Gender Roles

Green Revolution: Impact on Gender


Sobha, I. 2007. “Green Revolution: Impact on Gender.” Journal of Human Ecology 22(2): 107-113.

Author: I. Sobha


Women of third world countries, or in the developing countries, play a major role in managing natural resources. Women have always had a close relationship with the trees and the forests and traditionally they have gathered products, which have provided them with the basic three ‘Fs’ of fuel, food and fodder and for a variety of other uses. While men consider the forest more in terms of commercial possibilities, women see it as a source of basic domestic need. They have a profound knowledge of the plants, animals and ecological processes around them. Their role in agriculture and animal husbandry as well as in the household activities makes them the daily managers of the living environment. Third world peasants, who were mainly women, for over centuries have innovated in agriculture and the methods they used have been lasting and sustainable, this knowledge which was acquired for over centuries began to be eroded and erased with western model of green revolution. Globally, the major threat to the environment, in terms of promoting agricultural exports, has been through the replacement of traditional food crops by hybrid cash crops. Degradation of land, pollution through pesticides and fertilizers and loss of biodiversity has been some of the more disturbing environmental impacts. Because of the unchecked pollution women are the worst affected, they have also caused health problems among children and men. The present paper examines the impact of such changes on women with the help of a few research studies. 

Keywords: displacement, environment, Green Revolution, poverty, strategy

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Gender, Gender Roles

Year: 2007

‘‘Si No Comemos Tortilla, No Vivimos:’’ Women, Climate Change, and Food Security in Central Mexico


Bee, Beth A. 2014. "'Si No Comemos Tortilla, No Vivimos:' Women, Climate Change, and Food Security in Central Mexico." Agriculture & Human Values 30: 607–620.

Author: Beth A. Bee


In recent years, it has become clear that food security is intimately related to complex environmental, social, political, and economic issues. Even though several studies document the impact of climate on food production and agriculture, a growing segment of research examines how climate change impacts food systems and associated livelihoods. Furthermore, while women play a crucial role in providing food security for their families, little research exists that examines the nexus among gender relations, climate change, and household food security. This study investigates these relationships by asking: (1) how is the production and reproduction of knowledge about food security and climate change shaped by gender and lived experience, and (2) how does this knowledge influence attitudes and strategies for maintaining food security in a changing climate? Drawing on the results of research in two communities in central Mexico, I argue that women’s perceptions of and strategies for maintaining food security are derived from their socio-political, environmental, and economic contexts. This study contributes to both the growing literature on the gender dynamics of climate change, as well as debates about the role of bioengineered seeds in helping farmers to adapt to a changing climate.

Keywords: food security, gender, climate change, adaptive capacity, mexico, Knowledge

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2014

Examining Climate Change and Food Security in Ghana Through an Intersectional Framework


Wood, Alexa L., Prince Ansah, Louie Rivers III and Arika Ligmann-Zielinska. 2019. “Examining Climate Change and Food Security in Ghana Through an Intersectional Framework.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 48 (2): 329-348.

Authors: Alexa Wood, Prince Ansah, Louie Rivers III, Arika Ligmann-Zielinska


As the effects of climate change intensify, subsistence farmers in Ghana are expected to face increased food insecurity, due to their reliance on rainfed agriculture. Within households, young women are expected to support all aspects of household food security, and will experience a more burdensome load of labor, as a dwindling stock of natural resources will make daily tasks more time consuming. The intersection of age, gender, and location inhibits young women's decision-making responsibilities and wage-earning potential. Climate change exacerbates this dynamic, which restricts opportunities to acquire sufficient food and places increased stress on household food systems. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: climate change, food security, intersectionality, Ghana, farming

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2019

Gender Roles and Nuclear Disarmament Activism, 1954-1965


Wittner, Lawrence S. 2000. “Gender Roles and Nuclear Disarmament Activism, 1954-1965.” Gender & History 12 (1): 197–222.

Author: Lawrence S. Wittner


“Changes in science and technology do not always produce revolutions in consciousness, but they can certainly have an impact, especially when the changes portend mass annihilation. Thus, not surprisingly, the terrifying preparations for nuclear war of the mid twentieth century – including atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons with a thousand times the explosive power of the bomb that obliterated Hiroshima – and the stark nuclear confrontations among the great powers sent new currents of thought swirling off in numerous directions. Gender roles could hardly remain unaffected and, in fact, underwent the beginning of a significant shift. Indeed, scholars looking for the missing link between the conventional gender norms of the immediate postwar decade and the emerging women’s liberation movement of the late 1960s would do well to examine the impact of the Bomb upon popular consciousness in the intervening years. And the first place to look for this transition in thinking about gender is at the worldwide welling up of nuclear disarmament activism” (Wittner 2000, 197).

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Weapons /Arms, Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Countries: Japan, United States of America

Year: 2000

Pure Milk, Not Poison: Women Strike for Peace and the Test Ban Treaty of 1963


Swerdlow, Amy. 2019. “Pure Milk, Not Poison: Women Strike for Peace and the Test Ban Treaty of 1963.” In Rocking The Ship Of State: Toward A Feminist Peace Politics, edited by Adrienne Harris and Ynestra King, 115–30. New York: Routledge.

Author: Amy Swerdlow


This chapter will examine the motherist rhetoric and tactics of Women Strike for Peace (WSP), a grass-roots, middle-class women's peace movement of the 1960s, in the context of the contemporary debate among scholars and activists regarding the relationship of female culture to radical politics and to the empowerment of women. This debate, in its most polarized form, pits the concept of female difference against the feminist goal of sexual equality. For feminist peace activists, a crucial question today is whether separatist peace groups, which make their appeal to women on the basis of their special connection to life preservation and moral guardianship, do not in the end undermine women's political power and even the cause of peace by reinforcing a gender system that encourages male violence in the family and the state.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Political Participation, Weapons /Arms, Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Year: 2019

‘Basically Feminist’: Women Strike for Peace, Maternal Peace Activism, and Memory of the Women’s Peace Movement


Coburn, Jon. 2021. “‘Basically Feminist’: Women Strike for Peace, Maternal Peace Activism, and Memory of the Women’s Peace Movement.” Journal of Women’s History 33 (2): 136–62.

Author: Jon Coburn


This article examines the varying historical expressions of activists in Women Strike for Peace (WSP) to assess how changing gender ideology and feminist beliefs influenced the memory of the women's peace movement. A transformation in collective identity occurred among WSPers in the late 1960s, causing the group to engage with the women's movement in a way that had not previously occurred. Exploring how activists understood their past, this article reveals that leaders revised their group's historical narrative to craft a collective memory that gave WSP a history of feminist activism. This is shown most prominently in the reappraisal of Bella Abzug and the histories produced by activist Amy Swerdlow. The article argues that interpretations of the history and memory of the women's peace movement must acknowledge how gender politics change over time. It asserts the significance of this transformation for historicizing feminist beliefs among women's peace activists.

Topics: Gender, Femininity/ies, Gender Roles, Political Participation, Weapons /Arms, Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Countries: United States of America

Year: 2021

Faslane Peace Camp and the Political Economy of the Everyday


Eschle, Catherine. 2016. “Faslane Peace Camp and the Political Economy of the Everyday.” Globalizations 13 (6): 912–14.

Author: Catherine Eschle



"In what ways is ‘the everyday’ reproduced and reconfigured at protest camps? I pursue this question in my current research project, in which protest camps are defined as a ‘place-based social movement strategy that involves both acts of ongoing protest and acts of social reproduction needed to sustain everyday life’ (Feigenbaum, Frenzel, & McCurdy, 2013, p. 12). . . . buttressed by a feminist curiosity about the interconnections between the personal and political, I cling to the view that the reconfiguration of the everyday in protest camps is intrinsic rather than irrelevant to their political effect. In this short piece, I examine how daily life at Faslane Peace Camp, in Scotland, depends upon and fosters the critical interrogation of economic norms" (Eschle 2016, 912).

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Feminist Economics, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace and Security, Peacebuilding, Rights, Women's Rights, Weapons /Arms, Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Year: 2016

Gender Equity and Renewable Energies


Clancy, Joy, Sheila Oparaocha, and Ulrike Roehr. 2006. "Gender Equity and Renewable Energies." In Renewable Energy: A Global Review of Technologies, Policies and Markets, edited by Dirk Assmann et al., 262-81. London: Routledge.

Authors: Joy Clancy , Sheila Oparaocha, Ulrike Roehr



Topics: Gender, Gender Roles, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 2006

Masculinity on Unstable Ground: Young Refugee Men in Nairobi, Kenya


Jaji, Rosemary. 2009. “Masculinity on Unstable Ground: Young Refugee Men in Nairobi, Kenya.” Journal of Refugee Studies 22 (2): 177–94.

Author: Rosemary Jaji


A gender perspective in refugee studies usually conjures up images of refugee women. Such images are an outcome of the association of vulnerability with women and children. Yet, it is not only refugee women who face monumental challenges in the country of asylum; refugee men also encounter a wide range of problems. Exile comes with obstacles for refugee men's quest to conform to culturally defined masculinity. This paper presents the nature of the challenges young refugee men predominantly from the Great Lakes region face in exile and the struggles they engage in as they seek to maintain and live up to their pre-flight notions of masculinity. The paper also shows how the men create alternative masculinities that are sustainable in a context that is largely characterized by existential uncertainties.

Keywords: masculinity, refugee men, Great Lakes, Kenya

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Gender Roles, Masculinity/ies, Men Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2009

Indigenous Feminisms: Disturbing Colonialism in Environmental Science Partnerships


Dhillon, Carla M. 2020. “Indigenous Feminisms: Disturbing Colonialism in Environmental Science Partnerships.” Sociology of Race and Ethnicity 6 (4): 483–500.

Author: Carla M. Dhillon


Efforts have been under way by Indigenous peoples to reanimate governance that includes people of all ages and genders. Simultaneous initiatives to decolonize science within environmental fields must confront how settler colonial systems can continue to operate under the guise of partnership. Indigenous feminist theories aid understanding of ongoing colonialism alongside heteropatriarchy and racism with attempts to dismantle oppression in everyday practice. The author examines governance in a North American environmental science partnership consisting of Indigenous and non-Indigenous climate scientists. Using a mixed-methods social network approach, the author evaluates central actors in the national-scale climate science organization on the basis of intersectional identities, relational ties, and structural leadership roles. Findings indicate that Indigenous women and youth were not among core governance dominated by elder Indigenous men and White women. However, Indigenous women consistently bridged distant members back into the group and provided less visible labor to support the organization. These did not translate to decision-making roles. The author argues that Indigenous values of relational reciprocity and self-determination need to supersede the rhetoric of diversity in environmental fields. The case demonstrates the importance of inclusive Indigenous governance to decolonize environmental partnerships and the potential lack of legitimacy should unexamined notions of tradition be used to obscure settler colonial dominance.

Keywords: Native Americans, climate change, social networks, inclusive governance, racism, patriarchy

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Indigenous Regions: Americas, North America

Year: 2020


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