Gender Hierarchies

Beyond Sexual Violence in Transitional Justice: Political Insecurity as a Gendered Harm


Lemaitre, Julieta, and Kristin Bergtora Sandvik. 2014. “Beyond Sexual Violence in Transitional Justice: Political Insecurity as a Gendered Harm.” Feminist Legal Studies 22 (3): 243-61.

Authors: Julieta Lemaitre, Kristin Bergtora Sandvik


The growing literature on gender in armed conflict and the debates over post-conflict reparations for women, focus on the prevalence and harms of sexual violence. While this focus has recently been critiqued, there are few articulations of other types of gendered injuries. This article decentres the emphasis on sexual violence by examining the intersection between forced displacement and political insecurity. Based on extensive field research in Colombia, and using as an example a case study of an internally displaced women’s grassroots organization in Cartagena, Colombia, this article examines political insecurity as a specifically gendered harm. It reflects on the concrete circumstances of insecurity, on the relevance of traditional gender roles in the constitution of insecurity, and on the challenges for court-ordered remedies. This widening of the scope of attention also invites complex reflection on the possibility of transformative reparations in post-conflict situations.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Justice, Reparations, Transitional Justice, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Security, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2014

Power, Patriarchy, and Gender Conflict in the Vietnamese Immigrant Community


Kibria, Nazli. 1990. “Power, Patriarchy, and Gender Conflict in the Vietnamese Immigrant Community.” Gender and Society 4 (1): 9-24.

Author: Nazli Kibria


Based on an ethnographic study of women's social groups and networks in a community of Vietnamese immigrants recently settled in the US, this article explores the effects of migration on gender roles and power. The women's groups and networks play an important role in the exchange of social and economic resources among households and in the mediation of disputes between men and women in the family. These community forms are an important source of informal power for women, enabling them to cope effectively with male authority in the family. Yet, despite their increased power and economic resources, these women supported a patriarchal social structure because it preserved their parental authority and promised greater economic security in the future.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: United States of America, Vietnam

Year: 1990

Refashioning IPE: What and How Gender Analysis Teaches International (Global) Political Economy


Griffin, Penny. 2007. “Refashioning IPE: What and How Gender Analysis Teaches International (Global) Political Economy.” Review of International Political Economy 14 (4): 719-36.

Author: Penny Griffin


It remains the case that, in spite of the consistently high quality and quantity of gender analysis, gender has not been able to achieve more than a marginal status in International Political Economy (IPE). Increasingly visible as a category of analysis, gender remains trivialized in the minds of both the mainstream and more critical IPE approaches, as a category pertaining only to the lives of women, women's labour rights and women's social movements. This essay therefore analyses what mainstream and critical IPE approaches do and do not say about the constitution of the global political economy. My central argument is that a gender(ed) IPE analysis is absolutely central to fully understanding and explaining the processes and practices of the global political economy, but that the dominant studies and practices of IPE tend not to take into account the contributions of gender based analyses. A critique of the detailed content of gender approaches in IPE is, however, not the main purpose of this review; rather, gender and feminist analyses are the lenses with which to view IPE, with its exclusions, silences and marginalisations, as well as its openings and future paths, not the other way around.

Keywords: global political economy, gender analysis, constitution of the global political economy

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Globalization, International Financial Institutions, International Organizations, Political Economies, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2007

Intimacy, Warfare, and Gender Hierarchy


Sjoberg, Laura. 2014. “Intimacy, Warfare, and Gender Hierarchy.” Political Geography 44: 74-6. doi: 10.1016/j.polgeo.2014.09.008.

Author: Laura Sjoberg

Keywords: Gender, war, militarism, hierarchy, global politics, feminist geography

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Sexuality

Year: 2014

Gendering the Arab Spring


Al-Ali, Nadje. 2012. "Gendering the Arab Spring." Middle East Journal Of Culture and Communication 5 (1): 26-31.

Author: Nadje Al-Ali


The article discusses the gendered implications of recent political developments in the region. It argues that women and gender are key to both revolutionary and counter-revolutionary processes and developments and not marginal to them. It explores the significance of women’s involvement, the historical context of women’s political participation and marginalization in political transition. Theoretically, developments in the region point to the centrality of women and gender when it comes to constructing and controlling communities, be they ethnic, religious or political; the significance of the state in reproducing, maintaining and challenging prevailing gender regimes, ideologies, discourses and relations; the instrumentalization of women’s bodies and sexualities in regulating and controlling citizens and members of communities; the prevalence of gender-based violence; the historically and cross-culturally predominant construction of women as second-class citizens; the relationship between militarization and a militarized masculinity that privileges authoritarianism, social hierarchies and tries to marginalize and control not only women but also non-normative men.

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Political Participation, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East

Year: 2012

Les femmes, le sexe de l’État et les enjeux du politique: l’exemple de la régionalisation au Sénégal


Sow Fatou. 1997. “Les femmes, le sexe de l’État et les enjeux du politique: l’exemple de la régionalisation au Sénégal.” Clio. Histoire‚ femmes et sociétés, 6, en ligne. DOI: 10.4000/clio.379

English: Sow Fatou. 1997. “Women, the gender of the State and its policies: The example of regionalization in Senegal.” Clio. History, women and societies, 6, online. DOI: 10.4000/clio.379

Author: Fatou Sow


Les débats menés autour de l’État africain, ces trente dernières années, ont reflété les grandes idées qui ont agité le monde contemporain, mais ils sont, dans l’ensemble, restés muets sur des questions soulevées au cours des deux décennies des Nations Unies pour la femme. Or une approche de genre des questions du politique s’avère indispensable sur bien des plans. Elle aide désormais à mieux saisir la manière dont l’inégalité entre les sexes est instituée, prolongée, voire renforcée au cœur du politique. Cet article vise à montrer l’importance des travaux sur le genre, l’État et le politique et la logique dont ils procèdent. Il vise également à faire comprendre en quoi consiste l’interrogation sur le sexe de l’État en Afrique, sur la dimension masculine et patriarcale de l’État et son impact sur les politiques, sur les femmes et sur les rapports et les rôles sociaux des sexes. On ne saurait tendre vers les objectifs d’égalité dans le développement en Afrique sans reconsidérer le sexe de l’État et de ses politiques.

English Abstract:

The debates surrounding the African state over the last three decades have reflected the major ideas that existed in worlds, but they have not addressed issues brought to light during the two United Nations Women’s Decades. However a gender approach to political issues has proved essential at different levels. It is now serving to clarify the manner in which gender inequality has been established, perpetuated, or even strengthened within politics. This article focuses on the importance of the work carried out on gender issues, the state and politics, as well as their underlying rationale. It also seeks to provide a better understanding of the questions raised about the gender of the state in Africa, the male and patriarchal dimension of the state as well as its impact on policies, women, and gender roles and relationships. The goal of promoting equality and development in Africa may not be achieved until the gender of the state and of its policies has been reconsidered.

Keywords: nationalism, women, Senegal



“Les femmes ont été à la fois sujets et objets des projet nationalistes. Elles ont été des actrices dans la mesure où leur appui et leur engagement étaient indispensables au mouvement nationaliste qui a accepté qu’elles quittent leurs rôles traditionnels. Mais elles ont été, dans le même temps, réifiées, comme symboles de l’identité nationale.” (Sow, p. 1)

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Development, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Political Participation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Senegal

Year: 1997

A Gender-Just Peace? Exploring the Post-Dayton Peace Process in Bosnia


Björkdahl, Annika. 2012. “A Gender-Just Peace? Exploring the Post-Dayton Peace Process in Bosnia.” Peace & Change 37 (2): 286–317. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0130.2011.00746.x.

Author: Annika Björkdahl


This article is rooted in the understanding that global ideas of liberal democratic peace and the gendered dynamics of peacebuilding need to be confronted. The aim is to explore the challenges of localizing liberal democratic peace by exploring efforts such as those undertaken by women’s organizations in Bosnia-Herzegovina to promote a gender-just peace. The Dayton Peace Accord was the new “social contract” that set the standard for postwar societies. The gendered hierarchies built into this peace and the absence of women in the peace process created a “peace gap” that was gendered despite the fact that gender empowerment has become a standard tool in international peacebuilding. The post-Dayton peace process was characterized by a conservative backlash which has become a hallmark of women’s postwar experience.

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina

Year: 2012

Scripting the Macho Man: Hypermasculine Socialization and Enculturation


Mosher, Donald L., and Silvan S. Tomkins. 1988. “Scripting the Macho Man: Hypermasculine Socialization and Enculturation.” The Journal of Sex Research 25 (1): 60–84.

Authors: Donald L. Mosher, Silvan S. Tomkins


Tomkins' (1979) script theory offers a coherent, heuristic, and elegant account of the macho personality constellation (Mosher & Sirkin, 1984), consisting of: (a) callous sexual attitudes, (b) violence as manly, and (c) danger as exciting. A script is a set of rules for interpreting, directing, defending, and creating the scenes making up the life of the macho man. The macho script organizes childhood scenes in which so-called "superior, masculine" affects–like excitement and anger–were socialized to be favored over so-called "inferior, feminine" affects–like distress and fear. Furthermore, both adolescent rites of passage in male youth social networks and processes of enculturation in the American culture and its mass media continue that hypermasculine socialization. The ideological script of machismo descends from the ideology of the warrior and the stratifications following warfare–victor and vanquished, master and slave, the head of the house and woman as his complement, the patriarch and his children. The personality script of the macho man and his ideology of machismo mutually amplify one another–simultaneously justifying his lifestyle and celebrating his world view. In his dangerous, adversarial world of scarce resources, his violent, sexually callous, and dangerous physical acts express his "manly" essence.

Keywords: Macho, hypermasculinity, Script, affect, Socialization

Topics: Age, Youth, Gender, Men, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Masculinism, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1988

Macho Minority: Masculinity and Ethnicity on the Edge of Tibet


Hillman, Ben, and Lee-Anne Henfry. 2006. “Macho Minority: Masculinity and Ethnicity on the Edge of Tibet.” Modern China 32 (2): 251–72. doi:10.1177/0097700405286186.

Authors: Ben Hillman , Lee-Ann Henfry


This article explores the role of masculinity in articulating ethnic Tibetan identity in China. Based on interviews with Tibetans and Han Chinese in a Tibetan autonomous prefecture in China's southwest and on an examination of recent Chinese publications, the study explores the dialogue between Tibetans' own perceptions of their ethnic identity and public representations of that identity. While previous scholarship has highlighted the role that ethnic minorities play in constructing a Chinese national identity, the authors demonstrate that minorities, too, construct their ethnic identities in contradistinction to a majority Other. This process is integral to the production of a local knowledge and history that runs parallel to state-sponsored discourses of the nation and its composite nationalities.

Keywords: Tibet, China, ethnic minority, gender identity

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: China

Year: 2006


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