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Gender Roles

Gender, Marriage, and the Dynamic of (Im)Mobility in the Mid-Western Hills of Nepal


Zharkevich, Ina. 2019. “Gender, Marriage, and the Dynamic of (Im)Mobility in the Mid-Western Hills of Nepal.” Mobilities 14 (5): 681–95.

Author: Ina Zharkevich


This paper explores the relationship between gender, marriage, and (im)mobility in rural hilly areas of mid-Western Nepal, showing how (1) the mobility of men is predicated on the ‘immobility’ of women, with marriage being key to the gendered dynamic of (im)mobility, (2) how the construction of hegemonic masculinity, exemplified by a figure of a successful international migrant, is inseparable from an ideal of femininity vested in the figure of a virtuous domesticated housewife. Examining different scales of mobility, the paper cautions against posing a rigid dichotomy between ‘mobile men’ and ‘immobile’ women, illustrating that the ‘left behind’ wives experience an impressive degree of everyday mobility in contrast to their internationally mobile husbands.

Keywords: Nepal, gender, migration, marriage, mobility, immobility, masculinity, femininity

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gender Roles, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

'Knowing One’s Place': Gender, Mobility and Shifting Subjectivity in Eastern Indonesia.


Williams, Catharina Purwani. 2005. “‘Knowing One’s Place’: Gender, Mobility and Shifting Subjectivity in Eastern Indonesia.” Global Networks 5 (4): 401–17.

Author: Catharina Purwani Williams


In this article I analyse the gendered space of transnational mobility by problematizing migrant subjectivity in everyday practices. In line with feminist perspectives I highlight the significance of the micro-scale experience of female migrants from Eastern Indonesia in acquiring mobility as a struggle for new subjectivity. I frame this migration as a production of the subjective space of power. Based on in-depth interviews with returned migrants, I present reflexive accounts of two migrants on contract domestic work abroad to illuminate the changing contours of the relationships between gender, mobility and shifting subjectivity. Households take into account the cultural meanings of space in everyday life including local relations in the decisions on mobility. Strategies of ‘knowing one's place’ reflect women's agency in negotiating alternative roles and positions within the intra-household dynamics and in the workplace. Women's personal accounts have the potential to illuminate spatial processes of migration as a contested space for the repositioning of self in networks of family, kin, local and global relations.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2005

Still Driven - Mobility Patterns and Gender Roles in Portugal


Oliveira, Catarina Sales de. 2014. “Still Driven - Mobility Patterns and Gender Roles in Portugal.” Working paper, CIES-IUL, Lisbon.

Author: Catarina Sales de Oliveira


This article explores the relationship between gender and mobility based on the results of a PhD research about the mobility patterns in Portuguese metropolis. Mobility of human groups is one of the strongest trends of the last century with continuity to the present (Sheller and Urry, 2006). Although the empowerment of women in western societies, geographical mobility continues to be gender specific. If this situation is not new at international scene, in Portugal it raises interesting questions as the country has suffered recent and important social changes precisely in what concerns women roles. Using both an hypothetical deductive analytical model and combining quantitative with qualitative techniques in this research we were able to identify different mobility profiles according mainly to social identity in which gender performs a central role.

Topics: Gender, Gender Roles, Women Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Portugal

Year: 2014

Migration and Mobility in an Enlarged Europe: A Gender Perspective


Metz-Göckel, Sigrid, Mirjana Morokvasic-Müller, and A. Senganata Münst, eds. 2008. Migration and Mobility in an Enlarged Europe: A Gender Perspective. Leverkusen, Germany: Verlag Barbara Budrich.

Authors: Sigrid Metz-Göckel, Mirjana Morokvasic-Müller, A. Senganata Münst


The book investigates transnational migration and mobility of women from and within Central-Eastern European countries. It looks at women’s practices and experiences mostly in the service sector where they are in demand as substitutes in stereotypically “women’s work.” The book combines different perspectives: sociological and anthropological studies, comparative policy analysis and historical and statistical evidence and provides new insights into current theoretical debates in migration and gender studies. (Summary from Google Books)
Table of Contents:
Gendered Mobilities in an Enlarged Europe – Mirjana Morokvasic, A. Senganata Münst, and Sigrid Metz-Gökel
Female Migration from Central-Eastern Europe: Demographic and Sociological Aspects – Krystyna Slany
Migration Policy between Restrictive Purposes and Structural Demand: The Case of the Domestic Sector in Germany and in Italy – Claudia Finotelli
Whose Status Matters? An Analysis of Italian Couples’ Demand for Domestic Workers and Nannies – Ludovica Banfi
Turning Labour into Love: The Employment of Migrant Domestic Workers in Turkey – Ayse Akalin
Commuting between Private Lives – Dobrochna Kałwa
The Boundaries of Monetarizing Domestic Work: Au Pairs and the Moral Economy of Caring – Sabine Hess
Women’s ‘Just-in-Time’ Migration – David Karjanen
Managing a Mobile Life: Changing Attitudes among Illegally Employed Polish Household Workers in Berlin – Norbert Cyrus
Social Capital in Migration Processes of Polish Undocumented Care- and Household Workers – A. Senganata Münst
Circumventing Restrictions on Free Movement of Labour: Evidence from a Dutch-German Border Region – Roos Pijpers
Women at the Cross-Road: Poland and its Emigration and Immigration – Dorota Praszałowicz
Immigrants in Poland: Legal and Socio-Demographic Situation – Krystyna Slany and Magdalena Ślusarczyk

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Gender Roles, Women Regions: Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Germany, Italy, Poland

Year: 2008

Gender, Power, and Mobility among the Awá-Guajá (Maranhão, Brazil)


Hernando, Almudena, Gustavo Politis, Alfredo González Ruibal, and Elizabeth Beserra Coelho. 2011. “Gender, Power, and Mobility among the Awá-Guajá (Maranhão, Brazil).” Journal of Anthropological Research 67 (2): 189–211.

Authors: Almudena Hernando, Gustavo Politis, Alfredo González Ruibal, Elizabeth Beserra Coelho


The Awá (also known as Guajá) are hunter-gatherers whose way of life prior to their first contact with Brazilian society has been altered after relocation to a reservation. Basically, their mobility is reduced and they have been forced to start cultivation. Although these changes are beginning to affect women's social role, the traditional power relationships can still be inferred from the present conditions. The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to argue that, in otherwise "egalitarian" societies, the differences in physical mobility involved in the complementary tasks carried out by men and women may account for gender inequality on the symbolic domain, given that mobility is a key factor in the construction of personhood in contexts of "relational, "non-individualized identity; and (2) to check the validity of that assumption in the light of fieldwork data about gender relationships among the Awá-Guajá.

Topics: Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Indigenous Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2011

Re-Negotiating Social Reproduction, Work and Gender Roles in Occupied Palestine


Bargawi, Hannah, Randa Alami, and Hurriyah Ziada. 2021. “Re-Negotiating Social Reproduction, Work and Gender Roles in Occupied Palestine.” Review of International Political Economy. doi:10.1080/09692290.2020.1868017.

Authors: Hannah Bargawi, Randa Alami, Hurriyah Ziada


This article uncovers the crisis of social reproduction in Occupied Palestine in the context of severe economic and political turmoil by specifically highlighting the ways in which impacts have been felt differently by men and women. It does so by considering the interactions of production and reproduction. The article confirms that, as a result of economic hardship, women, particularly married women, are increasingly participating in the formal and informal labor market. These women have been forced to renegotiate their domestic and caring responsibilities alongside paid work, within a context of very limited state or private sector provision of care services. While time-use survey findings suggest little change in men and women’s time-use between 1999/2000 and 2012/13 in general, qualitative interviews provide a more nuanced picture. Furthermore, the narrative that responsibility for managing care of children and elderly relatives as well as domestic work lies solely with the wife/mother is near universal. Respondents also did not voice demands for greater investment in child and elder care services by private firms or by the state, suggesting a strong individualization of responsibility for social reproduction in Occupied Palestine today. What remains to be seen is a) how representative these findings are for other groups, particularly poorer, rural families in Palestine and b) what the longer-term consequences of these changes might bring for societal gender norms in Palestine and in other contexts.

Topics: Class, Conflict, Economies, Gender, Gender Roles, Women Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2021

Climate Change Politics in the UK: A Feminist Intersectional Analysis


Wilson, Joanna. 2017. “Climate Change Politics in the UK: A Feminist Intersectional Analysis.” Paper presented at ECPR General Conference, Oslo, September 6-9.

Author: Joanna Wilson


Despite growing concern of environmental and climate justice, the issue of gender and climate change has, to date, received comparatively little scholarly attention. What is lacking is empirical evidence showing the ways in which overwhelmingly masculinised discourses of climate change can exacerbate or entrench existing inequalities, such as the gendered division of labour or the feminisation of poverty. Currently, the majority of gender and climate change scholarship, and most gender and climate change focused NGOs, perpetuate a narrative of impacts and vulnerabilities of women in the Global South. While this has been critical in ensuring recognition of gender in climate politics, it has arguably kept the construction of women firmly rooted in problematic narratives of subdued, passive women in need of masculine protection. In this paper, therefore, we explore how gender priorities are considered in contemporary policy. We do so by first highlighting the ways in which UK climate change politics can, or does, exacerbate the gendered division of environmental labour through: the ‘good jobs’ in masculinised professions, performed by men; the ‘dirty’ jobs in recycling, performed by migrant labourers; and the ‘household’ jobs or reproductive work, performed by women. Finally, we conclude by offering insights into how gender experts and activists can respond to a changing political climate.

Keywords: climate change politics, gender, feminism, intersectionality, environmental justice

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Intersectionality Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2017

‘Less Able’: How Gendered Subjectivities Warp Climate Change Adaptation in Ghana’s Central Region


Garcia, Alicea, Petra Tschakert, and Nana Afia Karikari. 2020. “‘Less Able’: How Gendered Subjectivities Warp Climate Change Adaptation in Ghana’s Central Region.” Gender, Place & Culture 27 (11): 1602–27.

Authors: Alicea Garcia, Petra Tschakert, Nana Afia Karikari


Vulnerabilities to climate change and adaptive action vary based on social differences that are bound up in complex power dynamics in any given place, culture, or context. Scholarly interest has shifted from gendered dynamics of climate change adaptation to the socio-political drivers of gendered inequalities that produce discriminatory opportunities for adaptation. This study utilises an intersectional subjectivities lens to examine how entrenched power dynamics and social norms related to gender, as well as age and marital status, galvanise or inhibit capacities to adapt in farming communities of Ghana’s Central Region. Through the use of interviews, focus group discussions, and photovoice sessions, we highlight gendered and intersectional subjectivities, roles, and responsibilities that centre on perceived differences in men’s and women’s strength and power. We then link resulting normative performances of gender to specific barriers to adaptation, such as lack of resources and agency, and demonstrate a pronounced dichotomy as women experience the brunt of these barriers and a persistent power imbalance that positions them as ‘less able’ to adapt than men. Such nuanced assessments of intersectional subjectivities are instrumental in supporting marginalised groups when deliberating and renegotiating inequitable power relations in climate change adaptation. Through repeated efforts at power subversion, emboldened social actors and critical scholars attuned to navigating power differentials can strengthen adaptive capacities and facilitate trajectories toward transformation.

Keywords: agriculture, gendered inequalities, power, (re)negotiation, subjectivities, transformational adaptation

Topics: Age, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Intersectionality Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2020

Toward a Feminist Care Ethic for Climate Change


Allison, Elizabeth. 2017. “Toward a Feminist Care Ethic for Climate Change.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 33 (2): 152 -8. 

Author: Elizabeth Allison

Keywords: adaptation, climate care, climate ethics, feminist care ethics, indigenous knowledge


“Climate change adaptation studies often highlight the specific vulnerabilities of women, particularly those living in developing countries. Among the particular burdens falling more heavily on women are poverty; residence on marginal land susceptible to subsidence, erosion, or flooding; precarious and informal employment; increasing exposure to waterborne and vector-borne disease. Drought requires female water collectors to walk farther with each passing year, during which journeys they can be subject to harassment and abuse and must forego school, employment, and other sorts of productive activities. Attention to these considerations pertaining to women’s specific vulnerabilities is essential in mapping pathways to address climate change. These considerations are intensified when we consider women’s disproportionate caring responsibilities for children and the elderly. Ensuring that women and girls have expansive opportunities to express their full capacities will become more difficult in a climate-destabilized world. Because of these disproportionate vulnerabilities, climate change is indisputably a feminist issue, and the tools of feminist analysis can provide valuable leverage in developing just and equitable responses to this existential challenge” (Allison 2017, 152).

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems

Year: 2017

A Social Relations of Gender Analysis of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Africa’s Great Lakes Region


Danielsen, Katrine, and Jennifer Hinton. 2020. “A Social Relations of Gender Analysis of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Africa’s Great Lakes Region.” Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines 54 (1): 17–36.

Authors: Katrine Danielsen, Jennifer Hinton


Much research on gender and artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) has tended to focus on describing the different roles women undertake in mining, while there has been less attention to how gender relations are constructed, reinforced and challenged in and through ASM. Drawing from desk and field research in the Great Lakes Region of Africa, this paper presents a framework to analyse gender dynamics in ASM along four interrelated dimensions of gender relations: division of labour; access to and control over resources and benefits; decision-making; and gender norms. The authors argue that unequal gender relations in ASM are mainly legitimized by gender norms that produce, and are reinforced by, the varying abilities of women and men to make decisions and control resources. Findings also describe the diversity and instability of gender relations, and demonstrate how gender inequalities can be and are being challenged by women miners.
De nombreuses recherches sur le genre et l’exploitation minière artisanale à petite échelle (EMAPE) ont eu tendance à se focaliser sur la description des différents rôles que jouent les femmes dans le secteur minier, alors que moins d’attention a été prêtée à la façon dont les relations entre les genres sont construites, renforcées et remises en question dans et à travers l’EMAPE. À partir de recherches documentaires et de terrain dans la région des Grands Lacs en Afrique, cet article présente un cadre d’analyse de la dynamique de genre dans l’EMAPE, selon quatre dimensions interdépendantes des relations de genre: division du travail; accès aux ressources et aux avantages, et contrôle de ceux-ci; prise de décision; et normes de genre. Les auteurs soutiennent que les relations inégales entre les genres dans l’EMAPE sont principalement légitimées par des normes de genre qui produisent et sont renforcées par les capacités variables des femmes et des hommes à prendre des décisions et à contrôler les ressources. Les résultats décrivent également la diversité et l’instabilité des relations entre les genres, et démontrent comment les inégalités entre les genres peuvent être et sont remises en question par les femmes dans le secteur minier.

Keywords: gender, social relations, women, artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), Great Lakes Region

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa

Year: 2020


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