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Gender Balance

Gender Aspects of Human Security

Citation:

Moussa, Ghada. 2008. “Gender Aspects of Human Security.” International Social Science Journal 59 (193): 81-100.

Author: Ghada Moussa

Abstract:

The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security dimensions. Gender equality is influenced and affected by many social institutions: the state, the market, the family (kinship) and the community. Human security also takes gender aspects. The author focuses on the dimensions in human security that influence gender equality. These are violence as a threat to human security and negative influences in achieving gender equality, the needs approach, poverty alleviation and considering women as among the most vulnerable groups in the society. Raising the capabilities of women is essential in achieving gender equality, thus security and participation is needed to guarantee equality and to realise gender equality.

Keywords: human security, gender equality, world women conferences, gender based violence, poverty, political participation

Topics: Civil Society, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gender Balance, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Nonviolence, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Human Security, Sexual Violence, Violence

Year: 2008

Gender and Resource Co-Management in Northern Canada

Citation:

Natcher, David C. 2013. “Gender and Resource Co-Management in Northern Canada.” Arctic 66 (2): 218-21.

Author: David C. Natcher

Abstract:

An inventory of the nominal representation of men and women on northern co-management boards in the Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut identified a total of 34 co-management boards. Of their total of 210 members, 176 (84%) were males and 34 (16%) were females. Nine boards were composed exclusively of men, and 18 boards had only a single female representative. The land and resource management regimes created through the settlement of comprehensive land claims have afforded Aboriginal governments equitable representation in co-management but have not promoted gender equity in board membership.

Topics: Development, Environment, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Energy, Water & Sanitation, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2013

Unpacking Gender: The Humanitarian Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis in Jordan

Citation:

Women’s Refugee Commission. 2014. Unpacking Gender: The Humanitarian Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis in Jordan. New York: Women’s Refugee Commission.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Gender Balance, International Organizations Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Jordan, Syria

Year: 2014

Peacexploitation? Interrogating Labor Hierarchies and Global Sisterhood Among Indian and Uruguayan Female Peacekeepers

Citation:

Henry, Marsha. 2012. “Peacexploitation? Interrogating Labor Hierarchies and Global Sisterhood Among Indian and Uruguayan Female Peacekeepers.” Globalizations 9 (1): 15–33. doi:10.1080/14747731.2012.627716.

Author: Marsha Henry

Abstract:

As a result of UNSCR 1325, the UN has been eager to decrease incidents of sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping operations, improve local women's security, and balance out the number of women and men in the police and military at both local and international levels. As peacekeeping missions begin to include more female peacekeepers, questions are raised about what this means for women in national militaries, local women in peacekeeping missions, and soldiers or militarized laborers from the ‘developing’ world. While countries such as Uruguay have been sending increasing numbers of female peacekeepers to various UN missions, it was not until 2007 that an all-female contingent was first deployed from India to Liberia and hailed as a gendered success. But in altering the gendered landscape, will the UN merely continue to exploit the cheap military labor of the global South? Will countries like India and Uruguay (major troop-contributing countries to UN peacekeeping operations) continue to bear the burden of providing security? This article examines the limits of a conventional interest in gender and gender relations in thinking about peacekeepers and advocates for an intersectional approach to the issue of female peacekeepers, importantly including the role of geography (and therefore ‘race’, empire and colonialism) in the thinking through the social, cultural, and political effects of peacekeeping deployments.

Keywords: femininity, gender, geopolitics, global south, Haiti, humanitarian intervention, India, Liberia, masculinity, peacekeeping, United Nations, Uruguay

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Globalization, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacekeeping, Race, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Liberia, Uruguay

Year: 2012

UNSCR 1325 and Women’s Peace Activism in the Occupied Palestinian Territory

Citation:

Farr, Vanessa. 2011. “UNSCR 1325 and Women’s Peace Activism in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 13 (4): 539–56. doi:10.1080/14616742.2011.611661.

Author: Vanessa Farr

Abstract:

Palestinian women's organized resistance to the Israeli occupation is decades old and has been well-documented and analyzed by feminists in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) and outside. Some of the most recent attempts to formulate and shape this resistance make reference to UNSCR 1325. The application of the Resolution in the work of three women's organizations in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and Palestinian-Israeli peace-making attempts are analysed in this paper. However, the paper concludes that the disconnects between women's activism on the ground and in academia, the intentions stated in the UNSCR 1325, and the Israel-Palestine peace process are so vast that there is little evidence that the Resolution offers an effective mechanism for women to make their voices heard.

Keywords: occupied Palestinian territory, West Bank, Gaza Strip, women's peace activism, state-building, UNSCR 1325

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Discourses, NGOs, Peace Processes, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2011

Overt Employment Discrimination in MNC Affiliates: Home-country Cultural and Institutional Effects

Citation:

Wu, C., J. J. Lawler and X. Yi. 2008. “Overt Employment Discrimination in MNC Affiliates: Home-country Cultural and Institutional Effects.” Journal of International Business Studies 39 (5): 772-794.

Authors: C. Wu, J. J. Lawler, X. Yi

Abstract:

Using job announcements posted by MNC subsidiaries in Taiwan and Thailand, we investigated the effects of MNC home-country cultural and institutional forces on the use of employment gender and age discriminatory criteria in host countries where anti-discrimination legislation was absent. We examined the cultural effects with composite measures taken from the work of Hofstede and Schwartz. The effects of the existence of anti-age and anti-gender discrimination employment legislation in an MNC home country were also assessed to control for institutional factors. Logit analysis shows that MNC home-country culture and institutional environment can have a strong impact on the use of discriminatory criteria by MNCs in host countries, at least those lacking protective legislation. Specifically, MNCs based in countries that have existing and effective age and gender discrimination laws, and have more individualist and less masculine cultures, are less likely to engage in at least overt gender-based and age-based discrimination.
Keywords: MNC; employment discrimination; age; gender; national culture; institutional forces

Annotation:

Analyzed recruitment ads in Thailand and Taiwan (no regulations in either country at the time of the study), overt gender and age discrimination; Asian-Pacific, North American and European-based companies

Existence of a home-country cultural impact on the likelihood of these types of discrimination by MNC subsidiaries even after controlling for key home-country institutional influences

Topics: Age, Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Governance, Multi-National Corporations Regions: Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Taiwan, Thailand

Year: 2008

Multinational Firms, Labor Market Discrimination, and the Capture of Competitive Advantage by Exploiting the Social Divide

Citation:

Siegel, Jordan, Lynn Pyun, and B. Y. Cheun. 2011. Multinational Firms, Labor Market Discrimination, and the Capture of Competitive Advantage by Exploiting the Social Divide. Working Paper 11-011, Harvard Business School, Cambridge, MA. 

Authors: Jordan Siegel, Lynn Pyun, B. Y. Cheun

Abstract:

The organizational theory of the multinational firm holds that foreignness is a liability, and specifically that lack of embeddedness in host-country social networks is a source of competitive disadvantage; meanwhile the literature on labor market discrimination suggests that exploiting the bigotry of others can be a source of competitive advantage. We seek to turn the former literature somewhat on its head by building on insights from the latter. Specifically, we argue that multinationals wield a particularly significant competitive weapon: as outsiders, they can identify social schisms in host labor markets and exploit them for their own competitive advantage. Using two unique data sets from South Korea, we show that in the 2000s multinationals have derived significant advantage in the form of improved profitability by aggressively hiring an excluded group, women, in the local managerial labor market. Our results are economically meaningful, realistic in size and robust to the inclusion of firm fixed effects. Multinationals, even those whose home markets discriminate against women, often show signs of having seen the strategic opportunity. Though the host market is moving toward a new equilibrium freer of discrimination, that movement is relatively slow, presenting a multi-year competitive opportunity for multinationals.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Livelihoods, Multi-National Corporations

Year: 2011

Mines and Female Employment

Citation:

Kotsadam, Andreas, and Anja Tolonen. 2012. “Mines and Female Employment.” Paper presented at the 8th Annual Conference on Economic Growth and Development, New Delhi, December 17-19.

Authors: Andreas Kotsadam, Anja Tolonen

Abstract:

We analyze the effects of mining on women’s employment. We construct a unique data set consisting of more than two decades of panel data on the production of industrial mines in sub-Saharan Africa, and link it to individual level DHS data for more than half a million women from 28 countries in Sub Saharan Africa over 30 years. The spatial and temporal variations in our data allow us to investigate local spillover effects on employment using a difference in differences approach. We find that female employment increases once a mine opens and that women become more likely to work in services. The effects wear off with the distance to the mine and opposite effects occur once a mine closes. We also show significant heterogeneity across women in the effects of a mine depending on their marital status.

Topics: Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods Regions: Africa

Year: 2012

A Gendered Critique of Transboundary Water Management

Citation:

Earle, Anton, and Susan Bazilli. 2013. “A Gendered Critique of Transboundary Water Management.” Feminist Review 103 (1): 99–119.

Authors: Anton Earle, Susan Bazilli

Abstract:

The starting point of this paper is that most of the international transboundary water management (TWM) processes taking place globally are driven by ‘the hydraulic mission.’ Primarily the construction of mega-infrastructure such as dams and water transfer schemes. The paper argues that such heroic engineering approaches are essentially a masculinised discourse, with its emphasis being on construction, command and control. As a result of this masculinised discourse, the primary actors in TWM processes have been states. Represented by technical, economic and political elites operating in what generally gets termed ‘the national interest’. Left out are the local communities relying on the resource directly: the water users; the poor; women; and other important groups. Instruments such as the UN Watercourses Convention of 1997 make an effort to present an attempt at a gender-balanced approach. Through asserting the importance of the ‘no-harm rule’ and the ‘equitable share approach’. However, they end up supporting the status quo through the omission of any reference to gender issues. The paper provides an overview of the masculinised discourse on TWM institutions, proposing that this is the case because of the intersection of two masculinised fields. Water resource management and the disciplines engaged in the research of transboundary water management, namely, political science and international relations. The paper investigates two southern African examples that illustrate the potential for including a gendered perspective and pro-poor policies that take into account the needs of the water users or ‘stakeholders’. The analysis includes the international and regional legal agreements on transboundary water issues, searching for evidence of a gendered approach. It is concluded that the laws and organisations responsible for transboundary water management currently do not reflect a gendered approach, despite the international recognition given to the necessity of including women in water management structures at all levels.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gendered Discourses, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, International Organizations Regions: Africa

Year: 2013

Military Gender Integration and Foreign Policy in the United States: A Feminist International Relations Perspective

Citation:

Stachowitsch, Saskia. 2012. “Military Gender Integration and Foreign Policy in the United States: A Feminist International Relations Perspective.” Security Dialogue 43 (4): 305-21.

Author: Saskia Stachowitsch

Abstract:

The article investigates the relevance of foreign policy discourse and practice for military gender relations. The link between women’s status in military institutions and the gendering of foreign policy has so far not been thoroughly addressed in military and gender research or foreign policy analysis. Feminist international relations provides a research strategy to show how foreign policy doctrines and debates are gendered and how they are connected to gender (in)equality in central state institutions such as the military. The article thus applies feminist international relations as a theoretical framework that transcends the constructed dichotomy between national and international levels of analysis. In a case study of the USA from the Clinton to the Obama administrations, patterns of military gender integration are established as a phenomenon incorporating both domestic and international dimensions. Foreign policy discourses and practices in this time period are related to shifts in military gender policies and discourses on gender integration. It is argued that the gender order in military institutions is linked to international politics and state behaviour in the international arena.

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Gender Balance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2012

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