Gender Hierarchies

The Myth of Sovereignty: Gender in the Literature of Irish Nationalism

Citation:

Valente, Joseph. 1994. “The Myth of Sovereignty: Gender in the Literature of Irish Nationalism.” English Literary History 61 (1): 189-210.

Author: Joseph Valente

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Nationalism Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: Ireland

Year: 1994

Majority Norms, Multiculturalism, and Gender Equality

Citation:

Song, Sarah. 2005. “Majority Norms, Multiculturalism, and Gender Equality.” The American Political Science Review 99 (4): 473–489.

Author: Sarah Song

Abstract:

Although many scholars have discussed the conflict that can arise between multiculturalism and gender equality, both critics and defenders of multiculturalism have largely overlooked a variety of interactive dynamics between majority and minority cultures that have important implications for the theory and practice of multiculturalism. Examining cases in the U.S. context, this essay argues for an interactive view of the dilemmas of gender and culture that is attentive to interconnections between majority and minority cultures. What is of particular concern for debates on multiculturalism is that the mainstream legal and normative frameworks within which minority claims for accommodation are evaluated have themselves been informed by patriarchal norms, which in turn have offered support for gender hierarchies within minority cultures. The interactive view defended here suggests the need to scrutinize both minority and majority norms and practices in evaluating the claims of minority cultures.

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equity Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2005

Gender Identity, Nationalism, and Social Action among Jewish and Arab Women in Israel: Redefining the Social Order?

Citation:

Moore, Dahlia. 2000. "Gender Identity, Nationalism, and Social Action Among Jewish and Arab Women in Isreal: Redefining the Social Order?" Gender Issues 18 (2).

Author: Dahlia Moore

Abstract:

In the study this article explores, the meaning of gender identity for religious and secular Jewish and Arab women in Israeli society is examined. The study focuses on how Israeli women rank gender identity relative to other identities like being Jewish/Arab, being Israeli/Palestinian, religious or secular, of a certain ethnic group, and political identity. It examines the characteristics of gender identity and the attitudes that are associated with it. The analysis shows that the hierarchies of identities are different for religious and secular Jewish and Arab women, and that this is related to having different sociopolitical attitudes (e.g., Women's social and political involvement, social obedience, social influence). Thus, the hierarchy of identities and the sociopolitical attitudes of religious women indicate a more consensual acceptance of the social order than the hierarchy of identities and the sociopolitical attitudes of secular women, especially among Arab women.

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Nationalism, Religion Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2000

Young Men and the Construction of Masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV/AIDS, Conflict, and Violence

Citation:

Barker, Gary, and Christine Ricardo. 2005. "Young Men and the Construction of Masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV/AIDS, Conflict, and Violence." Working Paper, Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, World Bank, Washington, DC.

Authors: Gary Barker, Christine Ricardo

Abstract:

In the literature on conflict and HIV/AIDS, African men are often presented in simplistic and explicitly negative terms. It is generally taken for granted that those who use weapons are men whilst those who suffer the consequences of conflict are women, and that men always hold power in sexual relationships whilst women are always powerless. Certainly, African women and girls have been made vulnerable by the behaviour of men and boys in conflict settings and in sexual relationships. Yet the fact that gender hierarchies also oppress some men is seldom discussed. What of the men who are survivors and victims of violence, or who are displaced or orphaned due to conflict? What of the men who are brothers or husbands of women who have been sexually abused during conflict? This paper argues that applying a more sophisticated gender analysis as it relates to conflict and HIV/AIDS is essential in order to understand how both women and men are made vulnerable by rigid ideas of masculinity and by gender hierarchies. References are made to alternative, non-violent forms of masculinity in Africa and to elements of traditional gender socialisation (the process by which individuals learn and teach others about the roles and behaviours that are expected of a women or man in a given society) which promote more gender-equitable attitudes on the part of young men. Included are examples of young men whose stories reveal ways in which men can question and counter prevailing norms of masculinity. A summary is also provided of promising programmes for including men in the promotion of gender-equity.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equity, Health, HIV/AIDS, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Africa

Year: 2005

The Wingless Eros of Socialism: Nationalism and Sexuality in Hungary

Citation:

Kürti, László. 1991. “The Wingless Eros of Socialism: Nationalism and Sexuality in Hungary.” Anthropological Quarterly 64 (2): 55-67.

Author: László Kürti

Abstract:

This article explores the intersections of gender, sexuality, and nationalism by re-reading Alexandra Kollontai's early model of a socialist eros in light of the realities of Hungarian workers in the 1950s and 1980s. Whereas under Stalinism women were expected to reproduce and to produce for the benefit of the state, the popular nationalist ideology of today's post-communist state disempowers women in an analogous fashion by relegating them to second-class status. The appropriation of this new discourse on sexuality paradoxically coincides with the creation of a 'free' and 'democratic' society for the Europe of 1992.

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Nationalism, Sexuality Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: Hungary

Year: 1991

Gendered Anxieties: Islam, Women’s Rights, and Moral Hierarchy in Java

Citation:

Adamson, Clarissa. 2007. “Gendered Anxieties: Islam, Women’s Rights, and Moral Hierarchy in Java.” Anthropological Quarterly 80 (1): 5–37.

Author: Clarissa Adamson

Abstract:

This paper examines debates that occur in the course of Muslim women's rights advocacy in Java, Indonesia, to provide critical ethnographic insights into the ways that gender issues and notions of family are implicated in political consciousness about nationhood, religious identity, boundaries, and governance. Javanese Muslim women's rights activists focus on the historical contextualization of religious doctrine to argue against what they see as misguided interpretations of Islam that threaten to control women. This paper examines these efforts through a close reading of the discursive shifts and arguments that take place in the context of programs designed to promote women's rights in Islamic education in Java. It argues that the challenge for women's rights activists and intellectuals is to locate the ways that moderate or normative social and religious values can combine during times of change or crisis to reinforce a moral hierarchy of gender relations and an "idea of woman" in an attempt to control such change. The paper demonstrates that in Java, a moral hierarchy of gender relations, mimetically extended from family to nation, dovetails with religious interpretations to resolve anxieties about social change and security through the control of women.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Governance, Nationalism, Political Participation, Religion, Rights, Women's Rights, Security Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2007

Barrio Women and Popular Politics in Chávez’s Venezuela

Citation:

Fernandez, Sujatha. 2007. “Barrio Women and Popular Politics in Chavez’s Venezuela.” Latin American Politics and Society 49 (3): 97–127.

Author: Sujatha Fernandez

Abstract:

Since President Hugo Chávez came to power in Venezuela in 1998, ordinary women from the barrios, or shantytowns, of Caracas have become more engaged in grassroots politics; but most of the community leaders still are men. Chávez's programs are controlled by male-dominated bureaucracies, and many women activists still look to the president himself as the main source of direction. Nevertheless, this article argues, women's increasing local activism has created forms of popular participation that challenge gender roles, collectivize private tasks, and create alternatives to male-centric politics. Women's experiences of shared struggle from previous decades, along with their use of democratic methods of popular control, help prevent the state from appropriating women's labor. But these spaces coexist with more vertical, populist notions of politics characteristic of official sectors of Chavismo. Understanding such gendered dimensions of popular participation is crucial to analyzing urban social movements.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Governance, Political Participation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Venezuela

Year: 2007

Gender and Gender Mainstreaming in International Peacebuilding

Citation:

Purkarthofer, Petra. 2006. “Gender and Gender Mainstreaming in International Peacebuilding.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, San Diego, March 22-25.

Author: Petra Purkarthofer

Abstract:

Post-conflict peacebuilding is a gendered process, in which power and resources are reassigned. Gender relations have an impact on the design of post-conflict peacebuilding and are restructured by this process at the same time. I will present an overview of the discussion on gender and peacebuilding during recent years and identify the main factors leading to greater gender sensitivity in international peacebuilding, especially with regard to the United Nations. How is gender defined and used in UN resolutions and documents? UN resolution 1325 on Women, Peace, and Security for example focuses mainly on special needs of women. Issues to transform gender hierarchies such as structural discrimination, power relations, access to resources, gender identity or gender specific division of labor are rarely discussed. Often women and gender are used synonymously. What does gender mainstreaming mean in this context and how is it applied in peace missions? I will show that without any future change, gender mainstreaming risks reproducing gender inequalities.

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2006

Masculinity, Whiteness, and the Warrior Hero: Perpetuating the Strategic Rhetoric of U.S. Nationalism and the Marginalization of Women

Citation:

Prividera, Laura C., and John W. Howard III. 2006. "Masculinity, Whiteness, and the Warrior Hero: Perpetuating the Strategic Rhetoric of U.S. Nationalism and the Marginalization of Women." Women and Language 29 (2).

Authors: Laura C. Prividera, John W. Howard III

Abstract:

In this research we employed gender archetypes and critical whiteness studies to examine the interconnectedness of gender, race, and nationalism in U.S. media coverage of the 507th Ordinance Maintenance Company during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Our theoretical frame illustrates how the national ideology sanctions specific constructions of gender and race both in and out of the military. The nationally-preferred archetypal constructions (in particular the "warrior hero" archetype) framed media representations of Jessica Lynch, Lori Piestewa, and Shoshona Johnson. Our feminist rhetorical analysis reveals how the media portrayal of the soldiers of the 507th simultaneously privileges whiteness and marginalizes femininity through its extensive focus on Private Jessica Lynch. In addition, this study demonstrates how the overarching national ideology creates a complex social hierarchy of gender and race relative to the ideal (archetypal) national representative.

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Media, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Nationalism, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2006

Korean "Comfort Women": The Intersection of Colonial Power, Gender, and Class

Citation:

Min, Pyong Gap. 2003. “Korean ‘Comfort Women’: The Intersection of Colonial Power, Gender, and Class.” Gender & Society 17 (6): 938–57.

Author: Pyong Gap Min

Abstract:

During the Asian and Pacific War (1937-45), the Japanese government mobilized approximately 200,000 Asian women to military brothels to sexually serve Japanese soldiers. The majority of these victims were unmarried young women from Korea, Japan’s colony at that time. In the early 1990s, Korean feminist leaders helped more than 200 Korean survivors of Japanese military sexual slavery to come forward to tell the truth, which has further accelerated the redress movement for the women. One major issue in the redress movement and research relating to the so-called “comfort women” issue is whether Japan’s colonization of Korea or gender hierarchy was a more fundamental cause of the Korean women’s suffering. Using an intersectional perspective, this article analyzes how colonial power, gender hierarchy, and class were inseparably tied together to make the victims’ lives miserable. By doing so, it shows that a one-sided emphasis on colonization or gender hierarchy will misrepresent the feminist political issue and misinterpret the “comfort women’s” experiences.

Keywords: sexual violence against women, colonial power, Gender, class

Topics: Armed Conflict, Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Sexual Slavery, SV against Women Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan, North Korea, South Korea

Year: 2003

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