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Gender Roles

Predicament of Landlessness: A Critical Study of Women’s Rights over Land in Assam

Citation:

Hazarika, Kanki, and V. Sita.  2020. “Predicament of Landlessness: A Critical Study of Women’s Rights over Land in Assam.” South Asian Survey 27 (1): 19–36.

Authors: Kanki Hazarika, V. Sita

Abstract:

Land rights to women is one of the significant markers of a gender-just society. It is a basic human right that provides welfare, economic and social security, strong bargaining power and various other benefits. Ownership right over land is also critical to the citizens in terms of exercising and availing rights guaranteed by the state. Based on a narrative from the fieldwork done among the Bodos in Assam, this paper explores the significance of land rights in accessing various rights and welfare programmes and how women are affected in this regard due to lack of land rights. It discusses how a woman’s lack of rights over land can lead to a status of homelessness and place her in a socially and economically precarious position. The landlessness or homelessness status restricts her from accessing various benefits provided by the state. In this context, the paper also looks into the social construction of gendered norms on land rights of the Bodo community. Construction of societal norms on individual’s rights over landed property, inheritance are generally determined by kinship and affinal ideologies of a community. Such norms are often gendered that deny rights to women over this material resource. The most affected are the single, widow and separated women who have no support from the families. Communities having patriarchal ideologies consider women as passive, dependent and secondary subject and accordingly, gendered norms are constructed. Even the state apparatuses, which is often male-dominated, locate woman within the realm of the family and design policies for women as ‘beneficiaries’ and ‘dependents.’ The gendered norms on land rights of a community have a broader impact that goes beyond the community level and enmeshed with the affairs of the state.

Keywords: Bodo, community, citizen, land rights, norms, state, women

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2020

Climate Change Adaptation and Women's Land Rights in Uganda and Kenya: Creating Legal Pathways for Building the Resilience of Women

Citation:

Kabaseke, Charlotte. 2020. “Climate Change Adaptation and Women's Land Rights in Uganda and Kenya: Creating Legal Pathways for Building the Resilience of Women.” Gender & Behavior 18 (2): 15458–5475.

Author: Charlotte Kabaseke

Abstract:

Climate change poses a considerable threat for women in developing countries due to their unique vulnerabilities. In East Africa, women largely depend on land for their livelihood. They are responsible for generative tasks, among others, food and energy supply for their households and are involved in 70 % of agricultural production and labour, yet they have limited land rights. Whereas the law at international, regional (Africa), Sub - regional (East African) and national levels guarantees women's right to land ownership, women still have limited access, use, control and ownership of land. This is mainly due to the deep rooted patriarchal society and cultural practices and beliefs. As a result, women are unable to use the land to invest in lasting adaptation measures. This paper analyses the connection between land rights of women and climate change adaptation in Uganda and Kenya and how existing law and policy respond to the normative gaps and practices in respect to land rights of women. The paper examines the legal provisions on women's rights to land at the international, regional, sub-regional and national levels to identify state compliance with the legal provisions in respect to women's land rights. The paper argues that whereas the law guarantees women's land rights, there has been a problem of implementation due to cultural barriers and stereotypes. This article is primarily a desk study where descriptive and analytical methods are used. The doctrinal research approach is employed, where a review of the legal framework on the land rights of women at international, regional, sub regional and national levels is done. Secondary data on women's land rights and their role in enhancing women's adaptive capacity and resilience is reviewed. The article reveals that ensuring women's land rights is key in enhancing their adaptive capacity, hence strengthening their resilience. 

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya, Uganda

Year: 2020

Does Gender Inclusion Really Matter in Sustainable Food Systems?

Citation:

Edewor, Sarah Edore, and Agatha Osivweneta Ogbe. 2020. "Does Gender Inclusion Really Matter in Sustainable Food Systems?" In Development Sustainable Food Systems, Policies, and Securities, edited by Elijah Obayelu and Oluwakemi Adeola Obayelu, 181-95. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Authors: Sarah Edore Edewor, Agatha Osivweneta Ogbe

Annotation:

Summary:
Over the past decades, the food systems in developing countries have transformed rapidly. However, the rise in social inequalities has negatively affected, the vulnerable groups as the benefits associated with these transformations are still skewed. This chapter examined the role of gender inclusiveness in promoting sustainable food systems. Employment trends revealed that agricultural employment was higher among males. Five asymmetries (assets, access to agricultural market, access to technology, resilience and risks, and decision making) were identified as limitations to sustainable food systems stemming from the gender differentiated roles. The gender action learning system methodology was adopted using strategies such as empowering men and women through community action learning during catalyst workshops, gender mainstreaming for innovation and institutional change at organizational level, and through advocacy network for policy improvement at the national level. The study concluded that gender inclusion played a crucial role in achieving sustainable food systems. (Summary from original source)

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, Security, Food Security

Year: 2020

Analysis of Gender Parity in Climate Change Adaptation Actions within Kajiado and Kiambu Counties, Kenya

Citation:

Nunow, Abdimajid, Nzioka John Muthama, Josiah Kinama. 2020. “Analysis of Gender Parity in Climate Change Adaptation Actions within Kajiado and Kiambu Counties, Kenya.” East African Journal of Science Technology and Innovation 1(2). https://doi.org/10.37425/eajsti.1.2.138

Authors: Abdimajid Nunow, Nzioka John Muthama, Josiah Kinama

Abstract:

Kenya remains susceptible to climate change due to the dependence on rain-fed agriculture with limited climate change adaptation capacity. This study sought to establish the influence of gender roles on climate change adaptation in two different ago-climatic zones namely, Kajiado East and Central within Kajiado County in the arid part of Kenya and Kabete and Kikuyu within Kiambu County in the highlands region. A survey was conducted on 312 households, six gendered focus group discussions, and fourteen key informant interviews. Frequency analysis was used for descriptive statistics. Chi-square was used to test for statistical associations between variables (p≤0.05). The findings showed that Kajiado County has experienced more climate change-related household food insecurity in comparison to Kiambu County. Only 12% of the respondents in Kiambu County indicated having experienced extreme household food insecurity related to climate change. The findings showed 66% of the respondents in Kajiado County considered herd mobility as the most important climate change adaptation strategy while in Kiambu 56% of the respondents considered changing of planting dates as the most important climate change adaptation strategy. Frequency analysis results indicated that there is more gender disparity in Kajiado than Kiambu County as shown by women having the least access and control over household land in both the rainy and extended drought periods. The gender disparity was confirmed by the chi-square test. Chi-square test results for full control of household land during the extended drought season in Kajiado county was (c2= 102.3, df = p≤ 0.1). It was concluded that the autonomous nature of the adaptation strategies coupled with the influence of gender roles impedes achieving effective climate change adaptation strategies at the household level. There is a need for planned gender-sensitive adaptation actions to cushion local communities against climate change and enhance household food security.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, gender, Kajiado, Kiambu

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2020

Going Back to the Well: Women, Agency, and Climate Adaptation

Citation:

Huyer, Sophia, Tatiana Gumucio. 2020. “Going Back to the Well: Women, Agency, and Climate Adaptation.” World Journal of Agriculture and Soil Science 5(3). 

Authors: Sophia Huyer, Tatiana Gumucio

Abstract:

Rising temperatures and more extreme weather associated with climate change are expected to exacerbate existing social and gender inequalities across the globe. Climate change has differential effects on women and men: they are exposed to different climate shocks and experience different impacts related to gender differences in roles, rights, and opportunities. Women’s knowledge, networks, and assets are a significant aspect of resilience, but little attention is given to enabling their capacity as active agents. Instead the focus is on women as vulnerable victims of climate change. Evidence is emerging that adaptation and mitigation approaches in climate-resilient agriculture can and must reduce women’s and men’s vulnerabilities, promote their capacities for resilience, support women to exercise their agency, and, consequently, increase gender equality. Not only do we need to implement climate approaches that benefit women, we need to increase women’s resilience if we are going to effectively address and mitigate climate impacts. If we don’t, we will be on track to miss the 2 degree target – and at same time gender inequality will increase worldwide.

A recent review of literature and regional case studies with researchers from four regions identified the critical dimensions of gender in/equality in climate-resilient agriculture. They are: (1) participation in decision-making at different levels, (2) work burden, (3) access to and use of productive resources such as agroclimatic information, technology, livelihood incomes, and credit, and (4) collective action. Models for action are presented that show how gender-responsive approaches can promote equality while increasing resilience for all.

Keywords: 'gender', climate, women, agency, equality, equity, technology, collective, decision-making, workload

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Livelihoods

Year: 2020

Gender-Specific Livelihood Strategies for Coping with Climate Change-Induced Food Insecurity in Southeast Nigeria

Citation:

Anugwa, Ifeoma Q., Agwu E Agwu, Murari Suvedi, Suresh Babu. 2020. “Gender-Specific Livelihood Strategies for Coping with Climate Change-Induced Food Insecurity in Southeast Nigeria.” Food Security 12 (5): 1065-84.

Authors: Ifeoma Q. Anugwa, Agwu E. Agwu, Murari Suvedi, Suresh Babu

Abstract:

This study assessed the livelihood strategies adopted by husbands and wives within the same households for coping with climate- induced food insecurity in Southeast Nigeria. Collective and bargaining approaches were used in collecting individual and intra- household-level data of 120 pairs of spouses in Southeast Nigeria; husbands and wives were interviewed separately. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and household surveys were used to elicit responses from the respondents. Quantitative data for the study were analyzed using percentage, mean scores, and multinomial logit regression analysis. Results of the study revealed that 90% of the wives were more food insecure than their husbands (79.2%). The respondents noted that the observed changes in the climate contributed immensely to their food insecurity situation. To cope with food insecurity, a slightly higher proportion (47.3% and 14.2%) of wives adopted on-farm and non-farm strategies, respectively, while men (39.8%) adopted more off-farm strategies (38.5%). Additionally, results of the multinomial logit regression revealed that market distance and credit access significantly influenced the choice of husbands’ and wives’ engagement in off-farm livelihood strategy; sourcing information on climate change issues significantly influenced women’s choice of engagement in off-farm/non-farm strategy; and receiving remittances significantly influenced men’s choice of engagement in non-farm strategy. The study concluded that, although women play crucial roles in addressing food insecurity within their households, gender-specific obstacles typically impede their abilities to cope with climate-induced food insecurity. 

Keywords: climate change, food security, livelihood strategies, multinomial logit regression, gender

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

Gender, Conflict, and Global Environmental Change

Citation:

Fröhlich, Christiane, and Giovanna Gioli. 2015. “Gender, Conflict, and Global Environmental Change.” Peace Review 27 (2): 137–46.

 

Authors: Christiane Fröhlich, Giovanna Gioli

Annotation:

Summary:
"Gender has long been identified as an important variable in both conflict (de-)escalation processes and vulnerability or adaptive capacity toward global environmental change.We understand gender as the socioculturally and politico-economically constructed roles and responsibilities ascribed to men and women that change over time, are context- and history-specific, and are inseparable from power relations. With increasing scarcity and degradation of land and water, those who are poor in resources, income, and power—many of them women—lose their rights to use these existential resources. The loss of livelihood due to environmental change, regardless of whether it was caused mainly by global warming or more by bad governance, is often the starting point of resource-related conflicts on the micro and meso levels. Such escalation processes have gender-differentiated causes and consequences: each societal group is affected differently both by environmental change and by conflict, depending on its specific position in the respective structures along which access to resources, income, and decision-making power is distributed. This position is defined by various in- and out-group markers: age, ethnicity, (dis-)ability, religion, and so on—and, crucially, by gender. Thus, gender is a relevant category both for the analysis of (de-)escalation processes in violent conflicts and for examinations of the different vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities of women and men to (global) environmental change. This understanding, however, has yet to be translated into a comprehensive research framework that integrates gender as an analytical category into environmental and conflict research. With no pretense of being exhaustive, we provide a critical review of the main frameworks and research gaps in the relevant fields with a special regard for the current or potential integration of a gender lens. These include environmental conflict research; gender and environment; and gender and conflict. Hence, provided is a list of common fallacies and gaps, thereby uncovering popular myths and answering the very crucial question: What are we talking about when referring to gender in the context of conflict and global environmental change?" (Fröhlich & Gioli 2015, 137).
 

Topics: Conflict, Resource Conflict, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods

Year: 2015

Indigenous Perspectives on Gender, Power and Climate-Related Displacement

Citation:

Pentlow, Sarah. 2020. "Indigenous Perspectives on Gender, Power and Climate-Related Displacement." Forced Migration Review 64: 28-31.

 

Author: Sarah Pentlow

Abstract:

The impacts of climate change are most severely felt by those who live closest to their natural habitats. Indigenous Peoples in the Greater Mekong subregion of Southeast Asia are facing threats to their livelihoods and traditional ways of life and are being forced to migrate as an adaptation strategy. Within these communities, women bear the brunt of the work to adapt as they, culturally, are responsible for the food supply and livestock care. In this context, the Climate Smart Women initiative undertook village-level field research in selected Indigenous communities in Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam to understand the gendered impacts of climate change at a community level and how communities are responding. Pre-existing inequalities are exacerbated by climate change, resulting in differentiated vulnerabilities.

 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Indigenous, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam

Year: 2020

‘We Are Free When Water Is Available’: Gendered Livelihood Implications of Sporadic Water Supply in Northern Ghana

Citation:

Jeil, Emmanuel Bintaayi, Kabila Abass, and John Kuumuori Ganle. 2020. “‘We Are Free When Water Is Available’: Gendered Livelihood Implications of Sporadic Water Supply in Northern Ghana.” Local Environment 25 (4): 320-35.

Authors: Emmanuel Bintaayi Jeil, Kabila Abass, John Kuumuori Ganle

Abstract:

Water shortages may present different and diverse implications for gender subgroups particularly in low-income settings. Yet, little research has documented the gendered livelihood implications of water shortages in Ghana. Based on a cross-sectional mixed method research involving a survey of 250 household heads and complemented with a qualitative study of 86 participants, the paper examines the differential effects of sporadic water supply in Tatale-Sanguli District of Northern Ghana. Our findings suggest that the livelihood effects of sporadic water supply in Tatale-Sanguli area are gendered, with females being disproportionately affected as compared to males. These differential effects are often framed by both gender role differentiation and inequities in access to vital productive resources and critical assets such as bicycles, tricycles and motor bikes. These findings highlight not only the need for local government and non-governmental organisations to step up efforts in water provision, but also to recognise the gendered effects of water shortages in Tatale-Sanguli District. Key to policy is also to ensure that programmatic interventions during water shortages take account of the likely gendered effects and differentiated burdens.

Keywords: gender, livelihood, water supply, Northern Ghana, sporadic

Topics: Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2020

Women Transcending 'Boundaries' in Indigenous Peacebuilding in Kenya’s Sotik/Borabu Border Conflict

Citation:

Ombati, Mokua. 2015. “Women Transcending ‘Boundaries’ in Indigenous Peacebuilding in Kenya’s Sotik/Borabu Border Conflict.” Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies, 4 (1): 637–61.

Author: Mokua Ombati

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Opinion and understanding on the consequences of violent conflict on women, and the importance of their participation in peacebuilding processes is varied. What exactly are women’s roles in violent conflict transformation and peacebuilding? What can be done to enhance women's role and contribution to peacebuilding processes? This study addresses these and other questions concerning women’s experiences of and responses to violent conflict. Drawing from the human needs approach, the study explores grassroots women’s engagement of peacebuilding through the promotion of social capital as both a public and private good. Based on an ethnographic case study of Kenya’s Sotik/Borabu cross-border conflict, the study explores how women have (re)discovered, (re)formulated, (re)framed and (re)adapted their traditional gender roles for peacebuilding, empowerment and development. The adopted indigenous conflict resolution approaches, knowledge and citizen peacekeeping are playing a prominent role in reappraising and building sustainable peace. Individually and collectively, women contribute to peacebuilding in many ways; though their contributions are often neglected because they take avant-garde forms, occur outside formal peace processes or are considered extensions of women’s existing gender roles.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT: 
La opinión y comprensión de las consecuencias de los conflictos violentos entre las mujeres y la importancia de su participación en los procesos de paz es variada. Este estudio aborda las experiencias de las mujeres y sus respuestas ante conflictos violentos. A partir del enfoque de las necesidades humanas, el estudio explora el compromiso de las mujeres de base en la construcción de la paz a través de la promoción del capital social. A partir del estudio etnográfico del conflicto transfronterizo Sotik/Borabu (Kenia), se explora cómo las mujeres han (re)descubierto, (re)formulado, (re)enmarcado y (re)adaptado sus roles tradicionales de género para la consolidación de la paz, el empoderamiento y desarrollo. El enfoque, conocimientos y mantenimiento de la paz ciudadana tomados en la resolución del conflicto indígena adoptado están desempeñando un papel destacado en la nueva valoración y la construcción de una paz sostenible. Individual y colectivamente, las mujeres contribuyen a la consolidación de la paz en muchos aspectos; aunque sus contribuciones a menudo no se toman en cuenta porque toman formas vanguardistas, realizan procesos formales de paz o se consideran parte de su rol de género.

Keywords: women, cross border conflicts, peacebuilding

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2015

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