Gender Equity

Gender in Electricity Policymaking in India, Nepal and Kenya

Citation:

Govindan, Mini, Debajit Palit, Rashmi Murali, and Deepa Sankar. 2019. “Gender in Electricity Policymaking in India, Nepal and Kenya.” In Energy Justice Across Borders, edited by Gunter Bombaerts, Kirsten Jenkins, Yekeen A. Sanusi, and Wang Guoyu, 111-35. Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Authors: Mini Govindan, Debajit Palit, Rashmi Murali, Deepa Sankar

Abstract:

Electricity is regarded as a basic amenity fundamental to improving human well-being and overall economic development. It also contributes to improving gender parity and social inclusion, especially in situations where women are challenged by harsh living conditions. This chapter examines how gender issues that were considered are addressed in the policies related to electricity in India, Kenya, and Nepal. The analysis reveals that whilst more than half of the reviewed documents were devoid of any explicit mention of gender concerns, an increasing number of electricity policies are now reflecting gender considerations. The predominantly “gender-blind” approach towards the potential benefits of electricity access emanates from a reluctance to explicitly acknowledge gender based differences in needs in creating equitable outcomes. The assumption that electricity access itself is enough for associated benefits to trickle down, that too equitably for men and women, stems from limited awareness. This is aggravated further by the absence of documented evidence on the merit of including gender elements in electrification policies and programmes. Based on the review of existing electricity policies, this chapter provides specific recommendations for incorporating gender in the electricity policies with a view to support and address the broader energy justice concerns. 

Keywords: electricity, gender, women, policies, energy justice, India, Nepal, Kenya

Topics: Development, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Justice Regions: Africa, East Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Kenya, Nepal

Year: 2019

Energy, Equality and Sustainability? European Electricity Cooperatives from a Gender Perspective

Citation:

Łapniewska, Zofia. 2019. “Energy, Equality and Sustainability? European Electricity Cooperatives from a Gender Perspective.” Energy Research & Social Science 57 (November).

Author: Zofia Łapniewska

Abstract:

The European electricity market and energy security have recently become heatedly discussed topics at the European Union level. In many countries, political and financial support for the transition towards renewable energy systems during the last two decades have encouraged the establishment of a substantial number of new electricity cooperatives. Cooperatives, as social enterprises, demonstrate attachment to values such as equity and equality in their actions, thus they might be perceived as women-friendly entities. However, little empirical research on that topic has been carried out in the European Union so far. The pilot study presented in this paper fills this gap by determining if gender perspective is reflected in the European electricity cooperatives’ declarations and actions and whether this perspective is related to cooperative size, adopted mode of governance and cultural determinants of the region/country. This paper shows why gender equality is valuable to electricity cooperatives and how the presented research results may be useful to practitioners, researchers and policy makers.

Keywords: electricity cooperatives, energy, gender perspective, gender equality, European Union

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Europe

Year: 2019

Women and the Energy Revolution in Asia

Citation:

Mohideen, Reihana. 2020. Women and the Energy Revolution in Asia. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Reihana Mohideen

Keywords: energy technologies, social inclusion, gender and energy, energy in India, energy transitions, inclusive development, women's welfare, gender equity, social and technical relations, energy access, energy systems modeling

Annotation:

Summary:
This book examines the low-carbon energy transition taking place in developing Asia, in the context of persisting social and gender inequalities, the threat of climate change which has necessitated the decarbonisation of industry, and examines how developing Asia can ‘leap-frog’ the carbon-emitting stages that more developed economies have passed through, while simultaneously ‘leap-frogging’ social and gender equity gaps. The book uses the concept of ‘disruptive technologies’, an area of study that assesses the potential of certain technologies to disrupt the status quo and the concept of socio-technical frameworks, where social considerations are factored in to engineering systems and models. Using case studies and methodologies drawn from interdisciplinary approaches to engineering, and from development studies, science and technology studies and feminist approaches, it assesses how the low-carbon energy transition potentially provides poor women in developing Asia the opportunity to get on board at the early phase of these changes and influence and even transform their societies and lives. (Summary from Springer Link)

Topics: Development, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia

Year: 2020

Linking Energy Access, Gender and Poverty: A Review of the Literature on Productive Uses of Energy

Citation:

Pueyo, Ana, and Mar Maestre. 2019. “Linking Energy Access, Gender and Poverty: A Review of the Literature on Productive Uses of Energy.” Energy Research & Social Science 53 (July): 170–81.

Authors: Ana Pueyo, Mar Maestre

Abstract:

This article reviews the empirical literature about gender and productive uses of energy, focusing on electricity, to answer three research questions: do men and women obtain different benefits from the Productive Use of Electricity (PUE)?; which gendered constraints affect women’s chances to benefit from the PUE; and which interventions work to achieve gender equity in the PUE? We find that PUE literature has so far considered gender mainly at the household level, by looking at the labour supply effects of access to electricity. However, the role of enterprises as labour absorbers and income generators, has been devoid of gender considerations. This omission is significant because women tend to operate in smaller and less energy intensive enterprises, and hence can draw less benefits from PUE interventions. The wider literature on gender and labour markets offers valuable insights about the constraints that explain performance differentials between male and female led enterprises. However, this literature is dominated by experimental and quasi-experimental approaches unable to capture the complexity in which gendered PUE interventions would operate. We draw from the insights provided by these different strands of literature, but further recommend a mixed methods approach to advance the research agenda about gender and PUE.

Keywords: gender, energy access, productive uses of energy, electricity, poverty

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods

Year: 2019

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming in Renewable Energy Policies—Empowering Women in the Energy Value Chain in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

Citation:

Maduekwe, Monica, Ellen Morris, Jennye Greene, and Victoria Healey. 2019. “Gender Equity and Mainstreaming in Renewable Energy Policies—Empowering Women in the Energy Value Chain in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).” Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports 6: 13–21.

Authors: Monica Maduekwe, Ellen Morris, Jennye Greene, Victoria Healey

Abstract:

Purpose of Review: Using practice theories as the analytical framework, this paper assesses the potential of the Economic Community of West African States’ (ECOWAS) first ever regional policy on Gender Mainstreaming in Energy Access to produce the desired behavioral changes envisioned.

Recent Findings: The policy came to fruition after a multi-year, multi-stakeholder effort of research, advocacy, and consensus building; all spearheaded by an institution of the community, the ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE). The success of the ECOWAS policy has led to the development of a related regional level legal instrument, monitoring protocols, institutional evolutions, as well as replication efforts in other African regions.

Summary: The policy’s provisions were aimed at changing the mind-sets and, eventually, behaviors of people concerned and were designed in order to increase its chances of successful implementation; however, the onus lies on the constituent governments of the community to provide incentives for its full and effective implementation in order to guarantee its success.

Keywords: gender-responsive energy policies, women's empowerment, ECOWAS, energy access, gender equality

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, West Africa

Year: 2019

Gender, Culture and Energy Transitions in Rural Africa

Citation:

Johnson, Oliver W., Vanessa Gerber, and Cassilde Muhoza. 2019. “Gender, Culture and Energy Transitions in Rural Africa.” Energy Research & Social Science 49 (March): 169–79.

Authors: Oliver W. Johnson, Vanessa Gerber, Cassilde Muhoza

Abstract:

Research over the past two decades on links between energy, gender and development suggests that greater inclusion of gender concerns in energy sector decision-making improves development outcomes. In practice, this has typically led to gendered energy approaches that focus more on technological fixes rather than providing appropriate energy services, and on meeting women’s immediate needs rather than addressing the broader cultural, socio-economic and political contexts important for attaining genuine gender equity. In this paper, we take a systems perspective to explore gender issues in the context of a transition from traditional to modern energy services, such as lighting, powering appliances and charging mobile phones. Viewing gender through the lens of the Energy Cultures Framework, we analyse the case of the Mpanta solar mini-grid in rural northern Zambia. We find that the transition to more modern energy services is far from gender neutral: despite providing broad benefits within the community, the benefits derived from a new technology and service were not evenly distributed between men and women due to broader socio-cultural practices and norms. This paper extends the application of the Energy Cultures Framework in two important ways. Firstly, it incorporates an explicit gender dimension into the framework. Secondly, it applies the framework in a new context – rural energy transitions in low-income countries. In doing so, this paper offers important insights for research and practice in energy, gender and development.

Topics: Development, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zambia

Year: 2019

Gender and Renewable Energy Study in Tibetan Pastoral Areas of China

Citation:

Ding, Wenguang, Li He, Dinka Zewudie, Huilin Zhang, Tanjia Binte Zafar, and Xinde Liu. 2019. “Gender and Renewable Energy Study in Tibetan Pastoral Areas of China.” Renewable Energy 133 (April): 901–13.

Authors: Wenguang Ding, Li He, Dinka Zewudie, Huilin Zhang, Tanjia Binte Zafar, Xinde Liu

Abstract:

As interdisciplinary research, this Gender and Energy study innovatively revealed the crucial role of Tibetan women in using, saving and developing energy. We chose a typical Tibetan area named Gannan Prefecture in northwestern China, we chose three total grassland counties in Gannan; all three communities still have a nomadic lifestyle and do not have sufficient energy. After we concluded the close relationship between gender and energy in this area, we compared our research area with other Tibetan area those are located in Sichuan, Qinghai and Tibet. This comparison helped to figure out the relationship between Tibetan women and energy in China. The results showed a significant increase of total household energy consumption and the energy efficiency and the decrease of the disease rate because of using renewable energy and clean devices. It also improved women's empowerment in household energy management and promoted cultural change. However, a Tibetan woman's daily working time increased by 1 h from 15 h/day to 16 h/day. The reasons behind gender inequity include Religion influence, Social change and Industrial structure. This paper conclude the changes and attempts to analyze the internal factors, and tries to bring about some policy advice to benefit the Tibetan women.

Keywords: gender equity, renewable energy, policy

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Religion Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: China

Year: 2019

Gender-Inclusive Energy: The Nepal Case

Citation:

Mohideen, Reihana. 2020. “Gender-Inclusive Energy: The Nepal Case.” In Women and the Energy Revolution in Asia, 39–58. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

Author: Reihana Mohideen

Abstract:

The Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), Nepal, provides an important real-world example that illustrates the role that governments can and do play in spawning technological development for socio-economic benefits, including addressing social and gender equity issues related to differential access to energy-based technologies. The AEPC is a special case as an institution in the energy sector, because it attempts to address social and gender equity considerations in the development of the renewable energy sector in Nepal and in the delivery of renewable energy technologies and services to rural communities.

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2020

The Trade-off between Gender, Energy and Climate Change in Africa: The Case of Niger Republic

Citation:

Antwi, Sarpong Hammond. 2020. “The Trade-off between Gender, Energy and Climate Change in Africa: The Case of Niger Republic.” GeoJournal. doi:10.1007/s10708-020-10246-9.

Author: Sarpong Hammond Antwi

Abstract:

This article examines the role of gender in climate change adaptation and energy access in Africa. Drawing on the energy situation in Niger Republic, it argues that redressing gender concerns is critical to mitigating the impact of climate changes and energy poverty in the Sahelean country. A gender sensitivity analysis reveals that Niger is a take-off stage, a state of gender equity verified from the willingness of men to support women, as well as the entrepreneurial mindset of respondents coupled with supporting policies at both macro and micro levels. The study nonetheless recommends a more significant continental effort toward gender integration in energy planning processes. It also justifies the pursuance of alternative livelihood activities and an adjustment of policy frameworks towards universal energy access by 2030, as a means to breaking the vicious circle of limited income, increased vulnerability and narrowed opportunities that thwart gender equality and mainstreaming efforts in the country and across Africa.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Niger

Year: 2020

Energy Use and Enterprise Performance in Ghana: How Does Gender Matter?

Citation:

Pueyo, Ana, Simon Bawakyillenuo, and Marco Carreras. 2020. “Energy Use and Enterprise Performance in Ghana: How Does Gender Matter?” The European Journal of Development Research. doi:10.1057/s41287-020-00273-0.

Authors: Ana Pueyo, Simon Bawakyillenuo, Marco Carreras

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
The potential impact of electricity use on enterprise performance has a gender dimension that has been overlooked by the energy and development literature. This omission disregards the evidence of a gendered division of labour and the different energy consumption patterns of different productive activities. To address the gaps in the literature, this paper analyses an enterprise development programme that jointly provides improved electricity supply, business services and enterprise clustering in Ghana. The paper aims to understand: the gender awareness of the intervention; the different energy use patterns in men and women’s enterprises; the different benefits men and women obtain from the productive use of energy; and the reasons behind the differences observed. We adopt a multi-methods approach combining gender differentiated firm level data from 400 microenterprises, with in-depth semi-structured interviews to enterprise owners and employees, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. The results, which are specific to the research region, show clearly differentiated energy use patterns in enterprises owned by men and women. Men’s enterprises display higher electricity consumption, while women dominate the use of cooking fuels, mainly charcoal. The use of electricity shows a positive correlation with business profits, regardless of the owner’s gender, which is higher for enterprises owned by women. The main reasons for women’s lower electricity consumption are: the gendered division of labour, which limits women’s economic activity to a narrow number of sectors and to smaller scale operations; the lower value of women’s work which creates disincentives to mechanisation; social norms determining the types of jobs men and women can do; and women’s lower access to starting capital. We conclude that, in the absence of gender considerations, interventions for the promotion of productive uses of energy are likely to target electricity intensive activities dominated by men. We finalise by offering policy suggestions to improve the gender equity of these interventions.

FRENCH ABSTRACT:
L’impact potentiel de la consommation d’électricité sur la performance des entreprises a une dimension de genre qui a été négligée dans la littérature sur l’énergie et le développement. Cette omission ne tient pas compte des preuves d’une division sexuelle du travail et des différents modes de consommation d’énergie selon les différentes activités productives. Pour combler les lacunes de la littérature, cet article analyse un programme de développement des entreprises qui fournit conjointement un meilleur approvisionnement en électricité, des services aux entreprises et permet le regroupement d’entreprises au Ghana. Le document cherche à comprendre : la prise en compte du genre dans le cadre de l’intervention; les différents modes de consommation d’énergie dans les entreprises appartenant à des hommes et dans celles appartenant à des femmes; les différents avantages que les hommes et les femmes tirent de l’utilisation productive de l’énergie; et les raisons qui expliquent les différences constatées. Nous adoptons des méthodes mixtes de recherche, combinant les données d’entreprise sexo-spécifiques de 400 micro-entreprises, avec des entretiens semi-directifs et d’autres approfondis avec des patrons d’entreprise et des employés, des entretiens avec des informateurs clés et des discussions de groupe. Les résultats sont spécifiques à la région de la recherche et montrent des tendances de consommation d’énergie clairement distinctes entre les entreprises appartenant à des hommes et celles appartenant à des femmes. Les entreprises appartenant à des hommes ont une consommation d’électricité plus élevée, tandis que les femmes utilisent essentiellement des combustibles de cuisson, principalement le charbon de bois. Il existe une corrélation positive entre l’utilisation de l’électricité et les bénéfices des entreprises, quel que soit le sexe du propriétaire, et cette corrélation est plus forte pour les entreprises appartenant à des femmes. Les principales raisons pour lesquelles les femmes consomment moins d’électricité sont les suivantes: la division sexuelle du travail, qui cantonne l’activité économique des femmes à quelques secteurs seulement et à des opérations à plus petite échelle; la valeur plus faible du travail des femmes, qui les dissuade procéder à la mécanisation; les normes sociales, qui déterminent les types d’emplois que les hommes et les femmes peuvent faire; et un accès réduit des femmes à un capital de départ. Nous concluons qu’en l’absence de prise en compte du genre, les interventions pour la promotion d’une utilisation productive de l’énergie sont susceptibles de cibler les activités à forte intensité électrique dominées par les hommes. Enfin, nous faisons des suggestions en termes de politiques publiques pour améliorer l’équité entre les sexes dans le cadre de ces interventions.

Keywords: energy, productive uses, enterprise, gender, Ghana

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2020

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