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Gender Equity

Equitable, Ecological Degrowth: Feminist Contributions

Citation:

Perkins, Patricia E. 2010. Equitable, Ecological Degrowth: Feminist Contributions. Paper presented at the 2nd Conference on Economic Degrowth: For Ecological Sustainability and Social Equity. March 26-29.

Author: Patricia E. Perkins

Abstract:

This paper uses feminist ecological economics and ecofeminist methodologies and theory to contribute to Degrowth in theory and practice. These feminist contributions involve highlighting unpaid work and ecological services, redistribution, and participatory processes as crucially important in developing the new paradigm and movement for equitable material Degrowth. 

Keywords: feminist ecological economics, ecofeminism, unpaid work, economic redistribution, political participation, diversity

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Livelihoods

Year: 2010

Gender Mainstreaming and Water Development Projects: Analyzing Unexpected Enviro-Social Impacts in Bolivia, India, and Lesotho

Citation:

Cairns, Maryann R., Cassandra L. Workman, and Indrakshi Tandon. 2017. "Gender Mainstreaming and Water Development Projects: Analyzing Unexpected Enviro-Social Impacts in Bolivia, India, and Lesotho." Gender, Place & Culture 24 (3): 325-42.

Authors: Maryann R. Cairns, Cassandra L. Workman, Indrakshi Tandon

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Gender mainstreaming policies and programs, meant to be gender-sensitive or to target gender issues, are increasingly implemented by both governmental and non-governmental actors. However, these projects seem set to continually aim solely at women, despite more than a decade of work encouraging broader scope. Using recent case studies from Bolivia, Lesotho, and India, we address the tensions laden in three major questions about water, gender, and development: (1) Is mandatory inclusion of women in water governance and decision-making effective?, (2) Do water development projects provide equal benefits and burdens for women and men?, and (3) In what ways are water projects and their policies impacting and impacted by gendered enviro-social spaces? By providing triangulated data from ethnographic studies in three distinct local contexts, we are able to pinpoint major cross-cutting themes that serve to highlight and interrogate the gendered impacts of water development projects’ policies: public and private lives, women’s labor expectations, and managing participation. We find that gender mainstreaming endeavors continue to fall short in their aim to equitably include women in their programming and that geographic, environmental, and socio-cultural spaces are intimately related to how these equitability issues play out. We provide practical recommendations on how to address these issues.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Las políticas y programas de transversalización de género, diseñadas para ser sensibles al género o con objetivos en temas relacionados con éste, se implementan cada vez más tanto por actores gubernamentales como no gubernamentales. Sin embargo, estos proyectos parecen programados para apuntar únicamente y en forma continua a las mujeres, a pesar de más de una década de trabajo alentando un abordaje más abarcativo. Utilizando estudios de caso recientes de Bolivia, Lesoto e India, analizamos las tensiones generadas en tres cuestiones principales acerca del agua, el género y el desarrollo: 1) ¿Es efectiva la obligatoriedad de la incorporación de las mujeres en la gobernanza y la toma de decisiones sobre el agua?, 2) ¿Los proyectos de desarrollo hídrico brindan los mismos beneficios y cargas a las mujeres que a los hombres?, y 3) ¿De qué maneras los proyectos de agua y sus políticas están impactando en los espacios socioambientales generizados, y de qué manera están siendo impactados por éstos? Ofreciendo datos triangulados de estudios etnográficos en tres contextos locales distintos, pudimos identificar importantes temas transversales que sirven para destacar e interrogar los impactos generizados de las políticas de los proyectos de desarrollo hídrico: las vidas públicas y privadas, las expectativas laborales de las mujeres y la administración de la participación. Encontramos que los esfuerzos en pos de una transversalización del género continúan teniendo sus límites en su intento por incluir de forma equitativa a las mujeres en su programación y que los espacios geográficos, ambientales y socioculturales están íntimamente relacionados con la forma en que se desarrollan estos temas de equidad. Brindamos recomendaciones prácticas sobre cómo abordar estos problemas.
 
CHINESE ABSTRACT:
理应对性别敏感或聚焦性别议题的性别主流化政策与方案,正逐渐由政府与非政府行动者实行。尽管十多年来不断鼓励扩大性别主流化的工作范畴,但这些方案似乎持续仅针对女性。我们运用玻利维亚,莱索托与印度的晚近案例研究,应对有关水,性别与发展的三大问题中充满的紧张关系:(1)强制将女性纳入水资源管理与决策是否有效?(2)水资源发展计画是否对男性与女性产生相同的效益与负担?以及(3)水资源计画及其政策以什麽方式影响性别化的环境—社会空间并受其影响?透过提供三个特殊地方脉络的民族志研究的三角交叉数据,我们得以精确定位强调并探问水资源发展计画方案的性别化冲击的主要交错议题:公共与私人生活,女性的劳动期待,以及经营参与。我们发现,性别主流化的努力,持续无法达到公平地将女性纳入计画的目标,而地理、环境和社会文化空间,与这些平等议题如何展开紧密相关。我们对如何应对上述问题提出务实的建议。

Keywords: women, water supply, equity and inclusion, NGOs, development, Mujeres, provisión de agua, equidad e inclusión, ONG, desarrollo, 女性, 水资源供给, 平等与包容, 非政府组织, 发展

Topics: Development, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, NGOs Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Bolivia, India, Lesotho

Year: 2017

Diagnóstico de la situación de las mujeres desde el enfoque de género en el ámbito organizativo, político y socioeconómico en nueve municipios del Departamento de Nariño

Citation:

Ordoñez García, María Elena, Alexandra Pazmiño Montilla, and María Cristina Burgos Flores. 2012. Diagnóstico de la situación de las mujeres desde el enfoque de género en el ámbito organizativo, político y socioeconómico en nueve municipios del Departamento de Nariño. New York: UNDP.

Authors: María Elena Ordoñez García, Alexandra Pazmiño Montilla, María Cristina Burgos Flores

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 

The law establishes that the territorial entities at all levels must promote policies, programs and projects of protection and integral promotion for women.

This transformative aspect that the municipality can have is relevant when we talk about one of the outstanding issues in the mayoralties of our country: gender equity. In fact, although this issue has a growing importance in the agendas of civil society, in academic circles and in departmental and national governments, it faces, in contrast, a timid reflex in the dynamics proposed by municipal governments.

At a departmental level, efforts were made to consolidate instances of political and social interlocution that have opened spaces for legitimization and visibility of the role of women. Even the existing cultural, political and public order conditions continue to perpetuate the male power par excellence and the invisibility of the role of women as managers of development.

Until now, a large part of the local actions "with sensitivity to gender issues" have focused on raising awareness of social issues such as violence against women within families. Undoubtedly, this situation represents a serious problem in the daily life of women in the municipalities of the Department of Nariño.

 

SPANISH ABSTRACT:

La ley establece que los entes territoriales a todos los niveles deben promover políticas, programas y proyectos de protección y promoción integral para las mujeres. 

Este aspecto transformador que puede tener el municipio, es relevante cuando hablamos de uno de los temas pendientes en las alcaldías de nuestro país: la equidad de género. En efecto, a pesar de que este tema tiene una importancia creciente en las agendas de la sociedad civil, en los medios académicos y en los gobiernos departamentales y nacional, enfrenta, en contraste, un reflejo tímido en las dinámicas propuestas por los gobiernos municipales. 

A nivel Departamental se trabajó en consolidar instancias de interlocución política y social que ha abierto espacios de legitimación y visibilización del papel de las mujeres, aún las condiciones culturales, políticas y de orden público existentes, siguen perpetuando el poder masculino por excelencia y la invisibilización del rol de las mujeres como gestoras del desarrollo. 

Hasta ahora, gran parte de las acciones locales “con sensibilidad al tema de género”, se han enfocado a la sensibilización de problemáticas sociales como la violencia contra las mujeres al interior de las familias. Sin duda, esta situación representa un grave problema en la vida cotidiana de las mujeres en los municipios de del Departamento de Nariño. 

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2012

La ley para las mujeres rurales en Colombia alcances y perspectivas

Citation:

Gutiérrez C., Myriam. 2003. “La ley para las mujeres rurales en Colombia alcances y perspectivas.” Trabajo Social 5: 56–80.

Author: Myriam Gutiérrez C.

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
The Law for the rural women is a dream and a hope that has been a long fight by the Colombian women, up to now it has been sanctioned but has not been applied. If it is regulated in the spirit that the women wanted to give to it and this applies, not only would they surpass many obstacles and give new opportunities for rural poor women, but also they would open ways for seeking social equity in relation to gender, ethnicity, and race in the new schemes of Sustainable Rural Development with a more human face.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
La Ley para las mujeres rurales es un sueño y una esperanza largamente luchada por las mujeres colombianas, hasta ahora solo ha sido sancionada pero no ha sido aplicada, si se reglamenta en el espíritu que las mujeres han querido darle y se aplica, no solo se lograrían superar muchos obstáculos y dar nuevas oportunidades para las mujeres pobres rurales, sino también se abrirían caminos hacia la búsqueda de la equidad social, de género, étnica y racial en los nuevos esquemas de Desarrollo Rural Sostenible con un rostro más humano.

Keywords: ley, mujeres rurales, obstaculos, oportunidades equidad de género, law, rural women, obstacles, opportunities, equity, gender

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Race Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2003

Gender in Electricity Policymaking in India, Nepal and Kenya

Citation:

Govindan, Mini, Debajit Palit, Rashmi Murali, and Deepa Sankar. 2019. “Gender in Electricity Policymaking in India, Nepal and Kenya.” In Energy Justice Across Borders, edited by Gunter Bombaerts, Kirsten Jenkins, Yekeen A. Sanusi, and Wang Guoyu, 111-35. Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Authors: Mini Govindan, Debajit Palit, Rashmi Murali, Deepa Sankar

Abstract:

Electricity is regarded as a basic amenity fundamental to improving human well-being and overall economic development. It also contributes to improving gender parity and social inclusion, especially in situations where women are challenged by harsh living conditions. This chapter examines how gender issues that were considered are addressed in the policies related to electricity in India, Kenya, and Nepal. The analysis reveals that whilst more than half of the reviewed documents were devoid of any explicit mention of gender concerns, an increasing number of electricity policies are now reflecting gender considerations. The predominantly “gender-blind” approach towards the potential benefits of electricity access emanates from a reluctance to explicitly acknowledge gender based differences in needs in creating equitable outcomes. The assumption that electricity access itself is enough for associated benefits to trickle down, that too equitably for men and women, stems from limited awareness. This is aggravated further by the absence of documented evidence on the merit of including gender elements in electrification policies and programmes. Based on the review of existing electricity policies, this chapter provides specific recommendations for incorporating gender in the electricity policies with a view to support and address the broader energy justice concerns. 

Keywords: electricity, gender, women, policies, energy justice, India, Nepal, Kenya

Topics: Development, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Justice Regions: Africa, East Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Kenya, Nepal

Year: 2019

Energy, Equality and Sustainability? European Electricity Cooperatives from a Gender Perspective

Citation:

Łapniewska, Zofia. 2019. “Energy, Equality and Sustainability? European Electricity Cooperatives from a Gender Perspective.” Energy Research & Social Science 57 (November).

Author: Zofia Łapniewska

Abstract:

The European electricity market and energy security have recently become heatedly discussed topics at the European Union level. In many countries, political and financial support for the transition towards renewable energy systems during the last two decades have encouraged the establishment of a substantial number of new electricity cooperatives. Cooperatives, as social enterprises, demonstrate attachment to values such as equity and equality in their actions, thus they might be perceived as women-friendly entities. However, little empirical research on that topic has been carried out in the European Union so far. The pilot study presented in this paper fills this gap by determining if gender perspective is reflected in the European electricity cooperatives’ declarations and actions and whether this perspective is related to cooperative size, adopted mode of governance and cultural determinants of the region/country. This paper shows why gender equality is valuable to electricity cooperatives and how the presented research results may be useful to practitioners, researchers and policy makers.

Keywords: electricity cooperatives, energy, gender perspective, gender equality, European Union

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Europe

Year: 2019

Women and the Energy Revolution in Asia

Citation:

Mohideen, Reihana. 2020. Women and the Energy Revolution in Asia. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Reihana Mohideen

Keywords: energy technologies, social inclusion, gender and energy, energy in India, energy transitions, inclusive development, women's welfare, gender equity, social and technical relations, energy access, energy systems modeling

Annotation:

Summary:
This book examines the low-carbon energy transition taking place in developing Asia, in the context of persisting social and gender inequalities, the threat of climate change which has necessitated the decarbonisation of industry, and examines how developing Asia can ‘leap-frog’ the carbon-emitting stages that more developed economies have passed through, while simultaneously ‘leap-frogging’ social and gender equity gaps. The book uses the concept of ‘disruptive technologies’, an area of study that assesses the potential of certain technologies to disrupt the status quo and the concept of socio-technical frameworks, where social considerations are factored in to engineering systems and models. Using case studies and methodologies drawn from interdisciplinary approaches to engineering, and from development studies, science and technology studies and feminist approaches, it assesses how the low-carbon energy transition potentially provides poor women in developing Asia the opportunity to get on board at the early phase of these changes and influence and even transform their societies and lives. (Summary from Springer Link)

Topics: Development, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia

Year: 2020

Linking Energy Access, Gender and Poverty: A Review of the Literature on Productive Uses of Energy

Citation:

Pueyo, Ana, and Mar Maestre. 2019. “Linking Energy Access, Gender and Poverty: A Review of the Literature on Productive Uses of Energy.” Energy Research & Social Science 53 (July): 170–81.

Authors: Ana Pueyo, Mar Maestre

Abstract:

This article reviews the empirical literature about gender and productive uses of energy, focusing on electricity, to answer three research questions: do men and women obtain different benefits from the Productive Use of Electricity (PUE)?; which gendered constraints affect women’s chances to benefit from the PUE; and which interventions work to achieve gender equity in the PUE? We find that PUE literature has so far considered gender mainly at the household level, by looking at the labour supply effects of access to electricity. However, the role of enterprises as labour absorbers and income generators, has been devoid of gender considerations. This omission is significant because women tend to operate in smaller and less energy intensive enterprises, and hence can draw less benefits from PUE interventions. The wider literature on gender and labour markets offers valuable insights about the constraints that explain performance differentials between male and female led enterprises. However, this literature is dominated by experimental and quasi-experimental approaches unable to capture the complexity in which gendered PUE interventions would operate. We draw from the insights provided by these different strands of literature, but further recommend a mixed methods approach to advance the research agenda about gender and PUE.

Keywords: gender, energy access, productive uses of energy, electricity, poverty

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods

Year: 2019

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming in Renewable Energy Policies—Empowering Women in the Energy Value Chain in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

Citation:

Maduekwe, Monica, Ellen Morris, Jennye Greene, and Victoria Healey. 2019. “Gender Equity and Mainstreaming in Renewable Energy Policies—Empowering Women in the Energy Value Chain in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).” Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports 6: 13–21.

Authors: Monica Maduekwe, Ellen Morris, Jennye Greene, Victoria Healey

Abstract:

Purpose of Review: Using practice theories as the analytical framework, this paper assesses the potential of the Economic Community of West African States’ (ECOWAS) first ever regional policy on Gender Mainstreaming in Energy Access to produce the desired behavioral changes envisioned.

Recent Findings: The policy came to fruition after a multi-year, multi-stakeholder effort of research, advocacy, and consensus building; all spearheaded by an institution of the community, the ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE). The success of the ECOWAS policy has led to the development of a related regional level legal instrument, monitoring protocols, institutional evolutions, as well as replication efforts in other African regions.

Summary: The policy’s provisions were aimed at changing the mind-sets and, eventually, behaviors of people concerned and were designed in order to increase its chances of successful implementation; however, the onus lies on the constituent governments of the community to provide incentives for its full and effective implementation in order to guarantee its success.

Keywords: gender-responsive energy policies, women's empowerment, ECOWAS, energy access, gender equality

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, West Africa

Year: 2019

Gender, Culture and Energy Transitions in Rural Africa

Citation:

Johnson, Oliver W., Vanessa Gerber, and Cassilde Muhoza. 2019. “Gender, Culture and Energy Transitions in Rural Africa.” Energy Research & Social Science 49 (March): 169–79.

Authors: Oliver W. Johnson, Vanessa Gerber, Cassilde Muhoza

Abstract:

Research over the past two decades on links between energy, gender and development suggests that greater inclusion of gender concerns in energy sector decision-making improves development outcomes. In practice, this has typically led to gendered energy approaches that focus more on technological fixes rather than providing appropriate energy services, and on meeting women’s immediate needs rather than addressing the broader cultural, socio-economic and political contexts important for attaining genuine gender equity. In this paper, we take a systems perspective to explore gender issues in the context of a transition from traditional to modern energy services, such as lighting, powering appliances and charging mobile phones. Viewing gender through the lens of the Energy Cultures Framework, we analyse the case of the Mpanta solar mini-grid in rural northern Zambia. We find that the transition to more modern energy services is far from gender neutral: despite providing broad benefits within the community, the benefits derived from a new technology and service were not evenly distributed between men and women due to broader socio-cultural practices and norms. This paper extends the application of the Energy Cultures Framework in two important ways. Firstly, it incorporates an explicit gender dimension into the framework. Secondly, it applies the framework in a new context – rural energy transitions in low-income countries. In doing so, this paper offers important insights for research and practice in energy, gender and development.

Topics: Development, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zambia

Year: 2019

Pages

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