Gender Hierarchies

Laws in Conflict: Legacies of War, Gender, and Legal Pluralism in Chechnya

Citation:

Lazarev, Egor. 2019. "Laws in Conflict: Legacies of War, Gender, and Legal Pluralism in Chechnya." World Politics 71 (4): 667-709.

Author: Egor Lazarev

Abstract:

How do legacies of conflict affect choices between state and nonstate legal institutions? This article studies this question in Chechnya, where state law coexists with Sharia and customary law. The author focuses on the effect of conflict-induced disruption of gender hierarchies because the dominant interpretations of religious and customary norms are discriminatory against women. The author finds that women in Chechnya are more likely than men to rely on state law and that this gender gap in legal preferences and behavior is especially large in more-victimized communities. The author infers from this finding that the conflict created the conditions for women in Chechnya to pursue their interests through state law—albeit not without resistance. Women’s legal mobilization has generated a backlash from the Chechen government, which has attempted to reinstate a patriarchal order. The author concludes that conflict may induce legal mobilization among the weak and that gender may become a central cleavage during state-building processes in postconflict environments.

Topics: Conflict, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Justice, Post-Conflict, Religion Regions: Asia, Europe Countries: Russian Federation

Year: 2019

Conclusion: Emphasized Femininity/Hegemonic Masculinity and Constructivism/Essentialism

Citation:

Maleta, Yulia. 2019. “Conclusion: Emphasized Femininity/Hegemonic Masculinity and Constructivism/Essentialism.” In Feminism, Republicanism, Egalitarianism, Environmentalism: Bill of Rights and Gendered Sustainable Initiatives. New York: Routledge.

Author: Yulia Maleta

Annotation:

Summary:
This book has addressed a gap on the interplay of emphasized femininity/hegemonic masculinity and constructivism/essentialism within the eNSM and its eSMOs. Utilising my interviews with Australian women members of renewables organisational governance (IeNGOs, grassroots organisations, academic institutions and the Greens party), I applied a constructivist approach to emphasized femininity, arguing that women-led sustainable-social change strategies, strengthened through participants’ agentic technical-scientific performative competencies (and multiple skills set: intellectual, social, empathetic and physical), challenges the patriarchal control of global politics and rigid structures of hierarchy and bureaucracy. More women in sustainable technological leadership, should contribute to global peace as well as desired gender justice outcomes.

Topics: Civil Society, Environment, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, NGOs Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2019

Rethinking Silence, Gender, and Power in Insecure Sites: Implications for Feminist Security Studies in a Postcolonial World

Citation:

Parpart, Jane. 2020. "Rethinking Silence, Gender, and Power in Insecure Sites: Implications for Feminist Security Studies in a Postcolonial World." Review of International Studies 46 (3): 315-24.

Author: Jane Parpart

Abstract:

My current interest in silence, gender, and power owes much to discussions with Marysia Zalewski over the years. Much of my work has focused on masculinity, gender relations, and gender hierarchies with a focus on security and development in conflict zones. More recently, I have begun to explore silence not as a sign of disempowerment, but as a powerful force that can be used in many ways. This approach enables a more multi-levelled understanding of silence and voice and their many interactions. It has much to tell the Global North, where we prize voice and often underestimate the power of silence.

Keywords: silence, gender, insecurity

Topics: Development, Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Security

Year: 2020

Explaining Divergent Outcomes of the Arab Spring: The Significance of Gender and Women's Mobilizations

Citation:

Moghadam, Valentine M. 2018. "Explaining Divergent Outcomes of the Arab Spring: The Significance of Gender and Women's Mobilizations." Politics, Groups, and Identities 6 (4): 666-81.

Author: Valentine Moghadam

Abstract:

The Arab Spring has been extensively analyzed but the presence or absence of violent protests and the divergent outcomes of the uprising that encompassed the Arab region have not been explained in terms of the salience of gender and women’s mobilizations. I argue that women’s legal status, social positions, and collective action prior to the Arab Spring helped shape the nature of the 2011 mass protests as well as the political and social outcomes of individual countries. I compare and contrast two sets of cases: Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia, which saw non-violent protests and relatively less repression on the part of the state; and Bahrain, Libya, Syria, and Yemen, where states responded to the protests, whether violent or non-violent, with force and repression, and where women and their rights have been among the principal victims. I also show why women fared worse in Egypt than in Morocco and Tunisia.

Keywords: Arab Spring, women's rights, women's mobilizations, outcomes, violence, democratization

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Conflict, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Nonviolence, Rights, Women's Rights, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East Countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen

Year: 2018

The Role of Gender in Political Violence

Citation:

McDermott, Rose. 2020. “The Role of Gender in Political Violence.” Current Opinion in Behavioral Science 34: 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2019.09.003.

Author: Rose McDermott

Abstract:

Gender plays a prominent role in many aspects of political violence. First, it contributes to its occurrence. Second, sexual violence causes enormous suffering during conflict. Last, sustainable peacekeeping depends on female inclusion and participation. The prominence of gender in political violence rests on the dominance of men over women in many aspects of political, social and economic life. Inequities in family law and perversions in the marriage market, especially polygyny, contribute to the perpetuation of male dominance hierarchies in ways that increase the likelihood and costs of political violence for everyone.
 

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Political Participation, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Violence

Year: 2020

Conflict, Peace, and the Evolution of Women's Empowerment

Citation:

Webster, Kaitlyn, Chong Chen, and Kyle Beardsley. 2019. “Conflict, Peace, and the Evolution of Women's Empowerment.” International Organization 73 (2): 255-89.
 

Authors: Kaitlyn Webster, Chong Chen, Kyle Beardsley

Abstract:

How do periods of conflict and peace shape women’s empowerment around the world? While existing studies have demonstrated that gender inequalities contribute to the propensity for armed conflict, we consider how the anticipation and realization of armed conflict shape women’s opportunities for influence in society. Some scholars have pointed to the role that militarization and threat play in entrenching male dominance, while others have argued that periods of warfare can upend existing gender hierarchical orders. We posit mechanisms by which the preparation for and experiences during war affect change in women’s empowerment. We develop and test observable implications using cross-national data from 1900 to 2015. We find that, at least in the short and medium term, warfare can disrupt social institutions and lead to an increase in women’s empowerment via mechanisms related to role shifts across society and political shifts catalyzed by war. Reforming institutions and main- streaming gender during peace processes stand to have important legacies for gender power relations in postconflict societies, though much more may be needed for more permanent change.
 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Post-Conflict, Political Participation, Peace Processes, Violence

Year: 2019

Equal Opportunity Peacekeeping: Women, Peace, and Security in Post-Conflict States

Citation:

Karim, Sabrina, and Kyle Beardsley. 2017. Equal Opportunity Peacekeeping: Women, Peace, and Security in Post-Conflict States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Authors: Sabrina Karim, Kyle Beardsley

Keywords: peacekeeping, India-United States relations, UN Security Council Resolution 1325, gender equality, gender, women, women peace and security, Liberia, sexual violence, security sector

Annotation:

Summary:
Recent developments such as Sweden's Feminist Foreign Policy, the "Hillary Doctrine," and the integration of women into combat roles in the U.S. have propelled gender equality to the forefront of international politics. The UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations, however, has been integrating gender equality into peacekeeping missions for nearly two decades as part of the women, peace and security agenda that has been most clearly articulated in UNSC Resolution 1325. To what extent have peacekeeping operations achieved gender equality in peacekeeping operations and been vehicles for promoting gender equality in post-conflict states? While there have been major improvements related to women's participation and protection, there is still much left to be desired. Sabrina Karim and Kyle Beardsley argue that gender power imbalances between the sexes and among genders place restrictions on the participation of women in peacekeeping missions. Specifically, discrimination, a relegation of women to safe spaces, and sexual exploitation, abuse, harassment, and violence (SEAHV) continue to threaten progress on gender equality. Using unique cross-national data on sex-disaggregated participation of peacekeepers and on the allegations of SEAHV, as well as original data from the UN Mission in Liberia, the authors examine the origins and consequences of these challenges. Karim and Beardsley also identify and examine how increasing the representation of women in peacekeeping forces, and even more importantly through enhancing a more holistic value for "equal opportunity," can enable peacekeeping operations to overcome the challenges posed by power imbalances and be more of an example of and vehicle for gender equality globally. (Summary from Oxford University Press)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction: Are Blue Helmets Just for Boys?
 
2. The Evolution of Gender Reforms in UN Peacekeeping Missions
 
3. Gender Power Imbalances in Peacekeeping Missions
 
4. Discrimination and Protection Revisited: Female Participation in Peacekeeping Operations
 
5. The Spoils of Peace: SEAHV in Peacekeeping Operation
 
6. Perspectives on Discrimination, Protection, and SEAHV in the UN Mission in Liberia
 
7. On the Ground: Local Legacies of Gender Reforms in the UN Mission in Liberia
 
8. A Call for Equal Opportunity Peacekeeping

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Post-Conflict, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2017

Female Combatants in Postconflict Processes: Understanding the Roots of Exclusion

Citation:

Henshaw, Alexis Leanna. 2020. "Female Combatants in Postconflict Settings: Understanding the Roots of Exclusion." Journal of Global Security Studies 5 (1): 63-79. 

Author: Alexis Leanna Henshaw

Abstract:

Research on contemporary internal armed conflicts has consistently shown that women are active in most armed insurgencies, in groups with varied ideologies, and in every region of the world. However, scholarship from feminist security studies shows that, not only are women still generally underrepresented in peace processes, but women affiliated with rebel groups in particular are more likely to be excluded from disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) efforts. Closing this gap is a necessary next step for improving the security of women. This article draws on feminist theory and feminist security studies literature to highlight four factors that contribute to the exclusion of insurgent women from DDR efforts: attributions of agency, gendered hierarchy within groups, the tendency to collapse complex intersectionalities, and the pressure for patriarchal reordering after conflict. Drawing on selected cases, I illustrate each of these factors at work and discuss the implications for female ex-combatants, policy-makers, and scholars.

Keywords: gender, DDR, civil conflict, feminist security studies

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, Peace Processes, Security

Year: 2020

Understanding Gender and Access to Healthcare for Resettled Women in Post-War Northern Sri Lanka Through Intersectionality

Citation:

Radhakrishnan, Bharathi. 2019. "Understanding Gender and Access to Healthcare for Resettled Women in Post-War Northern Sri Lanka Through Intersectionality." PhD diss., University of Massachusetts Boston.

Author: Bharathi Radhakrishnan

Annotation:

Summary:
"Ensuring human security post-war is essential for effective reconstruction efforts and attaining a sustainable peace. This involves establishing people’s access to basic needs, including healthcare, and addressing their health security. Sri Lanka is hailed for its impressive health indicators and public health services. However, its national indicators do not accurately reflect the health context in the Northern and Eastern Provinces. Additionally, research on post-war access to healthcare for resettled, formerly displaced communities, particularly women, is sparse. Given this gap, this study investigated barriers to resettled women’s efforts in post-war Jaffna, Sri Lanka to access healthcare.
 
This qualitative study utilized the methodology of phenomenology with the methods of interviews (35 with resettled women; 32 with key  informants) and focus groups (four with 19 resettled women) to explore the lived experiences of resettled women of reproductive age (18 to 49) in two villages in the district of Jaffna in northern Sri Lanka. Participants, who all gave informed consent, were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Women were recruited from two contrasting villages – a more rural, predominantly Tamil village, and a predominantly Muslim village closer to the urban center. The conceptual framework used was the socio-ecological model through a gender and intersectionality lens. Two main themes emerged that influence the women’s ability to access healthcare: (1) their perceptions of and experiences with public health staff/providers and resources, and (2) their perceptions of and behaviors within their village and home contexts. Various factors within society also affect the women’s human security and thus their ability to access healthcare. The main finding from this study indicates that the intersectionality of the women’s household income and gender (specifically gender hierarchies, norms, relations, and roles) in the home impacts their ability to access health services in post-war Jaffna, more so than ethnicity. This illustrates the importance of looking beyond solely the influence of ethnicity on people’s access to basic needs postwar. This study also demonstrates the key effect of gender dynamics on women’s access to and experience of health services in post-war Jaffna, including implications for Sri Lanka’s greater reconstruction and sustainable peace efforts" (Radhakrishnan 2019, 4-5).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Health, Households, Livelihoods, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peace Processes, Security, Human Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2019

Gender and Peacekeeping

Citation:

Karim, Sabrina M, and Marsha Henry. 2018. "Gender and Peacekeeping." In The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict, edited by Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Naomi R. Cahn, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Nahla Valji, 390-402. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Authors: Sabrina M. Karim, Marsha Henry

Abstract:

This chapter examines three manifestations of gender in peacekeeping: the gender of those serving as peacekeepers; gendered hierarchies within peacekeeping missions; and the gendered discourse used by the United Nations when discussing women peacekeepers. The chapter provides statistics on the numbers of female peacekeepers historically and by assignment. Using the concept of hegemonic masculinity, the chapter explores how protection masculinity and militarized masculinity complicate the work of female peacekeepers in various ways. Finally, the chapter critiques the problematic rhetoric used by the UN to promote female peacekeepers, which largely relies on an essentialized view of women and downplays the impact of other identities such as culture, language, and class. The chapter argues that rather than seeking to simply increase the numbers of women in peacekeeping roles, a focus on gender equality at a structural level is critical to improving the efficacy of peacekeeping missions.

Keywords: peacekeeping, female peacekeepers, hegemonic masculinity, gender hierarchies, United Nations, female stereotypes

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Peacekeeping

Year: 2018

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