Finally, my paper explores how greater consideration of gendered dynamics, as well as increased participation of women in the peace process and all commissions and bodies created to implement peace accords, will better equip Colombia to address the challenges ahead and will help ensure a more sustainable peace. 

Topics: Age, Armed Conflict, Class, Ethnicity, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, peace and security, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Gender Differences in Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Participation in Group-based Approaches: An Intra-household Analysis From Rural Kenya

Citation:

Ngigi, Marther W., Ulrike Mueller, and Regina Birner. 2017. “Gender Differences in Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Participation in Group-Based Approaches: An Intra-Household Analysis from Rural Kenya.” Ecological Economics 138: 99-108.

Authors: Marther W. Ngigi, Ulrike Mueller, Regina Birner

Abstract:

Existing studies on adaptation to climate change mainly focus on a comparison of male-headed and female-headed households. Aiming at a more nuanced gender analysis, this study examines how husbands and wives within the same household perceive climate risks and use group-based approaches as coping strategies. The data stem from a unique intra-household survey involving 156 couples in rural Kenya. The findings indicate that options for adapting to climate change closely interplay with husbands' and wives' roles and responsibilities, social norms, risk perceptions and access to resources. A higher percentage of wives were found to adopt crop-related strategies, whereas husbands employ livestock- and agroforestry-related strategies. Besides, there are gender-specific climate information needs, trust in information and preferred channels of information dissemination. Further, it turned out that group-based approaches benefit husbands and wives differently. Policy interventions that rely on group-based approaches should reflect the gender reality on the ground in order to amplify men's and women's specific abilities to manage risks and improve well-being outcomes in the face of accelerating climate change. 

Keywords: perceptions, adaptation, Group-based approaches, gender, Intra-household analysis, Kenya

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Households Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2017

Local Gender Contract and Adaptive Capacity in Smallholder Irrigation Farming: A Case Study from the Kenyan Drylands

Citation:

Caretta, Martina Angela, and Lowe Börjeson. 2015. “Local Gender Contract and Adaptive Capacity in Smallholder Irrigation Farming: A Case Study from the Kenyan Drylands.” Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 22 (5): 644–61.

Authors: Martina Angela Caretta, Lowe Börjeson

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article presents the local gender contract of a smallholder irrigation farming community in Sibou, Kenya. Women’s role in subsistence farming in Africa has mostly been analyzed through the lens of gender division of labor. In addition to this, we used the concept of ‘local gender contract’ to analyze cultural and material preconditions shaping gender-specific tasks in agricultural production, and consequently, men’s and women’s different strategies for adapting to climate variability. We show that the introduction of cash crops, as a trigger for negotiating women’s and men’s roles in the agricultural production, results in a process of gender contract renegotiation, and that families engaged in cash cropping are in the process of shifting from a ‘local resource contract’ to a ‘household income contract.’ Based on our analysis, we argue that a transformation of the local gender contract will have a direct impact on the community’s adaptive capacity climate variability. It is, therefore, important to take the negotiation of local gender contracts into account in assessments of farming communities’ adaptive capacity.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Este trabajo presenta el contrato local de género de una comunidad de pequeños agricultores de agricultura de riego en Sibou, Kenia. El rol de las mujeres en la agricultura de subsistencia en África ha sido mayormente analizado con una óptica de la división generizada del trabajo. Además de esto, utilizamos el concepto de “contrato de género local” para analizar las precondiciones culturales y materiales que dan forma a las tareas específicas de cada género en la producción agrícola, y consecuentemente, las diferentes estrategias de hombres y mujeres para adaptarse a la variabilidad del clima. Mostramos que la introducción de cultivos comerciales, como disparador para la negociación de los roles de las mujeres y los hombres en la producción agrícola, resulta en un proceso de renegociación del contrato de género, y que las familias que participan del cultivo comercial se encuentran en el proceso de cambio de un “contrato local de recursos” a un “contrato de ingresos del hogar”. Basado en nuestro análisis, sostenemos que una transformación del contrato local de género tendrá un impacto directo en la capacidad adaptativa de la comunidad a la variabilidad del clima. Es por lo tanto importante tener en cuenta a los contratos de género locales al evaluar la capacidad adaptativa de las comunidades agricultoras.
 
CHINESE ABSTRACT:
本文呈现肯尼亚希普(Sibou)中的一个小农灌溉农业小区的在地性别契约。女性在非洲口粮耕种中的角色,多半透过性别劳动分工的视角检视之。除此之外,我们运用“在地性别契约”的概念,分析形塑农业生产中特定性别工作的文化与物质先决条件,及其所导致的男性与女性调试气候变异的不同策略。我们将显示,经济作物的引进,做为协商女性与男性在农业生产中的角色之触媒,导致性别契约的再协商过程,从事经济作物耕作的家庭,则正在经历从“在地资源契约”转向“家户收入契约”的过程。根据我们的分析,我们主张,在地性别契约的转变,将直接影响小区对气候变异的调适能力。因此,在评估农业社群的调适能力时,考量在地性别契约的协商是至关重要的。

Keywords: local gender contract, climate variability, East African drylands, smallholder irrigation farming, gendered adaptive capacity, contrato de género local, variabilidad climática, tierras secas del África Oriental, agricultura de riego a pequeña escala, capacidad adaptativa generizada, 在地性别契约, 气候变异, 东非旱地, 小农灌溉农作, 性别化的调适能力

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2015

Gendering Climate Change: Geographical Insights

Citation:

Sultana, Farhana. 2014. “Gendering Climate Change: Geographical Insights.” The Professional Geographer 66 (3): 372–81.

Author: Farhana Sultana

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 
Although climate change is expected to increase vulnerabilities, marginalization, and sufferings of many in the Global South, impacts will be unevenly felt across social strata. Intersectionalities of social difference, especially along gender and class lines, differentiate the ways in which impacts of climate change are experienced and responded to. Feminist political ecology and feminist geography insights can explain how different groups of people understand, respond to, and cope with variability and uncertainties in nuanced and critical ways, thereby elucidating the gendered implications of climate change. With a regional focus on South Asia, the article underscores the key issues that can be applied geographically elsewhere. Gendered implications of climate change in South Asia are particularly poignant as patriarchal norms, inequities, and inequalities often place women and men in differentiated positions in their abilities to respond to and cope with dramatic changes in socioecological relations but also foreground the complex ways in which social power relations operate in communal responses to adaptation strategies. This is particularly evident in water-related productive and reproductive tasks in agrarian societies that constitute the majority of South Asia. As climate change is expected to exacerbate both ecological degradation (e.g., water shortages) and water-related natural hazards (e.g., floods, cyclones), thereby transforming gender–water geographies, it becomes imperative to undertake careful multiscalar and critical analyses to better inform policymaking. This article elucidates the complex ways that climate change will affect gender and social relations, thereby highlighting the ways that existing policy narratives and adaptation programs might be better informed by geographical insights. To this end, the article encourages feminist and critical geographers to more forcefully and fruitfully engage with global debates on climate change. 
 
CHINESE ABSTRACT: 
儘管气候变迁预期会增加众多全球南方人口的脆弱性、边缘化与苦难, 但不同的社会阶层将不均地感受到这些冲击。社会差异的多元交织, 特别是性别与阶级的轴线, 差异化了气候变迁冲击被感知与回应的方式。女性主义政治生态学与女性主义地理学的洞见, 可以透过细緻且批判的方式, 解释不同的社群如何理解、回应与处理变异性及不确定性, 因而阐明了气候变迁的性别化意涵。本文透过聚焦南亚区域, 凸显在地理上亦适用于其他地方的议题。气候变迁在南亚的性别化意涵特别深切, 因为父权常规、不均与不平等, 经常将女性和男性回应及处理社会经济关係剧烈变革的能力, 置放在差异化的位置, 但也同时凸显了社区对调节策略的回应中, 社会权力关係运作的复杂方式。此一现象, 在与水资源相关的生产工作与再生产工作的农业社会中特别显着, 而此般农业社会构成了南亚的绝大部份。当气候变迁预期会同时加剧生态退化 (例如水资源短缺) 以及与水相关的自然灾害 (例如洪水和飓风), 并因而改变性别与水的地理时, 着手从事仔细的多尺度与批判性分析以更佳地告知政策制定, 便显得格外重要。本文阐明气候变迁将会影响性别与社会关係的复杂方式, 从而凸显地理学洞见得以更佳地影响政策叙事和调适计画的方式。为此, 本文鼓励女性主义与批判地理学者更有力且多产地涉入气候变迁的全球辩论。
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT: 
Aunque es de esperarse que con el cambio climático aumenten las vulnerabilidades, la marginalización y el sufrimiento de muchos en el Sur Global, los impactos se sentirán de manera desigual a través de los estratos sociales. Las interseccionalidades de diferencia social, en especial a lo largo de líneas de género y clase, diferencian las maneras como se experimentan los impactos del cambio climático, y cómo se reacciona ante los mismos. La perspicacia propia de la ecología política feminista y de la geografía feminista puede explicar el modo como diferentes grupos de gente entienden, reaccionan y se amoldan a la variabilidad e incertidumbres, con estilos variados y críticos, elucidando así las implicaciones que pueda tener el cambio climático por género. Tomando como área de estudio focal al Sur de Asia, el artículo hace énfasis sobre puntos clave que pudiesen tener aplicación geográfica en otras partes. Las implicaciones de género del cambio climático en aquella región son particularmente conmovedoras en cuanto normas patriarcales, inequidades y desigualdades, a menudo colocan a las mujeres y los hombres en posiciones diferenciadas en lo que concierne a su capacidad de responder y amoldarse a cambios dramáticos en las relaciones socioecológicas, pero que también ponen en primer plano las maneras complejas como las relaciones de poder social obran en las respuestas comunales sobre estrategias de adaptación. Esto es evidente particularmente en las tareas productivas y reproductivas relacionadas con el agua en las sociedades agrarias que predominan en el Sur de Asia. En la medida en que se espera que el cambio climático empeore tanto la degradación ecológica (por ejemplo, escasez hídrica) como los riesgos naturales relacionados con agua (por ejemplo, inundaciones, ciclones), transformando así las geografías de género-agua, se hace imperativo emprender cuidadosos análisis críticos y a escalas múltiples para documentar mejor los procesos formuladores de políticas. Este artículo esclarece el muy complejo panorama del modo como el cambio climático afectará las relaciones sociales y de género, destacando así las maneras como las actuales narrativas de políticas públicas y programas de adaptación podrían estar mejor fundamentados en los aportes de la ciencia geográfica. Con este propósito en mente, el artículo alienta a los geógrafos feministas y críticos a comprometerse más decidida y fructíferamente en los debates globales sobre cambio climático.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, gender, geography, vulnerability, 调适, 气候变迁, 性别, 地理, 脆弱性, adaptación, cambio climático, geografía, vulnerabilidad, gênero

Topics: Class, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2014

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